Search Results: 1 - 10 of 100 matches for " "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item
Investigation of the relationship between optical auroral forms and HF radar E region backscatter  [PDF]
S. E. Milan,M. Lester,N. Sato,H. Takizawa
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: The SuperDARN HF radars have been employed in the past to investigate the spectral characteristics of coherent backscatter from L-shell aligned features in the auroral E region. The present study employs all-sky camera observations of the aurora from Husafell, Iceland, and the two SuperDARN radars located on Iceland, Tykkvib r and Stokkseyri, to determine the optical signature of such backscatter features. It is shown that, especially during quiet geomagnetic conditions, the backscatter region is closely associated with east-west aligned diffuse auroral features, and that the two move in tandem with each other. This association between optical and radar aurora has repercussions for the instability mechanisms responsible for generating the E region irregularities from which radars scatter. This is discussed and compared with previous studies investigating the relationship between optical and VHF radar aurora. In addition, although it is known that E region backscatter is commonly observed by SuperDARN radars, the present study demonstrates for the first time that multiple radars can observe the same feature to extend over at least 3 h of magnetic local time, allowing precipitation features to be mapped over large portions of the auroral zone. Key words: Ionosphere (particle precipitation; plasma waves and instabilities)
A classification of spectral populations observed in HF radar backscatter from the E region auroral electrojets
S. E. Milan ,M. Lester
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2001,
Abstract: Observations of HF radar backscatter from the auroral electrojet E region indicate the presence of five major spectral populations, as opposed to the two predominant spectral populations, types I and II, observed in the VHF regime. The Doppler shift, spectral width, backscatter power, and flow angle dependencies of these five populations are investigated and described. Two of these populations are identified with type I and type II spectral classes, and hence, are thought to be generated by the two-stream and gradient drift instabilities, respectively. The remaining three populations occur over a range of velocities which can greatly exceed the ion acoustic speed, the usual limiting velocity in VHF radar observations of the E region. The generation of these spectral populations is discussed in terms of electron density gradients in the electrojet region and recent non-linear theories of E region irregularity generation. Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities)
Climatology of GPS phase scintillation and HF radar backscatter for the high-latitude ionosphere under solar minimum conditions
P. Prikryl, P. T. Jayachandran, S. C. Mushini,R. Chadwick
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2011,
Abstract: Maps of GPS phase scintillation at high latitudes have been constructed after the first two years of operation of the Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Network (CHAIN) during the 2008–2009 solar minimum. CHAIN consists of ten dual-frequency receivers, configured to measure amplitude and phase scintillation from L1 GPS signals and ionospheric total electron content (TEC) from L1 and L2 GPS signals. Those ionospheric data have been mapped as a function of magnetic local time and geomagnetic latitude assuming ionospheric pierce points (IPPs) at 350 km. The mean TEC depletions are identified with the statistical high-latitude and mid-latitude troughs. Phase scintillation occurs predominantly in the nightside auroral oval and the ionospheric footprint of the cusp. The strongest phase scintillation is associated with auroral arc brightening and substorms or with perturbed cusp ionosphere. Auroral phase scintillation tends to be intermittent, localized and of short duration, while the dayside scintillation observed for individual satellites can stay continuously above a given threshold for several minutes and such scintillation patches persist over a large area of the cusp/cleft region sampled by different satellites for several hours. The seasonal variation of the phase scintillation occurrence also differs between the nightside auroral oval and the cusp. The auroral phase scintillation shows an expected semiannual oscillation with equinoctial maxima known to be associated with aurorae, while the cusp scintillation is dominated by an annual cycle maximizing in autumn-winter. These differences point to different irregularity production mechanisms: energetic electron precipitation into dynamic auroral arcs versus cusp ionospheric convection dynamics. Observations suggest anisotropy of scintillation-causing irregularities with stronger L-shell alignment of irregularities in the cusp while a significant component of field-aligned irregularities is found in the nightside auroral oval. Scintillation-causing irregularities can coexist with small-scale field-aligned irregularities resulting in HF radar backscatter. The statistical cusp and auroral oval are characterized by the occurrence of HF radar ionospheric backscatter and mean ground magnetic perturbations due to ionospheric currents.
Towards a synthesis of substorm electrodynamics: HF radar and auroral observations
A. Grocott, M. Lester, M. L. Parkinson, T. K. Yeoman, P. L. Dyson, J. C. Devlin,H. U. Frey
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2006,
Abstract: At 08:35 UT on 21 November 2004, the onset of an interval of substorm activity was captured in the southern hemisphere by the Far UltraViolet (FUV) instrument on board the IMAGE spacecraft. This was accompanied by the onset of Pi2 activity and subsequent magnetic bays, evident in ground magnetic data from both hemispheres. Further intensifications were then observed in both the auroral and ground magnetic data over the following ~3 h. During this interval the fields-of-view of the two southern hemisphere Tasman International Geospace Enviroment Radars (TIGER) moved through the evening sector towards midnight. Whilst initially low, the amount of backscatter from TIGER increased considerably during the early stages of the expansion phase such that by ~09:20 UT an enhanced dusk flow cell was clearly evident. During the expansion phase the equatorward portion of this flow cell developed into a narrow high-speed flow channel, indicative of the auroral and sub-auroral flows identified in previous studies (e.g. Freeman et al., 1992; Parkinson et al., 2003). At the same time, higher latitude transient flow features were observed and as the interval progressed the flow reversal region and Harang discontinuity became very well defined. Overall, this study has enabled the spatial and temporal development of many different elements of the substorm process to be resolved and placed within a simple conceptual framework of magnetospheric convection. Specifically, the detailed observations of ionospheric flows have illustrated the complex interplay between substorm electric fields and associated auroral dynamics. They have helped define the distinct nature of different substorm current systems such as the traditional substorm current wedge and the more equatorward currents associated with polarisation electric fields. Additionally, they have revealed a radar signature of nightside reconnection which provides the promise of quantifying nightside reconnection in a way which has already proved extremely successful in studies of the dayside magnetosphere.
