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Thailand and brain drain  [PDF]
Terry Commins
Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology , 2009,
Abstract: Brain drain has been the subject of research since the 1960s. This research has been hampered by a lack of accurate data from both source and receiving countries on migration and on the losses and gains to developing economies of skilled migration. However, despite these handicaps, research has been able to clearly show that trends are changing and the effect this is having is usually quite different for individual source countries.Thailand, as a developing economy, could be regarded as a source country. Fortunately, Thailand has never ranked highly in terms of brain drain when compared to other states in Asia and while it may not be a significant problem it nonetheless needs to be monitored. Thailand is also somewhat unique in that the migration that has occurred has been almost equally split between secondary and tertiary educated Thais. Thailand also ranks low in terms of tertiary educated population who have migrated when compared to other countries in the region. Globalisation is having a profound effect on the migration of skilled workers. As trade becomes increasingly free, barriers to the movement of services or people are also freed. As the better educated are encouraged to think globally, so too will they be inclined to move globally into the world community.This paper examines Thailand’s position with respect to brain drain, some of the lessons we have learned and some of the steps that are being taken to minimise the impact of the loss of skilled workers, with a particular focus on science and technology. The conclusion is that brain drain should not be viewed as an entirely negative development and that the positive outcomes should be recognised, encouraged and incorporated into policy.
Strategies to discourage brain drain
Kupfer,Linda; Hofman,Karen; Jarawan,Raya; McDermott,Jeanne; Bridbord,Ken;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862004000800012
Abstract: building health research expertise in developing countries often requires personnel to receive training beyond national borders. for research funding agencies that sponsor this type of training, a major goal is to ensure that trainees return to their country of origin: attaining this objective requires the use of proactive strategies. the strategies described were developed under the extramural acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids) international training and research program (aitrp) funded by the fogarty international center (fic) at the national institutes of health, united states. this programme supports universities in the united states that provide research training to scientists from developing countries to enable them to address the global epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)/aids and the related tuberculosis (tb) epidemic. this paper describes the strategies employed to discourage brain drain by the principle investigators (pis) of five of the longest-funded aitrps (funded for 15 years). long-term trainees in these programmes spent from 11 to 96 months (an average of 26 months) studying. using scientific, political and economic strategies that address brain drain issues, pis working in aitrps have attained an average rate of return home for their trainees of 80%.
Restructuring brain drain: strengthening governance and financing for health worker migration  [cached]
Tim K. Mackey,Bryan A. Liang
Global Health Action , 2013, DOI: 10.3402/gha.v6i0.19923
Abstract: Background: Health worker migration from resource-poor countries to developed countries, also known as ‘‘brain drain’’, represents a serious global health crisis and a significant barrier to achieving global health equity. Resource-poor countries are unable to recruit and retain health workers for domestic health systems, resulting in inadequate health infrastructure and millions of dollars in healthcare investment losses. Methods: Using acceptable methods of policy analysis, we first assess current strategies aimed at alleviating brain drain and then propose our own global health policy based solution to address current policy limitations. Results: Although governments and private organizations have tried to address this policy challenge, brain drain continues to destabilise public health systems and their populations globally. Most importantly, lack of adequate financing and binding governance solutions continue to fail to prevent health worker brain drain. Conclusions: In response to these challenges, the establishment of a Global Health Resource Fund in conjunction with an international framework for health worker migration could create global governance for stable funding mechanisms encourage equitable migration pathways, and provide data collection that is desperately needed.
La historia del brain drain
Brandi,M. Carolina;
Revista iberoamericana de ciencia tecnolog?-a y sociedad , 2006,
Abstract: the "brain drain" phenomenon has a long history. in 1963, the royal society defined "brain drain" the exodus of british scientists to usa, seriously jeopardizing the british economy, but this term eventually became of common use to describe the emigrations of scholars and professionals from the third word countries. because of these migrations, the investments made by these countries on the formations of their nationals were used by the developed countries: the result was an unjust technological aid to the richer countries by the poorer ones. this concept of "reverse technological transfer" was developed by the united nation conference on trades and development on 1972. after the end of the soviet union and of the warsaw treaty in the last decade of the past century, an huge brain drain started from the eastern european countries; at the same time, a serious risk of brain waste is present nowadays, since not all the migrants are able to find a job at the level of their skill. a number of scholars suggested that it is now more appropriate to define the high skilled migrations as "brain mobility" and not as "brain drain", since, to date, the word economy is largely dominated the free circulation of capitals, merchandise and job. however, many others are still convinced that the concept of "brain drain" is still valid, mainly in case of migrations of highskilled workers from third word countries to the north.
