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Evaluation of two cooking methods and precooking treatments on characteristics of chicken breast and leg
Salama, Nadia A.
Grasas y Aceites , 1993,
Abstract: Breast and leg of chicken were soaked in NaCl (4%) or STPP (3%) solutions before cooking in convention or microwave ovens. More protein, lower fat and lipid oxidation (TBA) were found in breast than in leg. Moisture percent and total lipids decreased due to cooking process. Chicken parts cooked in microwave had less moisture and TBA values, while protein, total lipids, shear force and cooking loss were more than that cooked conventionally. Microwave cooked roasts were less tender and lighter in colour, but aroma and flavour liked better by cooking in convention oven. Soaking in STPP before cooking retained more moisture protein and fat in chicken parts as compared with NaCl or untreated samples. Moreover, it decreased cooking loss, lipid oxidation, shear value and improved tenderness and flavour. Pechuga y muslo de pollo fueron tratados con soluciones de NaCl (4%) o STPP (3%) antes de ser cocinados en hornos convencionales o microonda. Mayor contenido en proteína, y menor contenido en grasa y oxidación lipídica (TBA) fueron encontrados en pechuga que en muslo. El tanto por ciento de humedad y los lípidos totales disminuyeron debido al proceso de cocinado. Las partes de pollo cocinadas en microonda tuvieron menos humedad e índice de TBA, mientras que las proteínas, lípidos totales, dureza de la piel y pérdida de cocinado fueron mayores que las producidas por cocinado convencional. Los asados cocinados en microonda fueron menos fiemos y ligeros en color, pero el aroma y sabor fueron mejor que los cocinados en homo convencional. El tratamiento en STPP antes del cocinado retuvo más humedad, proteína y grasa en las partes de pollo en comparación con las muestras tratadas con NaCl o no tratadas. Por otra parte, disminuyó la pérdida de cocinado, oxidación lipídica, índice de dureza de la piel y mejoró lo tierno y el sabor.
Combined effect of modified atmosphere packaging and gamma radiation on microbiology and sensory acceptance of refrigerated chicken breast fillets
Samira Pirola Santos Mantilla,érica Barbosa Santos,Sérgio Borges Mano,M?nica Queiroz de Freitas
Biotemas , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of modified atmosphere packaging and irradiation on increase of the shelf-life and sensory acceptance of refrigerated chicken breast fillets. The combination of the mixture 80% CO2/20% N2 and the irradiation (3kGy) increased the shelf-life from 5 to 16 days. The lactic acid bacteria and Aeromonas spp. were the most resistant to radiation and high concentration of CO2, while the enterobacteria, coliforms and Listeria spp. showed the greatest sensitivity. The combined technology provides chicken breast fillets with longer shelf-life and safety to the consumer, without changing the flavor and aroma of food and it may be suggested as an alternative in the food industry.
