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Seasonal Population Changes of Wheat Green Aphid (Schizaphis graminum) and Introduction of its Natural Enemies in Sistan Region  [cached]
S. S. Modarres Najafabadi,GH. GHolamian
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2007,
Abstract: Seven species of aphids belonging to the family Aphididae in six genera were collected and identified in wheat and barely fields in Sistan region (Miankangi, Shahraki-Narooi, Shibab and Markazi) during1999-2000. Among them, Schizaphis graminum (Wheat green aphid) was the dominant species with an abundance of about 85.4% in the area. The seasonal population changes of Schizaphis graminum were studied simultaneously in the fields of Sistan region (Zahak research station and its surrounding fields). The research was conducted in half a hectar of each farm. Thirty leaves from each field at weekly interval were randomly picked up and the aphids were collected and identified at the species level. The Schizaphis graminum had a peak of activity in the second half of March to April at the temperature and R.H. ranges of between 22-28oC and %45-65R.H. respectively. The control conditions study (Incubator with 25±2oC and %75±5R.H.) indicated that the Schizaphis graminum had a life cycle of 5-7 days and adult female longevity was 20-31 days. Rearing study also revealed that this species had ability to reproduce up to 18-98 nymphs in the laboratory condition (Cultural room with 20-25 oC and 55±5R.H.) and an apterous female gave birth to 22-93 nymphs in her life. Samplings for recognition of predators and parasitoids were also done at 3-day intervals. Natural enemies in the fields during the two years were identified as consisting of six coccinellid (Col:Coccinellidae), ten syrphid (Dip:Syrphidae) and two chrysopid species (Neu: Chrysopidae). Also in Hymenoptera, five parasitoids (Hym:Aphidiidae) were determined.
Adventive species of Quedius (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) in North America: a survey and new Canadian record  [cached]
Christopher Majka,Jean-Philippe Michaud,Gaétan Moreau
ZooKeys , 2009, DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.22.207
Abstract: The adventive rove beetle, Quedius cinctus (Paykull) is recorded for the first time in Canada. This discovery provides an opportunity to briefly survey the distribution and early dates of detection of the seven adventive species in the genus Quedius Stephens in North America.
Effect of silicon applied to wheat plants on the biology and probing behaviour of the greenbug Schizaphis graminum (Rond.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
Goussain, Marcio M.;Prado, Ernesto;Moraes, Jair C.;
Neotropical Entomology , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2005000500013
Abstract: the effect of silicon-treated wheat plants (triticum aestivum l.) on the greenbug, schizaphis graminum (rond.) (hemiptera: aphididae) was evaluated. plants were treated with silicon incorporated to the soil and by foliar spraying. aphid development was evaluated by observing the duration of the pre-reproductive, reproductive and post-reproductive periods, as well as fecundity and longevity. probing behaviour was investigated by using the dc electrical penetration graphs (epg) technique and a "honeydew clock". silica treated plants had a clear adverse effect on aphid development. stylet penetration was not affected by treatments showing no physical barriers by the plant tissue. however, stylet was withdrawn more often on plants treated with silica, resulting in reduction of probing time. sieve elements were reached equally by aphids in all treatments and the insects remained ingesting phloem sap for similar periods. however, honeydew excretion was highly reduced indicating lower sap ingestion rate or higher sap retention inside the body. chemical changes and induced resistance are possibly related to the reduction of aphid performance.
Efeito da alimenta??o de Schizaphis graminum com genótipos de sorgo no desenvolvimento do predador Cycloneda sanguinea
Santos, Terezinha Monteiro dos;Figueira, Liliane Karla;Boi?a Júnior, Arlindo Leal;Lara, Fernando Mesquita;Cruz, Ivan;
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X2003000500001
Abstract: the aphid schizaphis graminum (rondani) (hemiptera: aphididae) is one of the main pests of sorghum crop. the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of this aphid feeding on resistant and susceptible sorghum genotypes on the development of its predator cycloneda sanguinea (linnaeus) (coleoptera: coccinellidae). the aphid was reared on leaves of sorghum genotypes gr 11111 and tx 430 x gr 111, resistant, gb 3b, moderately resistant, and br 007b, susceptible to the hemipterous. larvae of c. sanguinea were fed ad libitum on s. graminum nymphs and adults, daily. the duration and survival of developmental phases of c. sanguinea were not significantly influenced by genotype. only the fourth instar, the larval phase and the larvaeadult period duration were affected. the weight of c. sanguinea larvae of second instar was not affected by sorghum genotype. for both instars and adult phase, this parameter was differentiate due to each genotype used as host to the aphid. the resistant genotypes gr 11111 and tx 430 x gr 111 do not affect adversely c. sanguinea development and fecundity, during one generation. these genotypes show compatibility with the predator, allowing the s. graminum management on sorghum crop.
