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P. Harizaj,A. Canko,F. Kashta,N. Bardhi
Albanian Journal of Agricultural Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Agricultural production is realized through a combination of natural and human factors. During this dynamic process humans interfere in the natural ecosystems to achieve pre-planned yields by cultivated plants and managed livestock. Achieving these objectives requires additional inputs beyond those provided in natural production processes. The type of inputs provided by humans might be both of renewable and non renewable resources. As a consequence of the human interference significant negative changes are becoming evident in natural and agro-ecosystems, which might threaten their long term sustainability. In this context, setting quantitative criteria for monitoring the dynamics of the overall sustainability in the agro-ecosystems remains a permanent challenge for the society. Application of the Sustainability Inequality for Albania`s agro-ecosystems showed us that agricultural production is far from being sustainable. Reorientation of the agricultural production towards sustainability trends remains one of the most important challenges in Albania. Achieving this objective requires a shift towards the use of more renewable resources, and continuous monitoring of this shifting process.
Soil Bacterial Diversity and Productivity of Coffee - Shade Tree Agro-ecosystems
Rusdi Evizal,Tohari,Irfan Dwidja Prijambada,Jaka Widada
Jurnal Tanah Tropika , 2012,
Abstract: Coffee productions should have environmental values such as providing high soil microbial diversity while producinghigh yield. To examine that purposes, two experimental plots were constucted at benchmark site of Conservationand Sustainable Management of Below-Ground Biodiversity (CSM-BGBD), in Sumberjaya Subdistrict, WestLampung, Indonesia, during 2007-2010. Types of coffee agro-ecosystem to be examined were Coffea canephorawith shade trees of Gliricidia sepium, Erythrina sububrams, Michelia champaca, and no shade. Two plots wereconstructed at 5-years-coffee and 15-years-coffee. Diversity of soil bacteria was determined based on DNA fingerprinting of total soil bacteria using Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (RISA) method. The results showed that:(1) For mature coffee (15 years old), shade-grown coffee agro-ecosystems had higher soil bacterial diversity thanthose of no shade coffee agro-ecosystem, (2) Shaded coffee agro-ecosystems were able to conserve soil bacterialdiversity better than no-shade coffee agro-ecosystem. Soil organic C and total litter biomass had positive effect onsoil bacterial diversity, (3) Types of agro-ecosystem significantly affected the bean yield of 15 years coffee. Coffeeagro-ecosystems shaded by legume trees had higher yield than those of non-legume shade and no shade coffeeagro-ecosystem, (4) Shannon-Weaver indices of soil bacterial diversity together with weed biomass and N contentof coffee leaf had positive effect on coffee bean yield.
A study on the sustainable development indicator system and its application for evaluation of regional agro-ecosystems

WANG Fen,WU Jian-jun,LU Jian-bo,HAN Ming-chun,JIANG Ning,

自然资源学报 , 2003,
Abstract: It is significant for studies on sustainable development at regional level to establish a sustainable development indicator system for evaluation.Methods for establishing the indicator system and quantifying indicators were explored in the paper,based on the meaning of sustain-able development and a case study of Xiaoshan district in Hangzhou City.The fluctuation of sus-tainable development status of the Xiaoshan system during last decade was quantitatively de-scribed using the established indicator system and a model of the degree of sustainable develop-ment(D).D was defined as a function of development location(L),development potential(P)and harmonious degree(H).The results showed that L of the Xiaoshan system was increasing steadily;the status of the system,inferred from the trend of P,was more and more approaching the planned goal;the H of the system was gradually progressed,which meant that the coupling among the in-dicators was strengthened;and that D was increased in fluctuation.The economy was growing quickly in the past decade;the conditions of people's life,science and technology,and medical care were greatly improved;the increasing rate of population was also controlled.However,natu-ral resource conservation and construction of ecological environment ,due to increasing of popu-lation and development of industry,should be further strengthened although inputs were increased in recent years.Recommendations were also made for better development of the system in the fu-ture,and it is believed that the study would be a good model for studying other re gions.
Predicting the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems  [PDF]
S. Lehuger,B. Gabrielle,E. Larmanou,P. Laville
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane are the main biogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) contributing to the global warming potential (GWP) of agro-ecosystems. Evaluating the impact of agriculture on climate thus requires a capacity to predict the net exchanges of these gases in an integrated manner, as related to environmental conditions and crop management. Here, we used two year-round data sets from two intensively-monitored cropping systems in northern France to test the ability of the biophysical crop model CERES-EGC to simulate GHG exchanges at the plot-scale. The experiments involved maize and rapeseed crops on a loam and rendzina soils, respectively. The model was subsequently extrapolated to predict CO2 and N2O fluxes over an entire crop rotation. Indirect emissions (IE) arising from the production of agricultural inputs and from cropping operations were also added to the final GWP. One experimental site (involving a wheat-maize-barley rotation on a loamy soil) was a net source of GHG with a GWP of 350 kg CO2-C eq ha 1 yr 1, of which 75% were due to IE and 25% to direct N2O emissions. The other site (involving an oilseed rape-wheat-barley rotation on a rendzina) was a net sink of GHG for –250 kg CO2-C eq ha 1 yr 1, mainly due to a higher predicted C sequestration potential and C return from crops. Such modelling approach makes it possible to test various agronomic management scenarios, in order to design productive agro-ecosystems with low global warming impact.
Sustainable Software Ecosystems for Open Science  [PDF]
Marcus D. Hanwell,Amitha Perera,Wes Turner,Patrick O'Leary,Katie Osterdahl,Bill Hoffman,Will Schroeder
Computer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.6084/m9.figshare.790756
Abstract: Sustainable software ecosystems are difficult to build, and require concerted effort, community norms and collaborations. In science it is especially important to establish communities in which faculty, staff, students and open-source professionals work together and treat software as a first-class product of scientific investigation-just as mathematics is treated in the physical sciences. Kitware has a rich history of establishing collaborative projects in the science, engineering and medical research fields, and continues to work on improving that model as new technologies and approaches become available. This approach closely follows and is enhanced by the movement towards practicing open, reproducible research in the sciences where data, source code, methodology and approach are all available so that complex experiments can be independently reproduced and verified.
Sustainable Management of Algae in Eutrophic Ecosystems  [PDF]
William W. McNeary, Larry E. Erickson
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.411A002

