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A superposed epoch analysis of geomagnetic storms  [cached]
J. R. Taylor,M. Lester,T. K. Yeoman
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: A superposed epoch analysis of geomagnetic storms has been undertaken. The storms are categorised via their intensity (as defined by the Dst index). Storms have also been classified here as either storm sudden commencements (SSCs) or storm gradual commencements (SGCs, that is all storms which did not begin with a sudden commencement). The prevailing solar wind conditions defined by the parameters solar wind speed (vsw), density (ρsw) and pressure (Psw) and the total field and the components of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) during the storms in each category have been investigated by a superposed epoch analysis. The southward component of the IMF, appears to be the controlling parameter for the generation of small SGCs (-100 nT< minimum Dst ≤ -50 nT for ≥ 4 h), but for SSCs of the same intensity solar wind pressure is dominant. However, for large SSCs (minimum Dst ≤ -100 nT for ≥ 4 h) the solar wind speed is the controlling parameter. It is also demonstrated that for larger storms magnetic activity is not solely driven by the accumulation of substorm activity, but substantial energy is directly input via the dayside. Furthermore, there is evidence that SSCs are caused by the passage of a coronal mass ejection, whereas SGCs result from the passage of a high speed/ slow speed coronal stream interface. Storms are also grouped by the sign of Bz during the first hour epoch after the onset. The sign of Bz at t = +1 h is the dominant sign of the Bz for ~24 h before the onset. The total energy released during storms for which Bz was initially positive is, however, of the same order as for storms where Bz was initially negative.
Superposed epoch analysis of the ionospheric convection evolution during substorms: onset latitude dependence
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2009,
Abstract: Using data from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) we investigate the ionospheric convection response to magnetospheric substorms. Substorms were identified using the Far Ultraviolet (FUV) instrument on board the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft, and were then binned according to the magnetic latitude of their onset. A superposed epoch analysis of the ionospheric convection patterns for each onset-latitude bin was then performed using radar data for the interval 60 min before onset to 90 min after. It is found that lower onset-latitude substorms are associated with generally more enhanced convection than the higher latitude substorms, although they suffer from a significant localised reduction of the flow in the midnight sector during the expansion phase. Higher-latitude substorms are associated with a significant and rapid increase in the nightside convection following substorm onset, with all onset-latitude bins showing an enhancement over onset values by ~60 min into the expansion phase. A rudimentary inspection of the concurrent auroral evolution suggests that the duration of the flow reduction following substorm onset is dependent on the strength and duration of the expansion phase aurora and its associated conductivity enhancement.
Travelling convection vortices in the ionosphere map to the central plasma sheet  [PDF]
A. Yahnin,T. Moretto
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: We investigate the magnetospheric domain responsible for the generation of ionospheric travelling convection vortices (TCV) by comparing the location of the TCV to the locations of the low-altitude particle-precipitation boundaries deduced from the DMSP satellite measurements. For three very well documented TCV events we are able to identify suitable satellite passes, in the sense that for each event we can identify two to three passes occurring close to the TCV observation in both time and space. In all three cases the comparisons place the TCV centres at or equatorward of the central plasma sheet/boundary plasma sheet precipitation boundary. Thus our results indicate that the field-aligned currents related to the TCV originate in the plasma sheet rather than at the magnetopause or in the low-latitude boundary layer, as previous studies suggest.