Adventive Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) of the Maritime Provinces of Canada: further contributions  [cached]
Christopher Majka,Jan Klimaszewski
ZooKeys , 2008, DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.2.5
Abstract: Seven species of adventive Palaearctic staphylinids, Ilyobates bennetti Donisthorpe, Meotica exilis (Knoch), Meotica 'pallens' (Redtenbacher), Anotylus insecatus (Gravenhorst), Anotylus tetracarinatus Block, Oxytelus sculptus Gravenhorst, and Lathrobium fulvipenne (Gravenhorst) are newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces of Canada. One of these, M. exilis, a cosmopolitan species, is newly recorded in Canada and represents the first verifiable report of this species from North America. The history of M. exilis in North America is examined indicating that previous reports were the result of misidentification or of specimens of uncertain identity that can no longer be located. The confused nomenclature of this species is also discussed. The confused taxonomy of Meotica 'pallens' is discussed with regard to the identity of the species reported under this name in North America. Atheta dadopora Thomson is newly recorded in Prince Edward Island. Records are provided that establish the presence of L. fulvipenne in North America in five Canadian provinces. Observations on A. insecatus in the field establish that they are predators of dipteran larvae. New early dates of detection are reported for Quedius curtipennis Bernhauer, Tasgius ater (Gravenhorst), Philonthus cognatus Stephens, and Philonthus rectangulus Sharp. As a consequence, 87 species of adventive Staphylinidae are now known to occur in the Maritime Provinces, 76 of which have been recorded in Nova Scotia, 61 in New Brunswick, and 29 on Prince Edward Island. The staphylinid fauna is briefl y discussed in relation to its zoogeographic components and its regional composition.
Intera??o silício-imidacloprid no comportamento biológico e alimentar de Schizaphis Graminum (Rond.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) em plantas de trigo
Costa, Rosane Rodrigues;Moraes, Jair Campos;Costa, Ronelza Rodrigues da;
Ciência e Agrotecnologia , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-70542009000200014
Abstract: the greenbug schizaphis graminum (rond.) (hemiptera: aphididae) is one of the main pest insects on wheat crop, being capable of leading a plant to death by sap suction and toxin injection, in addition to transmitting viruses. a strategy recommended to the management of aphids on wheat is the use of selective insecticides, mainly in the seed treatment. this way, in this research, the objective was to monitor the feeding behavior of s. graminum on wheat plants treated with silicon and/or imidachloprid, in addition to evaluate some biological features of the insect. the experiment was carried out at the entomology department, ufla, on wheat cultivar embrapa 22, s. graminum, 1% silicic acid, and imidachloprid seed treatment. the biology assay was conduced, starting at 15, 30, and 45 days after the seed germination, and the honeydew excretion was evaluated. the treatments were distributed in factorial scheme 2 (with silicon and without silicon) x 2 (with imidachloprid and without imidachloprid), with 10 replicates. it was observed that the systemic insecticide imidachloprid acts as a deterrent on adults and it is lethal on nymphs of s. graminum up to 45 days after seed treatment. furthermore, the plants treated with silicon showed resistance to s. graminum.