The accelerated eutrophication of the world’s freshwater and marine ecosystems is a complex problem that results in decreased productivity, loss of biodiversity, and various economic woes. Controlling algae populations in a eutrophic water body has values in mitigating some of these negative effects. This paper reviews a number of strategies for algae management, with a focus on sustainable practices that have minimal environmental impact. The information in the literature is then used to propose a design for an integrated algae-aquaculture system to be used for the dual purposes of nutrient assimilation and production of fish and algal biomass. Effectiveness of the proposed system and possible revenue streams to offset capital costs are examined; other solutions that utilize the techniques in the literature are also explored.

Technology for sustainable agriculture and agro-industry
Nobutaka Ito
Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology , 2009,
Abstract: As already well known, the two issues of energy and environment, including food issue, are the emerging and crucial problems that are closely related. In this paper, the technologies which seem to be hopeful and sustainable for agriculture and agro-industry are introduced and their possibilities are also discussed together with the future aspect of global agriculture. Some collaborative research program is also introduced considering the university reform to autonomy and globalisation of the world.
Modelling carbon cycle of agro-forest ecosystems in Lombardy (Italy)
Colombo R,Busetto L,Migliavacca M,Meroni M
Forest@ , 2009, DOI: 10.3832/efor0593-006
Abstract: In this paper we present a methodology for the estimation of Gross Primary Production (GPP), Net Primary Production (NPP) and Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) for the main agricultural and forest ecosystems of the Lombardia Region (Italy). The MOD17 model was parameterized according to the different agro-forestry ecosystems and applied at regional scale by using satellite data with a spatial resolution of 250m. The high spatial resolution along with fine classification agro-forestry ecosystems has allowed to accurately analyze the carbon budget of an extremely fragmented and complex environment such as the Lombardia Region. Modeling results showed the role of the forests in the carbon budget at regional scale and represent important information layer for the spatial analysis and for inferring the inter-annual variability of carbon sequestration due to impacts of extreme events and recent climate change (e.g., drought, heat wave, flooding, fires).
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agro-Ecosystems and Their Contribution to Environmental Change in the Indus Basin of Pakistan
M. Mohsin IQBAL

大气科学进展 , 2008,
Abstract: There is growing concern that increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have been responsible for global warming through their effect on radiation balance and temperature. The magnitude of emissions and the relative importance of diffierent sources vary widely, regionally and locally. The Indus Basin of Pakistan is the food basket of the country and agricultural activities are vulnerable to the effects of global warming due to accelerated emissions of GHGs. Many developments have taken place in the agricultural sector of Pakistan in recent decades in the background of the changing role of the government and the encouragement of the private sector for investment in new ventures. These interventions have considerable GHG emission potential. Unfortunately, no published information is currently available on GHG concentrations in the Indus Basin to assess their magnitude and emission trends. The present study is an attempt to estimate GHG (CO2, CH4 and N2O) emissions arising from diffierent agro-ecosystems of Indus Basin. The GHGs were estimated mostly using the IPCC Guidelines and data from the published literature. The results showed that CH4 emissions were the highest (4.126 Tg yr-1) followed by N2O (0.265 Tg yr-1) and CO2 (52.6 Tg yr-1). The sources of CH4 are enteric fermentation, rice cultivation and cultivation of other crops. N2O is formed by microbial denitrification of NO3 produced from applied fertilizer-N on cropped soils or by mineralization of native organic matter on fallow soils. CO2 is formed by the burning of plant residue and by soil respiration due to the decomposition of soil organic matter.
Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Agro-ecosystems
Gy?rgy Várallyay
Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus (ACS) , 2007,
Abstract: Human activities lead to changes in the global environment at virtually unprecedented rates, with potentially severe consequences to our future life. Changes in the gas composition of the atmosphere – as the consequence of CO2, CH4 and other “greenhouse gases” concentration rise – may lead to a rise of temperature with heterogeneous spatial and temporal distribution, to alterations in the global circulation processes, and to a serious rearrangement in atmospheric precipitation, in some places to increasing aridity. These modifications are refl ected sensitively by ecosystems, manifested by the changes in natural vegetation and land use pattern with considerable alterations in soil processes and – consequently – in soil properties and soil functions.
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