Plumbing the brain drain
Saravia,Nancy Gore; Miranda,Juan Francisco;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862004000800011
Abstract: opportunity is the driving force of migration. unsatisfied demands for higher education and skills, which have been created by the knowledge-based global economy, have generated unprecedented opportunities in knowledge-intensive service industries. these multi-trillion dollar industries include information, communication, finance, business, education and health. the leading industrialized nations are also the focal points of knowledge-intensive service industries and as such constitute centres of research and development activity that proactively draw in talented individuals worldwide through selective immigration policies, employment opportunities and targeted recruitment. higher education is another major conduit of talent from less-developed countries to the centres of the knowledge-based global economy. together career and educational opportunities drive "brain drain and recirculation". the departure of a large proportion of the most competent and innovative individuals from developing nations slows the achievement of the critical mass needed to generate the enabling context in which knowledge creation occurs. to favourably modify the asymmetric movement and distribution of global talent, developing countries must implement bold and creative strategies that are backed by national policies to: provide world-class educational opportunities, construct knowledge-based research and development industries, and sustainably finance the required investment for these strategies. brazil, china and india have moved in this direction, offering world-class education in areas crucial to national development, such as biotechnology and information technology, paralleled by investments in research and development. as a result, only a small proportion of the most highly educated individuals migrate from these countries, and research and development opportunities employ national talent and even attract immigrants.
Brain Drain and Health Workforce Distortions in Mozambique  [PDF]
Kenneth Sherr, Antonio Mussa, Baltazar Chilundo, Sarah Gimbel, James Pfeiffer, Amy Hagopian, Stephen Gloyd
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035840
Abstract: Introduction Trained human resources are fundamental for well-functioning health systems, and the lack of health workers undermines public sector capacity to meet population health needs. While external brain drain from low and middle-income countries is well described, there is little understanding of the degree of internal brain drain, and how increases in health sector funding through global health initiatives may contribute to the outflow of health workers from the public sector to donor agencies, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and the private sector. Methods An observational study was conducted to estimate the degree of internal and external brain drain among Mozambican nationals qualifying from domestic and foreign medical schools between 1980–2006. Data were collected 26-months apart in 2008 and 2010, and included current employment status, employer, geographic location of employment, and main work duties. Results Of 723 qualifying physicians between 1980–2006, 95.9% (693) were working full-time, including 71.1% (493) as clinicians, 20.5% (142) as health system managers, and 6.9% (48) as researchers/professors. 25.5% (181) of the sample had left the public sector, of which 62.4% (113) continued working in-country and 37.6% (68) emigrated from Mozambique. Of those cases of internal migration, 66.4% (75) worked for NGOs, 21.2% (24) for donor agencies, and 12.4% (14) in the private sector. Annual incidence of physician migration was estimated to be 3.7%, predominately to work in the growing NGO sector. An estimated 36.3% (41/113) of internal migration cases had previously held senior-level management positions in the public sector. Discussion Internal migration is an important contributor to capital flight from the public sector, accounting for more cases of physician loss than external migration in Mozambique. Given the urgent need to strengthen public sector health systems, frank reflection by donors and NGOs is needed to assess how hiring practices may undermine the very systems they seek to strengthen.