Optimization of the RNA extraction method for transcriptome studies of Salmonella inoculated on commercial raw chicken breast samples
Sujata A Sirsat, Arunachalam Muthaiyan, Steven C Ricke
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-60
Abstract: Our study involved developing a food model system using chicken breast meat inoculated with mid-log Salmonella cells. First, we tested the optimum number of Salmonella cells required on the poultry meat in order to extract high quality RNA. This was analyzed by inoculating 10-fold dilutions of Salmonella on the chicken samples followed by RNA extraction. Secondly, we tested the effect of two different bacterial cell recovery solutions namely 0.1% peptone water and RNAprotect (Qiagen Inc.) on the RNA yield and purity. In addition, we compared the efficiency of sonication and bead beater methods to break the cells for RNA extraction. To check chicken nucleic acid interference on downstream Salmonella microarray experiments both chicken and Salmonella cDNA labeled with different fluorescent dyes were mixed together and hybridized on a single Salmonella array. Results of this experiment did not show any cross-hybridization signal from the chicken nucleic acids. In addition, we demonstrated the application of this method in a meat model transcriptional profiling experiment by studying the transcriptomic response of Salmonella inoculated on chicken meat and exposed to d-limonene. We successfully applied our method in this experiment to recover the bacterial cells from the meat matrix and to extract the RNA. We obtained high yield and pure RNA. Subsequently, the RNA was used for downstream transcriptional profiling studies using microarrays and over 600 differentially regulated genes were identified.Our result showed that 8 log cfu/g of Salmonella is ideal to obtain optimal RNA amount and purity. Our results demonstrated that RNAprotect yielded higher RNA amounts (approximately 10 to 30 fold) when compared to 0.1% peptone water. The differences between the RNAprotect and 0.1% peptone samples were significant at a p-value of 0.03 for the bead beater method and 0.0005 for the sonication method, respectively. The microarray experiment demonstrated that the chicken samples do
Microbiology, sensory evaluation and shelf life of irradiated chicken breast fillets stored in air or vacuum
Mantilla, Samira Pirola Santos;Santos, érica Barbosa;Vital, Helio de Carvalho;Mano, Sérgio Borges;Freitas, M?nica Queiroz de;Franco, Robson Maia;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132011000300019
Abstract: this work investigated the effects of different packaging methods (air and vacuum) combined with irradiation (0.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kgy) on the preservation of chicken breast fillets stored at 1oc for up to 18 days by sensorial test, determination of ph and bacterial growth. the findings indicated that the post-irradiation lag phase increased with the dose, leading to an extension in shelf-life. vacuum-packed samples irradiated at 3.0 kgy exhibited the longest shelf life. among the analyzed bacteria, coliforms and listeria spp. were most sensitive to gamma radiation. all the fillets acquired more attractive coloration and better overall impression with irradiation. the combined use of vacuum packaging and irradiation (3.0 kgy) reduced the microbial populations without causing change in ph and yielded a significant shelf-life extension of refrigerated fillets, besides improving its appearance.
Effect of Inulin on the Physical, Chemical and Sensory Quality Attributes of Polish Chicken Burgers  [cached]
Aneta Cegielka,Krzysztof Tambor
Journal of Food Research (JFR) , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jfr.v1n1p169
Abstract: Four formulations of chicken burger were prepared: control product without inulin, and products with 1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 % of inulin (in relation to the weight of meat, fatty raw material, and water), respectively. Physical, chemical and sensory analyses were made to evaluate the effect of inulin on the quality of cooked burgers. The results showed that the application of inulin did not cause significant decrease of the thermal processing yield nor the shear force of the products. However, the addition of inulin resulted in slight, but significant differences (P < 0.05) in chemical composition and energy value of burgers. Burgers of all formulations were acceptable in sensory characteristics. The addition level of inulin not higher than 1.0 %, did not result in deterioration of physical, chemical and sensory quality characteristics of chicken burgers. To improve the nutritional value of chicken burgers, the modification of fatty acid composition is recommended.
Influence of Technological Processes on the Rheological and Sensory Properties of Processed Chicken Meat  [PDF]
C. A. Eneji
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2007,
Abstract: The sensory and instrumental rheological characteristics of the musculus pectoralis superficialis of chicken were evaluated after five heat treatments. The autoclaving were at 115oC for 6.6 min in stationary state (C1), 115oC for 8.8 min in rotating autoclave (C2), 125oC for 24.9 min in stationary autoclave (C3), 125oC for 24.3 min in stationary autoclave (C4) and 125oC for 22.2 min in rotating autoclave (C5) while C was the control and was not heat treated. The results reflected the effects of heat treatments in the shear force values. The mean results of shear resistance for chicken meat in all treatment ranged between 31.70N and 57.50N. The raw chicken meat sample (product C) had the least mean value of 31.70N, while product C3 stationary autoclaved at 125oC for 24.9min had the highest mean value of 57.50N. The results further revealed that products C1, C2, C4 and C5 autoclaved at 115oC and 125oC but different time had mean values of 54.45N, 41.58N, 49.74N and 50.13N respectively and are still higher than raw product C. Results showed that there were significant (P<0.01) differences in t-test between C and other treatments. Whereas there was only 10% (P<0.1) significant difference in t-test between C1 and C2. Ranking of the sensory scores of canned chicken meat showed that C3 had the highest scores of 32.5, 31, 26, 27 and 28 in colour, flavour, number of chews, remains after chewing and tenderness respectively. This was closely followed by C5 with 32, 25.4, 26 and 23.5 in colour, flavour, number of chews and remains after chewing respectively. The result of rank correlation between organoleptic and instrumentally measured texture of autoclaved chicken meat samples was found to be equal to 0.4 indicating a positive highly significant (P<0.01) correlation.
