Abstract:
The technique of tracing along magnetic field lines is widely used in magnetospheric physics to provide a "magnetic frame of reference'' that facilitates both the planning of experiments and the interpretation of observations. The precision of any such magnetic frame of reference depends critically on the accurate representation of the various sources of magnetic field in the magnetosphere. In order to consider this important problem systematically, a study is initiated to estimate first the uncertainties in magnetic-field-line tracing in the magnetosphere that arise solely from the published (standard) errors in the specification of the geomagnetic field of internal origin. Because of the complexity in computing these uncertainties for the complete geomagnetic field of internal origin, attention is focused in this preliminary paper on the uncertainties in magnetic-field-line tracing that result from the standard errors in just the axisymmetric part of the internal geomagnetic field. An exact analytic equation exists for the magnetic field lines of an arbitrary linear combination of axisymmetric multipoles. This equation is used to derive numerical estimates of the uncertainties in magnetic-field-line tracing that are due to the published standard errors in the axisymmetric spherical harmonic coefficients (i.e. gn0 ± δgn0). Numerical results determined from the analytic equation are compared with computational results based on stepwise numerical integration along magnetic field lines. Excellent agreement is obtained between the analytical and computational methods in the axisymmetric case, which provides great confidence in the accuracy of the computer program used for stepwise numerical integration along magnetic field lines. This computer program is then used in the following paper to estimate the uncertainties in magnetic-field-line tracing in the magnetosphere that arise from the published standard errors in the full set of spherical harmonic coefficients, which define the complete (non-axisymmetric) geomagnetic field of internal origin. Numerical estimates of the uncertainties in magnetic-field-line tracing in the magnetosphere, calculated here for the axisymmetric part of the internal geomagnetic field, should be regarded as "first approximations'' in the sense that such estimates are only as accurate as the published standard errors in the set of axisymmetric spherical harmonic coefficients. However, all procedures developed in this preliminary paper can be applied to the derivation of more realistic estimates of the uncertainties in magnetic-fie

Abstract:
Possible configurations of the magnetic field in the outer magnetosphere during geomagnetic polarity reversals are investigated by considering the idealized problem of a magnetic multipole of order m and degree n located at the centre of a spherical cavity surrounded by a boundless perfect diamagnetic medium. In this illustrative idealization, the fixed spherical (magnetopause) boundary layer behaves as a perfectly conducting surface that shields the external diamagnetic medium from the compressed multipole magnetic field, which is therefore confined within the spherical cavity. For a general magnetic multipole of degree n, the non-radial components of magnetic induction just inside the magnetopause are increased by the factor {1 + [(n + 1)/n]} relative to their corresponding values in the absence of the perfectly conducting spherical magnetopause. An exact equation is derived for the magnetic field lines of an individual zonal (m = 0), or axisymmetric, magnetic multipole of arbitrary degree n located at the centre of the magnetospheric cavity. For such a zonal magnetic multipole, there are always two neutral points and n-1 neutral rings on the spherical magnetopause surface. The two neutral points are located at the poles of the spherical magnetopause. If n is even, one of the neutral rings is coincident with the equator; otherwise, the neutral rings are located symmetrically with respect to the equator. The actual existence of idealized higher-degree (n>1) axisymmetric magnetospheres would necessarily imply multiple (n + 1) magnetospheric cusps and multiple (n) ring currents. Exact equations are also derived for the magnetic field lines of an individual non-axisymmetric magnetic multipole, confined by a perfectly conducting spherical magnetopause, in two special cases; namely, a symmetric sectorial multipole (m = n) and an antisymmetric sectorial multipole (m = n-1). For both these non-axisymmetric magnetic multipoles, there exists on the spherical magnetopause surface a set of neutral points linked by a network of magnetic field lines. Novel magnetospheric processes are likely to arise from the existence of magnetic neutral lines that extend from the magnetopause to the surface of the Earth. Finally, magnetic field lines that are confined to, or perpendicular to, either special meridional planes or the equatorial plane, when the multipole is in free space, continue to be confined to, or perpendicular to, these same planes when the perfectly conducting magnetopause is present. Key words. Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (reversals-process, time scale,

Abstract:
Relativistic particles entering the Earth's magnetosphere, i.e. cosmic rays and solar energetic particles, are of prime space weather interest because they can affect satellite operations, communications, and the safety of astronauts and airline crews and passengers. In order to mitigate the hazards that originate from such particles one needs to predict the cutoff latitudes of such particles as a function of their energies and the state of the magnetosphere. We present results from a new particle tracing code that is used to determine the cutoff latitudes of 8-15Men-1 alpha particles during the 23/24 April, 1998 geomagnetic storm and the preceding quiet time. The calculations are based on four different geomagnetic field models and compared with SAMPEX observations of alpha particles in the same energy range. The geomagnetic field models under consideration are: (i) the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model, (ii) the Tsyganenko "89" model (T89c), (iii) the Tsyganenko "96" model (T96), and (iv) a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of Earth's magnetosphere. Examining 11 SAMPEX cutoff latitude observations we find that the differences between the observed and the predicted cutoff latitudes are 2.3° ± 2.0° (mean) and 7.9° (maximum difference) for the IGRF model; 3.9° ± 2.4° (mean) and 6.9° (maximum difference) for the T89c model; 4.0° ± 1.4° (mean) and 5.5° (maximum difference) for the T96 model; and 2.5° ± 1.7° (mean) and 7.0° (maximum difference) for the MHD model. All models generally predict cutoff latitudes equatorward of the SAMPEX observations. The MHD model results also show steeper cutoff energy gradients with latitude compared to the empirical models and more structure in the cutoff energy versus latitude function, presumably due to the presence of boundary layers in the MHD model.