La historia del brain drain  [cached]
M. Carolina Brandi
Revista iberoamericana de ciencia tecnolog?-a y sociedad , 2006,
Abstract: El fenómeno de la "fuga de cerebros" tiene una larga historia. En 1963, la Royal Society definió "fuga de cerebros" como el éxodo de científicos británicos hacia los EEUU, lo cual comprometía seriamente la economía británica, pero este término eventualmente pasó a ser de uso común para describir las emigraciones de académicos y profesionales de los países del Tercer Mundo. Debido a estas migraciones, las inversiones realizadas por estos países para la formación de sus recursos humanos fueron usadas por los países desarrollados: los resultados dieron una injusta ayuda tecnológica para los países más ricos por parte de los más pobres. Este concepto de "transferencia inversa de tecnológica" fue desarrollado por la United Nation Conference on Trades and Development en 1972. Después del final de la Unión Soviética y del Tratado de Varsovia en la última década del siglo pasado, comenzó una gran fuga de cerebros desde los países Europeos del Este: al mismo tiempo, hoy en día está presente un serio riesgo de desperdicio de cerebros, puesto que no todos los que migran pueden encontrar un trabajo al nivel de sus capacidades. Un número de académicos sugirieron que ahora es más apropiado definir a las migraciones altamente calificadas como "movilidad de cerebros" y no como "fuga de cerebros", puesto que hasta la fecha la economía mundial está dominada en gran parte por la libre circulación de capitales, mercancías y trabajo. Sin embargo, muchos otros todavía están convencidos de que el concepto de "fuga de cerebros" todavía es válido, principalmente en el caso de las migraciones de trabajadores altamente capacitados desde los países del Tercer Mundo hacia el Norte. The "brain drain" phenomenon has a long history. In 1963, the Royal Society defined "brain drain" the exodus of British scientists to USA, seriously jeopardizing the British economy, but this term eventually became of common use to describe the emigrations of scholars and professionals from the Third Word countries. Because of these migrations, the investments made by these countries on the formations of their nationals were used by the developed countries: the result was an unjust technological aid to the richer countries by the poorer ones. This concept of "reverse technological transfer" was developed by the United Nation Conference on Trades and Development on 1972. After the end of the Soviet Union and of the Warsaw Treaty in the last decade of the past century, an huge brain drain started from the Eastern European countries; at the same time, a serious risk of brain waste is present nowadays, since
The Effects of Brain Drain Phenomenon under the Greek National Health System
Koukoufilippou Ioannis, Bogri Damaskini, Soursos Georgios, Koinis Aristotelis
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102372
Abstract: The phenomenon of the brain drain is a form of contemporary emigration consisting of the best section of the human capital of the country. The loss of productive dynamism at the highest level stymies the future prospects of the country. The National Health System is damaged immediately by the phenomenon as the country is deprived of talented young physicians, the very staff who comprises the “cadets” of the public health system. Motivation theories and empirical researches and motivation incentives in medical sector, are the basic tools of administration for the treatment of the phenomenon. Observing from the perspective of the administration of the hospital, it is understood that there is a wide range of actions that can act as a brake on the exodus of young scientists. A specific incentives package is proposed for implementation from the management.
Brain Drain from Lithuania: the Attitude of Civil Servants  [PDF]
Juozas Bagdanavi?ius,Zita Jodkonien?
Engineering Economics , 2008,
Abstract: The concept of brain drain includes not only aphysical emigration of highly qualified persons from onecountry to another but also a transfer from one departmentof an organization to another, as well as any other loss ofskills and knowledge of one economic unit necessary foreconomic growth and development in favour of anothereconomic unit. Brian drain occurs as a result of the factorsof attraction and repulsion of migration of qualifiedspecialists, scientists and students. Three levels of thereason for brain can be distinguished: individual,organization, and state.Brain drain occurs in all countries of the world with avarying extent and character. In the economicallydeveloped countries more attention is given to the problemof brain drain. It has become an object of interest andresearch in these countries much earlier than in theeconomies of transition. This can be proven by a moreextensive and accurate statistics provided in differentsources, as well as the abundance of different research. InLithuania little analysis has been made on thisphenomenon. It is difficult to determine the extent of braindrain from Lithuania due to the lack of statistical data andsociological research. The article underlines that theemigration of highly educated specialists from Lithuaniamay have negative economic, social, cultural and evenpolitical effects on the development of the country.
Brain Drain, Talent Mobility and Academic Networking
Cheng Ming Yu, Tan Hoi Pew, Fok Kuk Fai
Journal of Management and Research , 2014,
Abstract: Talent is the key to economic development and the network built among talents is the resource crucial for national competitiveness.Talent is highly mobile and a more talented individual tends to show higher tendency to move on and respond to better economic opportunities. Therefore, managing talent is a challenging job. This paper examines the evolution of brain drain to talent mobility and also analyses talent networking for a special group of talent, that is, academics. The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature and patterns of academic networking, and the challenges in forming and maintaining this network.
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