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Displacement in urban areas:implications for humanitarian action  [PDF]
Sara Pavanello,Marzia Montemurro
Forced Migration Review , 2010,
Abstract: IDPs and refugees living in urban contexts are most often beyondthe reach of humanitarian and development agencies and outsideformal assistance structures.
Demand for Meat in the Rural and Urban Areas of Kenya: A Focus on the Indigenous Chicken  [PDF]
H. K. Bett,M. P. Musyoka,K. J. Peters,W. Bokelmann
Economics Research International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/401472
Abstract: This study intends to estimate the demand for indigenous chicken meat in Kenya, including other available meat products for comparison purposes. Data used was collected from six counties. A total 930 rural and urban households were sampled. Linear Approximated Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS) model was used to obtain the demand elasticities and to examine the socioeconomic and demographic factors influencing the meat budget shares. The results ascertain that the socio-demographic factors such as household location, the proportion of household members and the family size are important factors in explaining perceived variations in the consumption of meat products. Indigenous chicken meat, beef and mutton, were identified as necessities. Indigenous chicken meat and beef were identified as substitutes while indigenous chicken, goat and exotic chicken meats were complements. In view of the high expenditure elasticities, therefore, considering a policy option that would enhance consumer income is desirable, since it will result in high consumption thereby providing more incentives for production of meat products. The information generated would be more beneficial to the interest groups in the livestock sector as a whole. This would be utilised in the formulation of effective policies in line with food security and poverty alleviation. 1. Introduction The importance of indigenous chicken (IC) in income generation, improving the nutritional status and food security in rural areas has been widely discussed in various studies in most developing countries [1, 2]. Unlike other livestock species, IC is widely distributed across most African countries [3, 4]. Their meat is also preferred by consumers in view of the perception that they are healthier and possess unique attributes such as distinct flavour, leanness, tenderness, and colour [5]. White meat, which includes poultry and pig meats accounts for about 19 percent of the meat, consumed in Kenya locally and for export [6]. The IC contributes 71 percent of the total egg and poultry meat produced and therefore, influencing significantly on the rural trade, welfare, and food security of the smallholder farmers [7]. Moreover, the demand for chicken meat in the urban areas has tremendously increased, consequently raising production of chicken in the rural, urban and periurban areas [6, 8]. The growth in consumption especially for chicken is to some extent, attributed to its perception as a healthy alternative to red meats besides the low retail prices and ease of preparation [9]. The overall growth in demand for
Demand for Meat in the Rural and Urban Areas of Kenya: A Focus on the Indigenous Chicken  [PDF]
H. K. Bett,M. P. Musyoka,K. J. Peters,W. Bokelmann
Economics Research International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/401472
Abstract: This study intends to estimate the demand for indigenous chicken meat in Kenya, including other available meat products for comparison purposes. Data used was collected from six counties. A total 930 rural and urban households were sampled. Linear Approximated Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS) model was used to obtain the demand elasticities and to examine the socioeconomic and demographic factors influencing the meat budget shares. The results ascertain that the socio-demographic factors such as household location, the proportion of household members and the family size are important factors in explaining perceived variations in the consumption of meat products. Indigenous chicken meat, beef and mutton, were identified as necessities. Indigenous chicken meat and beef were identified as substitutes while indigenous chicken, goat and exotic chicken meats were complements. In view of the high expenditure elasticities, therefore, considering a policy option that would enhance consumer income is desirable, since it will result in high consumption thereby providing more incentives for production of meat products. The information generated would be more beneficial to the interest groups in the livestock sector as a whole. This would be utilised in the formulation of effective policies in line with food security and poverty alleviation.
Adapting to urban displacement  [PDF]
Anna Tibaijuka
Forced Migration Review , 2010,
Abstract: The forces that have always generated displacement arenow more than ever pushing people to become refugeesand internally displaced persons (IDPs) in urban areas.