Ionospheric and geomagnetic responses to changes in IMF BZ: a superposed epoch study  [PDF]
C. J. Davis,M. N. Wild,M. Lockwood,Y. K. Tulunay
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: Superposed epoch studies have been carried out in order to determine the ionospheric response at mid-latitudes to southward turnings of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). This is compared with the geomagnetic response, as seen in the indices Kp, AE and Dst. The solar wind, IMF and geomagnetic data used were hourly averages from the years 1967–1989 and thus cover a full 22-year cycle in the solar magnetic field. These data were divided into subsets, determined by the magnitudes of the southward turnings and the concomitant increase in solar wind pressure. The superposed epoch studies were carried out using the time of the southward turning as time zero. The response of the mid-latitude ionosphere is studied by looking at the F-layer critical frequencies, foF2, from hourly soundings by the Slough ionosonde and their deviation from the monthly median values, δfoF2. For the southward turnings with a change in Bz of δBz > 11.5 nT accompanied by a solar wind dynamic pressure P exceeding 5 nPa, the F region critical frequency, foF2, shows a marked decrease, reaching a minimum value about 20 h after the southward turning. This recovers to pre-event values over the subsequent 24 h, on average. The Dst index shows the classic storm-time decrease to about –60 nT. Four days later, the index has still to fully recover and is at about –25 nT. Both the Kp and AE indices show rises before the southward turnings, when the IMF is strongly northward but the solar wind dynamic pressure is enhanced. The average AE index does register a clear isolated pulse (averaging 650 nT for 2 h, compared with a background peak level of near 450 nT at these times) showing enhanced energy deposition at high latitudes in substorms but, like Kp, remains somewhat enhanced for several days, even after the average IMF has returned to zero after 1 day. This AE background decays away over several days as the Dst index recovers, indicating that there is some contamination of the currents observed at the AE stations by the continuing enhanced equatorial ring current. For data averaged over all seasons, the critical frequencies are depressed at Slough by 1.3 MHz, which is close to the lower decile of the overall distribution of δfoF2 values. Taking 30-day periods around summer and winter solstice, the largest depression is 1.6 and 1.2 MHz, respectively. This seasonal dependence is confirmed by a similar study for a Southern Hemisphere station, Argentine Island, giving peak depressions of 1.8 MHz and 0.5 MHz for summer and winter. For the subset of turnings where δBz > 11.5 nT and P ≤ 5 nPa, t
Multi-instrument ground-based observations of a travelling convection vortices event  [cached]
H. Lühr,M. Lockwood,P. E. Sandholt,T. L. Hansen
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: A coordinated ground-based observational campaign using the IMAGE magnetometer network, EISCAT radars and optical instruments on Svalbard has made possible detailed studies of a travelling convection vortices (TCV) event on 6 January 1992. Combining the data from these facilities allows us to draw a very detailed picture of the features and dynamics of this TCV event. On the way from the noon to the drawn meridian, the vortices went through a remarkable development. The propagation velocity in the ionosphere increased from 2.5 to 7.4 km s–1, and the orientation of the major axes of the vortices rotated from being almost parallel to the magnetic meridian near noon to essentially perpendicular at dawn. By combining electric fields obtained by EISCAT and ionospheric currents deduced from magnetic field recordings, conductivities associated with the vortices could be estimated. Contrary to expectations we found higher conductivities below the downward field aligned current (FAC) filament than below the upward directed. Unexpected results also emerged from the optical observations. For most of the time there were no discrete aurora at 557.7 nm associated with the TCVs. Only once did a discrete form appear at the foot of the upward FAC. This aurora subsequently expanded eastward and westward leaving its centre at the same longitude while the TCV continued to travel westward. Also we try to identify the source regions of TCVs in the magnetosphere and discuss possible generation mechanisms.
Specific interplanetary conditions for CIR-, Sheath-, and ICME-induced geomagnetic storms obtained by double superposed epoch analysis
Yu. I. Yermolaev, N. S. Nikolaeva, I. G. Lodkina,M. Yu. Yermolaev
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2010,
Abstract: A comparison of specific interplanetary conditions for 798 magnetic storms with Dst < 50 nT during 1976–2000 was made on the basis of the OMNI archive data. We categorized various large-scale types of solar wind as interplanetary drivers of storms: corotating interaction region (CIR), Sheath, interplanetary CME (ICME) including both magnetic cloud (MC) and Ejecta, separately MC and Ejecta, and "Indeterminate" type. The data processing was carried out by the method of double superposed epoch analysis which uses two reference times (onset of storm and minimum of Dst index) and makes a re-scaling of the main phase of the storm in a such way that all storms have equal durations of the main phase in the new time reference frame. This method reproduced some well-known results and allowed us to obtain some new results. Specifically, obtained results demonstrate that (1) in accordance with "output/input" criteria the highest efficiency in generation of magnetic storms is observed for Sheath and the lowest one for MC, and (2) there are significant differences in the properties of MC and Ejecta and in their efficiencies.