Abstract:
Present knowledge on the magnetic field of celestial bodies in briefly reviewed. Theoretic results on the interaction of the solar wind and its frozenin magnetic field with the geomagnetic field are presented. Satellite measurements within and outside t h e magnetosphere are then discussed: agreement with theoretical results is quite good.

Abstract:
Using the empirical magnetic field model dependent on the Dst index and solar wind dynamic pressure, we calculated the behaviour of the contour B = Bs in the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere where Bs is the magnetic field in the subsolar point at the magnetopause. The inner domain of the magnetosphere outlined by this contour contains the bulk of geomagnetically trapped particles. During quiet time the boundary of the inner magnetosphere passes at the distance ~10 RE at noon and at ~7 RE at midnight. During very intense storms this distance can be reduced to 4–5 RE for all MLT. The calculation results agree well with the satellite measurements of the magnetopause location during storms. The ionospheric projection of the B = Bs contour calculated with the Euler potential technique is close to the equatorward edge of the auroral oval.

Abstract:
This
study investigated the magnetospheric and ionospheric sources of geomagnetic
field variation using the data set that consists of the hourly values of the
geomagnetic element: horizontal intensity H,
recorded at the geomagnetic observatory of the Department of physics,
university of Ilorin, Ilorin (Long 4.670 and Lat. 8.50, dip 4.1°S)
Nigeria for the months of august, October and December in the year 2008. The
study attributed the daytime variation to the ionospheric sources while various
reasons were given to explain these night-time variations, which include
convective drift currents in the magnetosphere and the asymmetric rings
currents in the magnetospheric currents; this variation due to disturbances indicates possible non-ionospheric origin and a partial
ring current in the night side magnetosphere. The mean monthly hourly variation showed
seasonal variation with the Sq(H)
maximizes in equinox with least variation in June solstice. Moreover, the mean ration of seasonal contributions
of magnetospheric to ionospheric sources revealed that the E season has more
contributions from both magnetospheric and ionospheric sources than other
seasons with the least occurring during the J season.

Abstract:
The composition of ions plays a crucial role for the fundamental plasma properties in the terrestrial magnetosphere. We investigate the oxygen-to-hydrogen ratio in the near-Earth magnetosphere from -10 RE274 keV O+ ion intensities, relative to the corresponding hydrogen intensities; (3) In contrast to ~10 keV ions, the >274 keV O+ ions show the strongest acceleration during growth phase and not during the expansion phase itself. This suggests a connection between the energy input to the magnetosphere and the effective energization of energetic ions during growth phase; (4) The ratio between quiet and disturbed times for the intensities of ion ionospheric outflow is similar to those observed in the near-Earth magnetosphere at >274 keV. Therefore, the increase of the energetic ion intensity during disturbed time is more likely due to the intensification than to the more effective acceleration of the ionospheric source. In conclusion, the energization process in the near-Earth magnetosphere is mass dependent and it is more effective for the heavier ions.

Abstract:
An analytical expression is derived for the cutoff rigidity of cosmic rays arriving at a point in an arbitrary direction, when the main geomagnetic field is approximated by that of an eccentric dipole. This expression is used to determine changes in geomagnetic cutoffs due to secular variation of the geomagnetic field since 1835. Effects of westward drift of the quadrupole field and decrease in the effective dipole moment are seen in the isorigidity contours. On account of the immense computer time required to determine the cutoff rigidities more accurately using the particle trajectory tracing technique, the present formulation may be useful in estimating the transmission factor of the geomagnetic field in cosmic ray studies, modulation of cosmogenic isotope production by geomagnetic secular variation, and the contribution of geomagnetic field variation to long term changes in climate through cosmic ray related modulation of the current flow in the global electric circuit.

Abstract:
Plasma pressure distribution in the inner magnetosphere is one of the key parameters for understanding the main magnetospheric processes including geomagnetic storms and substorms. However, the pressure profiles obtained from in-situ particle measurements by the high-altitude satellites do not allow tracking the pressure variations related to the storms and substorms, because a time interval needed to do this generally exceeds the characteristic times of them. On contrary, fast movement of low-altitude satellites makes it possible to retrieve quasi-instantaneous profiles of plasma pressure along the satellite trajectory, using the fluxes of precipitating particles. For this study, we used the Aureol-3 satellite data for plasma pressure estimation, and the IGRF, Tsyganenko 2001 and Tsyganenko 2004 storm time geomagnetic field models for the pressure mapping into the equatorial plane. It was found that during quiet geomagnetic condition the radial pressure profiles obtained coincide with the profiles, obtained previously from the high-altitude measurements. On the contrary, it was found that during geomagnetic storm the plasma pressure profiles became sharper; the position of the maximum of plasma pressure corresponds to expected one for given Dst minimum; the maximum value of inner magnetosphere static pressure correlates with the solar wind dynamic pressure. Increase in the plasma pressure profiles indicates the possibility to consider the interchange instability as one of important factors for the development of the main phase of geomagnetic storm.

Abstract:
The influence of the geomagnetic field on the development of air showers is studied. The well known International Geomagnetic Reference Field was included in the AIRES air shower simulation program as an auxiliary tool to allow calculating very accurate estimations of the geomagnetic field given the geographic coordinates, altitude above sea level and date of a given event. Our simulations indicate that the geomagnetic deflections alter significantly some shower observables like, for example, the lateral distribution of muons in the case of events with large zenith angles (larger than 75 degrees). On the other hand, such alterations seem not to be important for smaller zenith angles. Global observables like total numbers of particles or longitudinal development parameters do not present appreciable dependences on the geomagnetic deflections for all the cases that were studied.