Occurrence of Salmonella in Chicken Carcasses and Giblets in Meknes-Morocco
Chaiba Abdellah,Rhazi Filali Fouzia,Chahlaoui Abdelkader,Soulaymani Bencheikh Rachida
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2008,
Abstract: A study was conducted to estimate the occurrence and distribution of Salmonella in raw chicken meat and giblets (liver and gizzard) on the Moroccan market. From November 2005 to November 2006, a total of 576 samples were collected from retailers. Of these, 144 samples were from popular market, 144 from artisanal slaughterhouses, 144 from poulterers` shops and 144 from a supermarket at Meknes (centre-south Morocco). Of the total 576 samples examined, Salmonella was detected in 57 (9.90%) of the samples analyzed. Among the chicken samples examined high proportion of gizzard (13.88 %), liver (11.11 %), leg (8.33 %) and breast (6.25 %) were contaminated with Salmonella. In summary 30 (20.83 %) of the popular market samples, 24 (16.66 %) of the traditional slaughterhouses samples and 3 (2.08%) of the poulterers` shops were positive for one or more Salmonella. Out of the total 57 Salmonella isolates, 4 different serotypes were identified of which S. Typhimurium (40.35%) was the most frequent followed by S. Newport (26.31%). S. Montevideo (17.54 %) and S. Heidelberg (15.78 %). Results of the present study indicated that there was a high level of Salmonella contamination of chicken meat and giblets in popular market and artisanal slaughterhouses, which could be considered as one of the major potential source of human salmonellosis in Morocco.
Sensory quality of selected raw ripened meat products
Ewelina W?sierska,Krystyna Palka,Justyna Bogdańska,Katarzyna Chabior
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum : Technologia Alimentaria , 2013,
Abstract: Background. A demand on raw fermented meat products depends on their availability, price and the culture. In Poland, raw meat products have a several hundred years, although limited to the Podlasie region, tradition of manufacturing. Therefore, in spite of widening of Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, German and recently even the Czech Republic products assortment on the Polish market, the consumption of them increases slowly. The aim of the study was to compare the sensory quality of raw ripened smoked products and sausages, sold on the Polish foodstuffs market as “traditional”. Material and methods. The study included the basic chemical content, water activity, pH, the amount of lactic acid bacteria and coagulase-negative cocci, as well as selected texture and sensory parameters. The analysis was conducted in compliance with Polish Standards, and the cutting strength was measured with the use of the TA-XT2 texture-meter. The sensory analysis was conducted by a 12-person panel using the 5-point method. Results. The differences in the amount of water, protein, fat and salt resulted from the wide variability of ingredients among both groups of the analysed cold meats. The smoked products were characterised by a higher pH (5.6-5.9), smaller amount of bacilli (2-5.5 log cfu/g) and lactic cocci (3.3 to 6.6 log cfu/g) in comparison with the sausages. The amount of both populations of bacteria in the sausages of a pH of 4.5-5.5 ranged from 6.8-8.9 log cfu/g and 5.9-7.7 log cfu/g, respectively. Among the analysed smoked products and sausages the greatest TPA hardness (respectively 128.6-140.3 N and 91.3-139.7 N), TPA chewiness (28.9-54.2 N and 16.1-36.0 N) and cutting strength (11.0-12.9 kG and 8.2-8.5 kG) was observed in those with a 0.81-0.86 water activity. The overall quality of the analysed cold meats was at a good level (3.9-4.1 pt). Conclusions. Distinguishing features which determined the quality of products are hardness, juiciness as well as odour. The specifi c odour of the yeast cultures present on the surface of the products, the high fat content which undergoes oxidation during ripening, a high salt content, the domination of pepper among the range of spices as well as the detection of lactic and acetic acid are not accepted by Polish consumers.