Efeito da alimenta o de Schizaphis graminum com genótipos de sorgo no desenvolvimento do predador Cycloneda sanguinea
Santos Terezinha Monteiro dos,Figueira Liliane Karla,Boi?a Júnior Arlindo Leal,Lara Fernando Mesquita
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2003,
Abstract: O pulg o Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) é uma das principais pragas do sorgo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito da alimenta o deste inseto com genótipos de sorgo resistentes e suscetíveis no desenvolvimento do predador Cycloneda sanguinea (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). O pulg o foi criado em folhas dos genótipos de sorgo GR 11111 e TX 430 x GR 111, resistentes, GB 3B, de resistência moderada e BR 007B, suscetível ao hemíptero. As larvas de C. sanguinea foram alimentadas diariamente, ad libitum, com ninfas e adultos de S. graminum. A dura o das fases de desenvolvimento e a sobrevivência de C. sanguinea n o foram influenciadas pelo genótipo. Apenas a dura o do quarto ínstar, da fase larval e do período de larva a adulto foram afetadas. O peso de larvas de segundo ínstar de C. sanguinea n o foi afetado pelo genótipo. Nos demais ínstares e fase adulta, esse parametro foi diferenciado conforme o genótipo de sorgo utilizado como hospedeiro ao pulg o. Os genótipos resistentes GR 11111 e TX 430 x GR 111 n o afetam adversamente o desenvolvimento e a fecundidade de C. sanguinea, durante uma gera o. Estes genótipos demonstram compatibilidade com o predador e viabilizam o manejo de S. graminum na cultura do sorgo.
First record of adventive species Micromus variegatus (Fabricius) from eastern Canada (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae)  [cached]
Jan Klimaszewski,Laurent LeSage,Karine Savard
ZooKeys , 2009, DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.27.220
Abstract: An adventive Palaearctic species, Micromus variegatus (Fabricius) (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae), is reported as new to Québec, eastern Canada. It was recorded for the first time from North America in 1988, from Galiano Island, of the coast of southwestern British Columbia. The present records confirm the occurrence of this species in eastern Canada, which constitutes the second known introduction of M. variegatus into North America.
Taxonomic study of the genus Neurotettix Matsumura (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Deltocephalinae) with a description of a new species from China  [cached]
Renhuai Dai,Jichun Xing,Zizhong Li
ZooKeys , 2011, DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.82.1158
Abstract: This paper treats all four known species of the genus Neurotettix Matsumura, 1914 (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Deltocephalinae), including one new species: Neurotettix truncatus sp. n. from China. A key is given to distinguish all species of the genus, and illustrations of genitalia are provided.
Evaluación de la resistencia a Schizaphis graminum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) en cebada Assessment of resistance against Schizaphis graminum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in barley  [cached]
Erica F. Tocho,Ana M. Marino de Remes Lenicov,Ana M. Castro
Revista de la Sociedad Entomol?3gica Argentina , 2012,
Abstract: El pulgón verde de los cereales, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), es una de las principales plagas de estos cultivos en el mundo y también presente en Argentina. Si bien el control químico es la práctica más utilizada, el uso de variedades resistentes (uno de los componentes principales del MIP) es la estrategia más efectiva y ambientalmente más amigable para el control de plagas. Dado que las plantas presentan distintos mecanismos que les permiten defenderse de los insectos, el objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar la resistencia a Schizaphis graminum en una población de líneas recombinantes de cebada, e identificar aquellas con mejores características, portadoras de genes de resistencia a este insecto. La antixenosis fue analizada por la prueba de libre selección de hospederos. La antibiosis se evaluó por los parámetros del ciclo y el desarrollo del áfido y la tolerancia por características de crecimiento de las plantas bajo infestación. Al menos ocho líneas antibióticas fueron más tolerantes que sus testigos, presentando similares pesos secos, área foliar y contenido de clorofila bajo infestación. Estas líneas portadoras de genes de resistencia pueden ser de utilidad en los planes de mejora de la cebada. Greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) is one of the major pests of cereals around the world that is present in Argentina. Chemical control is the most widely used practice; however, the use of resistant varieties, one of the main components in IPM, is the most effective and environmentally sustainable strategy of control. Since plants have different types of insect resistance that allow them to defend against pests, the aim of the current study was to characterize the resistance to Schizaphis graminum in a population of recombinant inbred lines of barley and to identify lines with improved characteristics that enable the development of commercial cultivars. Antixenosis was studied by the host free choice test. Antibiosis was assessed by means of aphid life cycle and developmental traits. Tolerance mechanism was analyzed by plant growth parameters. At least eight lines carrying antibiosis were more tolerant than their controls, with similar dry weight, leaf area and chlorophyll contents, under infestation. These lines could provide resistance genes against this aphid pest and would be useful in plant breeding programs.
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