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Five-factor model personality traits in opioid dependence
Hege Korn?r, Hilmar Nordvik
BMC Psychiatry , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-7-37
Abstract: We compared FFM personality traits in 65 opioid dependent persons (mean age 27 years, 34% females) in outpatient counselling after a minimum of 5 weeks in buprenorphine replacement therapy, with those in a non-clinical, age- and sex-matched sample selected from a national database. Personality traits were assessed by a Norwegian version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R), a 240-item self-report questionnaire. Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated for the differences in personality trait scores.The opioid-dependent sample scored higher on Neuroticism, lower on Extraversion and lower on Conscientiousness (d = -1.7, 1.2 and 1.7, respectively) than the controls. Effects sizes were small for the difference between the groups in Openness to experience scores and Agreeableness scores.We found differences of medium and large effect sizes between the opioid dependent group and the matched comparison group, suggesting that the personality traits of people with opioid dependence are in fact different from those of non-clinical peers.Opioid dependence is a severe condition associated with substantial psychological, social and medical impairment, as well as poor treatment outcomes. The aetiology of opioid dependence is not quite established. We believe a number of aspects are involved, including biological, psychological and socioeconomic factors [1,2].According to the self-medication hypothesis [3-5], emotionally unstable individuals may experience that their psychological distress is alleviated when they use opioids. In that respect, using opioids can be seen as a response in a negative reinforcement process [6,7] – it removes an aversive stimulus (psychological distress), reinforcing the response (increased tendency to use opioids).Opioid use has also been associated with sensation seeking and engagement in risk behaviours [8-10]. Zuckerman views sensation seeking as a personality trait with biological foundations, making some people more inclined to engage
Methadone-Mediated Autonomic Functioning of Male Patients with Heroin Dependence: The Influence of Borderline Personality Pattern  [PDF]
Wei-Lieh Huang, Yu-Hsuan Lin, Terry B. J. Kuo, Li-Ren Chang, Ying-Zai Chen, Cheryl C. H. Yang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037464
Abstract: Background We hypothesize that the population with borderline personality shows different autonomic response to methadone compared to individuals with other personalities. This study applies heart rate variability (HRV) measurements and the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) to examine this hypothesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Forty-four male patients with heroin dependence were recruited from a methadone maintenance treatment program. Eight personality patterns were classified according to the TPQ norm used in Taiwan. The borderline pattern (BP, composed of high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance and low reward dependence) and the other personality patterns (OP) were separated into two groups. We compared the HRV profiles between the BP and OP groups. Correlation and regression analysis were performed to clarify relationship between HRV differences and the borderline index (BI, a new concept defined by us, which is calculated as novelty seeking + harm avoidance – reward dependence). The HRV targets investigated included low frequency (LF) power, high frequency (HF) power, total power (TP), normalized LF (LF%), and LF/HF. No baseline HRV parameters showed any inter-group difference. The BP group had a significantly lower ΔHF and a higher ΔLF/HF than the OP group. The personality dimension, reward dependence, showed a negative correlation with ΔLF/HF and ΔLF%. BI was negatively correlated with ΔHF and positively correlated with ΔLF/HF and ΔLF%. Conclusions/Significance Borderline personality individuals show increased sympathetic activity and decreased parasympathetic activity compared to other personalities after taking methadone. The results support the hypothesis that there is an interaction between borderline personality and autonomic modulation.
Relationship of Smartphone Dependence to General Health Status and Personality Traits among University Students  [PDF]
Masahiro Toda, Satoko Ezoe, Kanae Mure, Tatsuya Takeshita
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2016.610020
We investigated associations between smartphone dependence and general health status or personality traits. To 197 medical university students, we administered a set of self-reporting questionnaires designed to evaluate these parameters. For males, smartphone dependence positively correlated with somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, and emotional instability, and negatively correlated with agreeableness. For females, smartphone dependence positively correlated with somatic symptoms, severe depression, and extraversion, and negatively correlated with social dysfunction. These findings suggest that smartphone dependence may be associated with general health status or personality traits and that there may be a gender difference in these associations.
Chemical Potential Dependence of Two-Quark Condensates
SUN Wei-Min,ZONG Hong-Shi,WANG Fan,