Morphological characterization of indigenous and crossbred pigs in rural and peri-urban areas of southwestern Nigeria  [PDF]
Adeniyi Charles Adeola, Saidu O. Oseni, Ofelia Galma Omitogun
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2013.33034
Abstract: We sought to determine morphological descriptors of Nigerian indigenous pigs (NIP) and crossbred pigs (CBP) based on relationships among live weight (LW) and a suite of 18 morphometric measurements plus the number of teats. We sampled four locations in southwestern Nigeria and obtained data for a total of 120 NIP and CBP. More female pigs (61.7%) than males (38.3%) were sampled, and they had a mean live weight of 19.9 ± 6.10 kg (range 9 - 32 kg) and 20.1 ± 6.08 kg (range 8 - 37 kg), respectively. The NIP had a longer snout, wider head and longer erect ears than CBP (P < 0.0001). Morphological variables that were highly correlated with LW included neck circumference (NC), breast height (BH), rump height (RH), body length (BL), interorbital width (IW), paunch girth (PG), hearth girth (HG), tail length (TL) and length of snout (LS) with Spearman correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.97, 0.92, 0.96, 0.97, 0.91, 0.97, 0.97, 0.90, and 0.93, respectively (all P < 0.0001). Teat number for NIP ranged from 5 to 14 while the CBP had a range of 10 to 16 teats. For male NIP, HG and TL best-fit in the model for body weight prediction (LW = ﹣25.71 + 0.43 HG + 2.21 TL; R2 = 0.93; P < 0.0001), while HG and IW had the best-fit for the female NIP (LW = ﹣28.27 + 0.50 HG + 2.22 IW; R2 = 0.96; P < 0.0001). Models for male and female CBP were LW = ﹣8.89 + 0.32 RH + 0.34 BL (R2 = 0.84; P < 0.0001) and LW = ﹣13.01 + 0.44 RH+0.27 BL (R2 = 0.94; P < 0.0001), respectively. Thus, for these populations of pigs, LS and TN differentiated NIP from CBP, because the NIP consistently recorded longer LS and lesser TN.
The Relationship between Urban Sprawl and Farmland Displacement in the Pearl River Delta, China  [PDF]
Shiqiang Du,Peijun Shi,Anton Van Rompaey
Land , 2014, DOI: 10.3390/land3010034
Abstract: China is rapidly urbanizing and will inevitably face trade-offs between promoting economic growth through further urbanization and protecting fertile farmland against accelerated urban expansion. This paper presents how this dilemma is being addressed in one of the most rapidly urbanizing regions in China, the Pearl River Delta (PRD), by means of assessing urban growth and farmland dynamic, as well as their complex relationships. Land use maps derived from Landsat imagery for 1990, 2000 and 2010 show a process of accelerated urban sprawl whereby built-up lands have more than quadrupled and scattered centers have merged into megacities. Nonetheless, the land use efficiency is considerably low and is declining relative to Hong Kong and Macau with respect to urban population density. On the other hand, the spreading of urban areas on farmlands causes new farmland reclamation and accelerated deforestation in the hilly surroundings. In addition, the displaced farmlands do not ensure food production because of both reclaiming farmlands on infertile lands and diversifying farming activities from grain production to market-oriented ones. The accelerated urbanization and farmland displacement are driven by profit-oriented development strategy and ineffective land use planning. Our findings demonstrate how spatial analysis can help to investigate the integrated effects of land policies on landscape.
Urban Wastewater Characteristic and its Management in Urban Areas—A Case Study of Mysore City, Karnataka, India  [PDF]
Shakunthala Bai, Shivanna Srikantaswamy, Doddaiah Shivakumar
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.28082
Abstract: The rapid growth of the population, the technological and industrial boom has brought enormous prob-lems and degradation of the environment. There is a gradual decline in availability of fresh water to be used for irrigation in India. As a consequence, the use of urban waste water (UWW) for irrigating agricultural lands is on the rise particularly in peri-urban areas of developing countries. Effective collection and treatment of urban wastewater is a critical problem in a developing country like India. A case study was undertaken to assess the characteristic of the urban waste water and its management in Mysore city and its long-term effect on irrigation. The untreated and treated urban waste water was collected during 2008 and analyzed in the laboratory. The suitability of the UWW for irrigation purposes is then evaluated according to the existing water quality standards and the results were compared with Food and Agriculture organization (FAO) irrigation water quality standards. It is evident from the results, that the current situation is not promising especially regarding the Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Suspended Solids and heavy metal concentrations and also pH of the treated UWW is exceeding the FAO standards. Among the heavy metals, the concentration of Iron and chromium are exceeding the FAO standards.