Specific interplanetary conditions for CIR-, Sheath-, and ICME-induced geomagnetic storms obtained by double superposed epoch analysis  [PDF]
Yu. I. Yermolaev,N. S. Nikolaeva,I. G. Lodkina,M. Yu. Yermolaev
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.5194/angeo-28-2177-2010
Abstract: The comparison of specific interplanetary conditions for 798 magnetic storms with Dst < -50 nT for the period 1976-2000 was made on the basis of the OMNI archive data.We categorized various large-scale types of solar wind as interplanetary drivers of storms: corotating interaction region (CIR), Sheath, interplanetary CME (ICME) including magnetic cloud (MC) and Ejecta, separately MC and Ejecta, and "Indeterminate" type. The data processing was carried out by the method of double superposed epoch analysis which uses two reference times (onset of storm and the minimum Dst index) and make a re-scaling of main phase of storm a such way that after this transformation all storms have equal durations of main phase in new time reference frame. This method reproduced some well-known results and allowed us to obtain some new results. Specifically, obtained results demonstrate high importance of Sheath in generation of magnetic storms as well as a significant differences in properties of MC and Ejecta and in their geoeffectiveness.
Dynamics of large-scale solar-wind streams obtained by the double superposed epoch analysis  [PDF]
Yu. I. Yermolaev,I. G. Lodkina,N. S. Nikolaeva,M. Yu. Yermolaev
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1002/2015JA021274
Abstract: Using the OMNI data for period 1976-2000 we investigate the temporal profiles of 20 plasma and field parameters in the disturbed large-scale types of solar wind (SW): CIR, ICME (both MC and Ejecta) and Sheath as well as the interplanetary shock (IS). To take into account the different durations of SW types, we use the double superposed epoch analysis (DSEA) method: re-scaling the duration of the interval for all types in such a manner that, respectively, beginning and end for all intervals of selected type coincide. As the analyzed SW types can interact with each other and change parameters as a result of such interaction, we investigate separately 8 sequences of SW types: (1) CIR, (2) IS/CIR, (3) Ejecta, (4) Sheath/Ejecta, (5) IS/Sheath/Ejecta, (6) MC, (7) Sheath/MC, and (8) IS/Sheath/MC. The main conclusion is that the behavior of parameters in Sheath and in CIR are very similar both qualitatively and quantitatively. Both the high-speed stream (HSS) and the fast ICME play a role of pistons which push the plasma located ahead them. The increase of speed in HSS and ICME leads at first to formation of compression regions (CIR and Sheath, respectively), and then to IS. The occurrence of compression regions and IS increases the probability of growth of magnetospheric activity.
A superposed epoch analysis of auroral evolution during substorm growth, onset and recovery: open magnetic flux control of substorm intensity
S. E. Milan, A. Grocott, C. Forsyth, S. M. Imber, P. D. Boakes,B. Hubert
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2009,
Abstract: We perform two superposed epoch analyses of the auroral evolution during substorms using the FUV instrument on the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Explorer (IMAGE) spacecraft. The larger of the two studies includes nearly 2000 substorms. We subdivide the substorms by onset latitude, a measure of the open magnetic flux in the magnetosphere, and determine average auroral images before and after substorm onset, for both electron and proton aurora. Our results indicate that substorms are more intense in terms of auroral brightness when the open flux content of the magnetosphere is larger, and that magnetic flux closure is more significant. The increase in auroral brightness at onset is larger for electrons than protons. We also show that there is a dawn-dusk offset in the location of the electron and proton aurora that mirrors the relative locations of the region 1 and region 2 current systems. Superposed epoch analyses of the solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field, and geomagnetic indices for the substorms under study indicate that dayside reconnection is expected to occur at a faster rate prior to low latitude onsets, but also that the ring current is enhanced for these events.
Statistical and superposed epoch study of dipolarization events using data from Wind perigee passes
K. Sigsbee, J. A. Slavin, R. P. Lepping, A. Szabo, M. ieroset, M. L. Kaiser, M. J. Reiner,H. J. Singer
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2005,
Abstract: From 1995 to 2000, the Wind spacecraft spent over 500h in the magnetotail, much of it within ~2x104km of the predicted location of the neutral sheet. Wind passed through the near magnetotail at distances of -15 RE
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