中国物理快报 , 2006,
Abstract: By adopting the background field method, the response of the dressed quark propagator to the presence of finite chemical potential is analysed up to the second order. From this, we obtain a model-independent formula for the chemical potential dependence (up to the second order) of the in-medium two-quark condensate and show by both Lorentz covariance arguments and explicit calculations that the O(μ) contribution to the in-medium two-quark condensate vanishes identically.
Chemical Equilibrium in Heavy Ion Collisions: Rapidity Dependence
Becattini, F.;Cleymans, J.
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007, DOI: 10.1088/0954-3899/34/8/S135
Abstract: Particle yields in heavy ion collisions show an overwhelming evidence for chemical or relative chemical equilibrium at all beam energies. The rapidity dependence of the thermal parameters $T$ and $\mu_B$ can now be determined over a wide range of rapidities and show a systematic behavior towards an increase in $\mu_B$ away from mid-rapidity.
Personality Dimensions and Nicotine Dependence and Withdrawal Symptoms: the Mediating Role of Self-Directness
Sybilla Schiep, Katarzyna Cie lik
Polish Psychological Bulletin , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10059-011-0022-x
Abstract: We analyzed the relationship between personality traits and smoking status and nicotine withdrawal symptoms using two comprehensive models of personality: the Five-Factor Model and the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory. In total 295 people were examined, 149 smokers and 146 who have never smoked. To measure the severity of the nicotine dependence we used the Fagerstroem Tolerance Questionnaire and the DSM-IV criteria of nicotine dependence and to measure the nicotine withdrawal symptoms the Nicotine Dependence History. The results showed significant differences between the groups in particular dimensions: Neuroticism, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. The analyse of the TCI demonstrate, that smokers are higher in Novelty Seeking and lower in Reward Dependence than never smokers and show less Self-Directness and Cooperativeness. The mediation analyses showed that Self-Directness is the significant mediator between Extra-Introversion and nicotine withdrawal symptoms measured by NDHIS and between Neuroticism and DSM-IV criteria of nicotine dependence.
Chemical potential dependence of pi and rho properties  [PDF]
P. Maris,C. D. Roberts,S. Schmidt
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.57.2821
Abstract: Using a confining, Dyson-Schwinger equation model of QCD at finite temperature (T) and chemical potential (mu) we study the behaviour of , m_pi, f_pi and the masses of the rho- and phi-mesons. For each of these quantities there is a necessary anticorrelation between its response to T and its response to mu. (-) and f_pi decrease with T and increase with mu; m_pi is almost insensitive to T and mu until very near the border of the confinement domain; and the mass of the longitudinal component of the vector mesons increases with T and decreases with mu. At T=0, the rho-meson mass is reduced by approximately 15% at nuclear matter density. These results are a consequence of the necessary momentum-dependence of the dressed-quark self-energy.
Centrality Dependence of Chemical Freeze-out in Au+Au Collisions at RHIC  [PDF]
Masashi Kaneta,Nu Xu
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: We will report centrality dependence of chemical freeze-out temperature ($T_{ch}$), light quark chemical potential ($\mu_{q}$), strange quark chemical potential ($\mu_{s}$), and strangeness saturation factor ($\gamma_{s}$) in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 130 and 200 GeV. A systematic study for combination of ratios for chemical freeze-out fit is studied and we have found small ombination dependences. The results show $\gamma_{s}$ increasing with centrality but the other parameters have less sensitivity to the centralities.
Suicide and Personality  [PDF]
Mehmet Ak,Murat Gulsun,K. Nahit Ozmenler
Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar , 2009,
Abstract: Many factors may play role in the emergence of suicidal behavior. Familial tendency including some features of personality structure, hopelessness, affective disorder, and suicide behavior have attracted close attention recently. Personality disorders seem to be prevalent in individuals who attempt suicide. Beside it has been reported that personality disorders and other psychiatric disorder comorbidity increase the risk of suicide. To present the relationship between suicide and personality is quite important for developing strategies in order to prevent suicide attempt. In this field, the data show variability based on scales used for the evaluation of personality, its definition and classification in the research. For example, while some authors used DSM criteria or ICD criteria, others preferred to focus on the temperament and character dimensions of personality. In studies based on diagnostic criteria; B group personality disorders, such as antisocial and borderline personality disorders were found to be most common comorbid personality disorder diagnosis. In studies aiming to investigate the relationship among suicide attempt, temperament and character features, the suicide attempters were found to have lower levels of self directedness, cooperativeness, and higher scores for self transcendence. Suicidal patients were inclined to have higher scores in several temperament groups like harm avoidance, novelty seeking, and reward dependence. Tendency to impulsive behavior is reported as a common denominator for suicidal patients. Individuals, who have familial or acquired tendency of impulsivity, could react more dramatically and present with depressive and pessimistic mood when they have difficulties and encounter stress factors in their daily routine and could easily develop depressive disorders. These factors as a whole could lead to self destructive actions like suicide. Individual or familial history of suicide attempts or completed suicide are important clues as to presence of suicidality. Several studies have been conducted on the relationship between suicide attempts and personality features. However, there is not sufficient number of studies conducted on the completed suicide victims. The only methodology that could be used among this group of patients is psychological autopsy which is quite hard to implement because of inherent methodological problems. These factors prevent accumulation of sufficient data on the relationships between completed suicide and personality. However, we should evaluate suicidal behavior comprehensively in order to
Modulation Mechanism of Working Memory to Drug Dependence Based on Personality Vulnerability

ZENG Hong,GUO Si-Ping,

心理科学进展 , 2011,
Abstract: Drug dependence is a kind of psychological and mental disease whereby individuals use medicine, develop tolerance and withdrawal symptoms and whose social function is seriously and negatively affected by drug use. Working memory plays a central role in the process of modulation in the behavior of drug dependence: Based on personality vulnerability and neural sensitization, low working memory capacity can influence decision-making and inhibition, and has an affect on drug seeking behavior and tendency for re...
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