Urban displacement and migration in Colombia
Sebastián Albuja,Marcela Ceballos
Forced Migration Review , 2010,
Abstract: In order to improve urban policies and planning for IDPs, migrantsand local communities, it is important to understand forceddisplacement to urban areas in Colombia in the context ofrural-urban migration.
High-density macroseismic survey in urban areas. Part 1: proposal for a methodology and its application to the city of Rome
F. Cifelli,S. Donati,F. Funiciello,A. Tertulliani
Annals of Geophysics , 1999, DOI: 10.4401/ag-3703
Abstract: The aim of this research is to provide an original contribution to the investigation of local macroseismic variations in urban areas by means of questionnaire surveys. In this paper, we propose a methodology to investigate earthquake effects in large cities. This procedure for a high-density macroseismic survey is here applied to the city of Rome (Italy) during the September 1997-April 1998 Umbria-Marche (Central Italy) seismic sequence. A sort of macroseismic network in the urban area was arranged, thanks to the co-operation of public high schools, where ad hoc macroseismic questionnaires were delivered to students. This method provided us with a large amount of macroseismic information related to the October 14, 1997 (Mw =-5.6; I0 VIII MCS; h ?10 km) and March 26, 1998 (Mw = 5.3; I0 = VII MCS;h ?50 km) earthquakes. In the first survey, 949 useful questionnaires were collected in 10 high schools and related to 669 observation points. For the second event, 1083 useful questionnaires were collected in 27 high schools and related to 928 (+39%) observation points. The mean data density in the urbanized sector reached 3.4 data/km2 in the first survey and rose to 4.7 (+38%) data/km2 in the second one. Such a high density was hardly achieved in previous macroseismic surveys in large cities. The sample reliability was checked considering the data distribution versus urban setting inhomogeneity and the percentage distribution of the main lithological units outcropping in the investigated area. Such reliability was also confirmed by the check of the data density distribution. All results confirm that the data sample is largely representative. Both the applications here shown proved that this method can be successfully performed in a large city.
Population Change and Its Driving Factors in Rural, Suburban, and Urban Areas of Wisconsin, USA, 1970–2000  [PDF]
Guangqing Chi,Stephen J. Ventura
International Journal of Population Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/856534
Abstract: Population growth (or decline) is influenced by many factors that fall into the broad realms of demographic characteristics, socioeconomic conditions, transportation infrastructure, natural amenities, and land use and development across space and time. This paper adopts an integrated spatial regression approach to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of these factors' effects on population change. Specifically, we conduct the analysis at the minor civil division level in Wisconsin, USA, from 1970 to 2000. The results suggest that the factors have varying effects on population change over time and across rural, suburban, and urban areas. Their effects depend upon the general trend of population redistribution processes, local dynamics, and areal characteristics. Overall, a systematic examination of population change should consider a variety of factors, temporal and spatial variation of their effects, and spatial spillover effects. The examination should have the flexibility to identify and incorporate influential factors at a given point in time and space, not to adhere to a single set of drivers in all circumstances. The findings have important implications for population predictions used for local and regional planning. 1. Introduction Land-use conflicts, regional/tribal warfare, environmental degradation, and competition for scarce resources are all exacerbated by growing populations. Holistic or systematic approaches are becoming critically important in tackling the complexity of development and population change [1–3]. Research findings have suggested that population growth (or decline) is determined jointly by demographic, social, economic, political, geographic, and cultural forces as well as temporal and spatial influences [4]. However, the majority of existing research is focused on only some of the factors and influences and does not consider others [5]. This might be due to the fact that development and population change are complex and require interdisciplinary knowledge, but existing studies are often conducted within disciplinary boundaries [3, 6]. In addition, simulating the complexity of population change requires well-grounded expertise in methodology, and putting together a dataset with a variety of variables across space and time is expensive. A wide range of results is possible by omitting relevant factors and influences from empirical models [7]. Therefore, because the various studies tend to focus on specific factors and influences within disciplinary boundaries and omit others, the existing research on population change
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