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Analysis of causal attributions of success and failure in competitions regarding Portuguese soccer players' competition level / Análise das atribui es causais do sucesso e do insucesso na competi o, em fun o do nível competitivo dos futebolistas portugueses  [cached]
Paulo Malico Sousa,António Boleto Rosado,Túlia Maia Cabrita
Psicologia: Reflex?o e Crítica , 2008,
Abstract: Having as a reference Weiner's attributional model of motivation and emotion (1979), this work intended to evaluate the causal attributions, in sport situations of success and failure, in relation to Portuguese soccer players' competitive levels. Studying a sample of 125 soccer players, who compete in three competitive levels (II League; III League; I District League), this study presents results about the mechanisms of causality perception, revealed by the athletes in these 3 different competitive levels. The results had evidenced significant differences between the causal dimensions of locus of causality and external control (success situations) and the locus of causality and level of stability (failure situations).
ATTRIBUTIONS FOR SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN SPANISH TEAM SPORT PLAYERS  [cached]
R. González-Boto,O. Molinero,R. Martínez,S. Márquez
Motricidad : European Journal of Human Movement , 2010,
Abstract: ABSTRACT This study examined the role of ability, effort, luck and difficulty of the task in attributions for successful and unsuccessful performances made by Spanish team sport players, and determined if differences exist between athletes at different competition levels. Participants were 143 young men (soccer: N = 64; indoor soccer: N = 37; basketball: N = 42), ages 17 to 25 years (M = 20, SD = 5). Winners perceived ability and effort as the reasons behind their success while losers made attributions mainly to luck and the difficulty of the task. Ability and effort were in the three sports the reasons given for successful outcomes at various competition levels. Difficulty of the task was the factor rated higher by those who lost competing at a national level, while luck and effort were rated higher for those who lost competing at a regional and local level. KEY WORDS: attribution, team sports. competition levels RESUMEN En este estudio se analizaron el papel de la habilidad, el esfuerzo, la suerte y la dificultad de la tarea en las atribuciones de éxito y fracaso realizadas por practicantes espa oles de deportes colectivos y se determinó si existían diferencias entre jugadores con distintos niveles de competición. Participaron 143 chicos (fútbol: N = 64; fútbol sala: N = 37; baloncesto: N = 42), con edades comprendidas entre 17 y 25 a os (M = 20, SD = 5). Los ganadores consideraban la habilidad y el esfuerzo como las razones responsables de su éxito, mientras que los perdedores realizaban sus atribuciones principalmente a la suerte y a la dificultad de la tarea. En los tres deportes estudiados, la habilidad y el esfuerzo se consideraban como las principales razones del éxito en los diferentes niveles competitivos. La dificultad de la tarea era la causa más puntuada por los perdedores que competían a nivel nacional, mientras que a nivel regional y local se otorgaba mayor importancia a la suerte y al esfuerzo. Palabras clave: atribución, deportes colectivos, niveles de competición.
Perceived University Students’ Attributions of Their Academic Success and Failure  [cached]
Kitila A. K. Mkumbo,Jacqueline Amani
Asian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v8n7p247
Abstract: This study examined the applicability of the attribution theory in understanding how students attribute their academic success and failure. Participants involved a sample of 260 undergraduate students at the University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. They completed an attitude questionnaire scale with items on locus of control, stability and controllability dimensions. The results show that the majority of students attributed their academic performance to internal, stable and controllable factors. High performing students were more likely to attribute their academic performance to internal and controllable factors than low performing students. Success was attributed to internal and controllable factors, while academic failure was attributed to external and uncontrollable factors. Save for sex, the participants’ demographic variables did not statistically significantly influence the attribution pattern. The results of this study confirm the predictions of the attribution theory and are in line with the findings of similar studies conducted in other university settings.
Causal Attributions for Failure and the Effect of Gender among Moroccan EFL University Learners  [cached]
Abdelaziz Zohri
English Language Teaching , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/elt.v4n4p130
Abstract: This paper reports a study that sought to investigate Moroccan university learners’ perceptions of failure. 333 subjects studying English at university ranked their perceptions of failure in a Causal Attribution Scale of University Failure (CASUF). The results show that Moroccan learners attribute their failure to teachers’ attitude, effort, interest and pressure. Factors like social problems, lack of teachers’ help and ability were not important. The study also investigated the link between gender and causal attributions of failure. Overall, male and female students reported similar causes. Still, some gender differences were detected.
STUDENT TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF TEACHER COMPETENCE AND THEIR ATTRIBUTIONS FOR SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN LEARNING  [PDF]
Feryal CUBUKCU
Journal of International Social Research , 2010,
Abstract: Whitty (1996 :89–90) identifies two sets of qualities that characterise a successful professional teacher: professional characteristics and professional competences. Professional characteristics include professional values, personal and professional development, communication and relationships as well as synthesis and application. Professional competences include knowledge and understanding of children and their learning, subject knowledge, curriculum, the education system and the teacher’s role. On the other hand, Medley and Shannon (1994) hold that there are three dimensions of teacher quality instead of two: teacher effectiveness (the degree to which a teacher achieves desired effects upon students), teacher competence (the extent to which a teacher has the knowledge and skills) and teacher performance (how a teacher behaves in the process of teaching). In situations where the teachers are interpersonally oriented, attentive, empathic and fully cognizant of the students’ ability and they believe in the students, the students are extremely positive towards teaching (Skolverket, 1995; Chedzoy and Burden, 2007). Even if differences between schools and classes can be explained to a certain extent by factors in the students’ backgrounds, it is believed that teachers and school leaders are those who have the greatest influence on the school’s inner environment and culture. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to probe how student teachers in the English language teaching department see teachers’ competence and skills, to which factors they attribute their success and failure in language learning , and what they think the solutions are.