Chemical Properties, Microbiological Quality and Sensory Evaluation of Chicken and Duck Liver Paste (foie gras)
Abu-Salem, Ferial M.,Abou Arab, Esmat A.
Grasas y Aceites , 2010, DOI: 10.3989/gya.074908
Abstract: Liver paste or foie gras, which is a French term meaning “fatty liver”, was produced traditionally from goose and duck. Chickens are also used in the making of foie gras. The present study deals with the properties and quality of raw chicken and duck liver in comparison with manufactured liver paste (foie gras). Raw chicken liver contained 24.60% protein, 6.00% fat, 1.40 % ash, and 66.80% moisture. The average mineral values were 83.65, 50.75, 5.29, 1.15, 0.154, 0.683, 0.317 and 0.066 μg/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The processing of liver paste (Foie gras) changed the composition of raw liver due to a loss in moisture, a release of fat and the addition of butter as a fat source. Chicken liver paste contained 27.8% moisture, 10.1% protein, 58.2% fat, and 0.8% ash. Mineral contents were 68.90, 40.50, 1.60, 1.1, 0.08, 0.22, 0.04 and 0.04 μg/g of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr, respectively. The chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of liver paste (foie gras) manufactured from raw liver and preserved by the addition of 1000 ppm of both benzoic acid (BA) or sorbic acid (SA) and a mixture of 500 ppm of both BA plus SA with or without pasteurization at 85 °C were studied during the storage period for 9 days at 4 °C. Presumably, the mixing of liver paste (Foie gras) from chicken liver with 500 ppm of both BA plus SA and pasteurizing the product at 85 °C could be recommended for lowering thiobarbituric acid (TBA), total volatile nitrogen (TVN), peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA), ammonia, saponification value and hence for inhibiting lipid oxidation and preventing rancidity to an extent up to nine days of refrigerated storage (4 °C). This level is also recommended as a preservative agent to inhibit the bacterial deterioration of chicken liver paste (Foie gras). A sensory evaluation showed that liver paste from chicken was very acceptable from the standpoint of taste, odor, appearance, color and texture. In comparison to liver paste from duck, the results proved that no significant differences were observed between the liver paste from chicken and duck liver paste. La pasta de hígado o foie gras es un término francés, que significa “hígado graso” y es tradicionalmente producido de oca y pato. El pollo también es usado en la manufactura de foie gras. El presente trabajo estudia las propiedades y calidad de hígado crudo de pollo y pato en comparación con la manufactura de pasta de hígado (foie gras). El higado de pollo crudo contienen 24.60% de proteina, 6% de grasa, 1.40% de ceniza y 66.80% de humedad. Los valores p
Influence of post-mortem aging in tenderness of chicken breast fillets
Santos, Helena Caminha;Brandelli, Adriano;Ayub, Marco Ant?nio Záchia;
Ciência Rural , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782004000300038
Abstract: in this work, analysis of chicken breast fillets was performed for shear values and sensory evaluation after different times of aging. aging process was carried out by holding carcasses in covered plastic boxes, in a cold room, at 3 +/- 1oc; groups of 5 carcasses were stored and classified according to the period of storage in cold room as 0 (control), 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours. the variation in ph of chicken carcasses during rigor decreased from 6.4 to 5.9. however, during the process of aging, the ph values increased up to 6.2 in the first 12h, probably as the result of proteolysis. the warner-bratzler shear values decreased as aging time increases, resulting in a first order kinetic. the carcasses presented a more accentuated decline in shear values in the first two hours of aging. after this period, the curve had a similar performance, achieving values of less than 1 kgf in 4 hours or more, with complete aging being accomplished at 8 hours. the samples with higher period of aging (8, 12 and 24 hours) were preferred in sensorial analysis, without significant differences among them.
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