Attributions to Success and Failure in English Language Learning: A Comparative Study of Urban and Rural Undergraduates in Malaysia  [cached]
Peter Gobel,Siew Ming Thang,Gurnam Kaur Sidhu,Sok Imm Oon
Asian Social Science , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v9n2p53
Abstract: This paper presents a descriptive study of Malaysian urban and rural students’ attributions for success and failure in learning English as a second language. Data was collected using the Attribution to Success and Failure Questionnaires (ASQ & AFQ), based on previous research conducted by Vispoel and Austin (1995). The findings indicated that urban and rural students held different attribution ratings for the success and failure for learning English as a second language with the urban group being more willing to attribute success to their own ability, effort, and study skills than the rural group. Based on this data, we can hypothesize that the urban group are much more study-wise and confident as they have a greater belief in their own ability to take control of their successes in the language classroom.
Causal attributions in Brazilian children's reasoning about health and illness
Boruchovitch,Evely; Mednick,Birgitte R;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102000000500008
Abstract: introduction: at a time when a great number of diseases can be prevented by changing one's habits and life style, investigations have focused on understanding what adults and children believe to be desirable health practices and uncovering the factors associated with successful adherence to such practices. for these, causal attributions for health and illness were investigated among 96 brazilian elementary school students. methods: ninety six subjects, aged 6 to 14, were interviewed individually and their causal attributions were assessed through 14 true-false items (e.g. people stay well [healthy] because they are lucky). the relationship between the children's causal attributions and demographic characteristics were also examined. results: overall, the results were consistent with previous researches. "taking care of oneself" was considered the most important cause of good health. "viruses and germs" and "lack of self-care" were the most selected causes of illness. analyses revealed significant relationship between subjects' causal attribution and their age, school grade level, socioeconomic status and gender. conclusions: the study findings suggest that there may be more cross-cultural similarities than differences in children's causal attributions for health and illness. finding ways to help individuals engage in appropriate preventive-maintenance health practices without developing an exaggerated notion that the individuals can control their own health and illness is a challenge which remains to be addressed by further research.
Causal attributions in Brazilian children's reasoning about health and illness  [cached]
Boruchovitch Evely,Mednick Birgitte R
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2000,
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: At a time when a great number of diseases can be prevented by changing one's habits and life style, investigations have focused on understanding what adults and children believe to be desirable health practices and uncovering the factors associated with successful adherence to such practices. For these, causal attributions for health and illness were investigated among 96 Brazilian elementary school students. METHODS: Ninety six subjects, aged 6 to 14, were interviewed individually and their causal attributions were assessed through 14 true-false items (e.g. people stay well [healthy] because they are lucky). The relationship between the children's causal attributions and demographic characteristics were also examined. RESULTS: Overall, the results were consistent with previous researches. "Taking care of oneself" was considered the most important cause of good health. "Viruses and germs" and "lack of self-care" were the most selected causes of illness. Analyses revealed significant relationship between subjects' causal attribution and their age, school grade level, socioeconomic status and gender. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest that there may be more cross-cultural similarities than differences in children's causal attributions for health and illness. Finding ways to help individuals engage in appropriate preventive-maintenance health practices without developing an exaggerated notion that the individuals can control their own health and illness is a challenge which remains to be addressed by further research.
Mathematics at matriculation level as an indicator of success or failure in the 1st year of the Veterinary Nursing Diploma at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria  [cached]
A.E. Botha,C.M.E. McCrindle,J.H. Owen
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v74i4.526
Abstract: Mathematics at matriculation level (Grade 12) is one of the subjects required for admission to the Veterinary Nursing Diploma in the Faculty at Veterinary Science of the University of Pretoria. The present study shows that there is no statistically significant relationship between the grade of mathematics at matriculation level and the success or failure in the 1st year of study. There is, however, a statistical difference in the adjusted mark obtained for mathematics at matriculation level between the groups that passed and failed the 1st year of the veterinary nursing course. The results of this research are not consistent with other research which showed that secondary school mathematics results are not a significant factor in tertiary education. It is recommended that selection criteria for veterinary nurses should in future still include mathematics, but that cognisance should be taken of the mark obtained and students with higher marks (above 57 %) given preference.
The mathematics of causal sets  [PDF]
Graham Brightwell,Malwina Luczak
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: The causal set approach to quantum gravity is based on the hypothesis that the underlying structure of spacetime is that of a random partial order. We survey some of the interesting mathematics that has arisen in connection with the causal set hypothesis, and describe how the mathematical theory can be translated to the application area. We highlight a number of open problems of interest to those working in causal set theory.
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