A comparison of satellite scintillation measurements with HF radar backscatter characteristics
S. E. Milan, S. Basu, T. K. Yeoman,R. E. Sheehan
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2005,
Abstract: We examine the correspondence between high latitude ionospheric scintillation measurements made at 250MHz with the occurrence of 10MHz HF coherent radar backscatter, on 13 and 14 December 2002. We demonstrate that when the ionospheric intersection point of the scintillation measurements is co-located with significant HF radar backscatter, the observed scintillation, quantified by the S4 index, is elevated. Conversely, when the radar indicates that backscatter is observed away from the intersection point due to movements of the auroral zone, the observed scintillation is low. This suggests that scintillation is highly location-dependent, being enhanced in the auroral zone and being lower at sub-auroral latitudes. The coexistence of scintillation and HF radar backscatter, produced by ionospheric density perturbations with scale sizes of 100s of metres and ~15 m, respectively, suggests that a broad spectrum of density fluctuations is found in the auroral zone.
The auroral and ionospheric flow signatures of dual lobe reconnection
S. M. Imber, S. E. Milan,B. Hubert
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2006,
Abstract: We present the first substantial evidence for the occurrence of dual lobe reconnection from ionospheric flows and auroral signatures. The process of dual lobe reconnection refers to an interplanetary magnetic field line reconnecting with lobe field lines in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Two bursts of sunward plasma flow across the noon portion of the open/closed field line boundary (OCB), indicating magnetic flux closure at the dayside, were observed in SuperDARN radar data during a period of strongly northward IMF. The OCB is identified from spacecraft, radar backscatter, and auroral observations. In order for dual lobe reconnection to take place, we estimate that the interplanetary magnetic field clock angle must be within ±10° of zero (North). The total flux crossing the OCB during each burst is small (1.8% and 0.6% of the flux contained within the polar cap for the two flows). A brightening of the noon portion of the northern auroral oval was observed as the clock angle passed through zero, and is thought to be due to enhanced precipitating particle fluxes due to the occurrence of reconnection at two locations along the field line. The number of solar wind protons captured by the flux closure process was estimated to be ~2.5×1030 (4 tonnes by mass), sufficient to populate the cold, dense plasma sheet observed following this interval.
Meridian-scanning photometer, coherent HF radar, and magnetometer observations of the cusp: a case study  [PDF]
S. E. Milan,M. Lester,S. W. H. Cowley,J. Moen
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: The dynamics of the cusp region and post-noon sector for an interval of predominantly IMF By, Bz < 0 nT are studied with the CUTLASS Finland coherent HF radar, a meridian-scanning photometer located at Ny lesund, Svalbard, and a meridional network of magnetometers. The scanning mode of the radar is such that one beam is sampled every 14 s, and a 30° azimuthal sweep is completed every 2 minutes, all at 15 km range resolution. Both the radar backscatter and red line (630 nm) optical observations are closely co-located, especially at their equatorward boundary. The optical and radar aurora reveal three different behaviours which can interchange on the scale of minutes, and which are believed to be related to the dynamic nature of energy and momentum transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere through transient dayside reconnection. Two interpretations of the observations are presented, based upon the assumed location of the open/closed field line boundary (OCFLB). In the first, the OCFLB is co-located with equatorward boundary of the optical and radar aurora, placing most of the observations on open field lines. In the second, the observed aurora are interpreted as the ionospheric footprint of the region 1 current system, and the OCFLB is placed near the poleward edge of the radar backscatter and visible aurora; in this interpretation, most of the observations are placed on closed field lines, though transient brightenings of the optical aurora occur on open field lines. The observations reveal several transient features, including poleward and equatorward steps in the observed boundaries, "braiding" of the backscatter power, and 2 minute quasi-periodic enhancements of the plasma drift and optical intensity, predominantly on closed field lines. Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; plasma convection) · Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause · cusp · and boundary layers)
The relationship between VHF radar auroral backscatter amplitude and Doppler velocity: a statistical study  [cached]
B. A. Shand,M. Lester,T. K. Yeoman
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: A statistical investigation of the relationship between VHF radar auroral backscatter intensity and Doppler velocity has been undertaken with data collected from 8 years operation of the Wick site of the Sweden And Britain Radar-auroral Experiment (SABRE). The results indicate three different regimes within the statistical data set; firstly, for Doppler velocities <200 m s–1, the backscatter intensity (measured in decibels) remains relatively constant. Secondly, a linear relationship is observed between the backscatter intensity (in decibels) and Doppler velocity for velocities between 200 m s–1 and 700 m s–1. At velocities greater than 700 m s–1 the backscatter intensity saturates at a maximum value as the Doppler velocity increases. There are three possible geophysical mechanisms for the saturation in the backscatter intensity at high phase speeds: a saturation in the irregularity turbulence level, a maximisation of the scattering volume, and a modification of the local ambient electron density. There is also a difference in the dependence of the backscatter intensity on Doppler velocity for the flow towards and away from the radar. The results for flow towards the radar exhibit a consistent relationship between backscatter intensity and measured velocities throughout the solar cycle. For flow away from the radar, however, the relationship between backscatter intensity and Doppler velocity varies during the solar cycle. The geometry of the SABRE system ensures that flow towards the radar is predominantly associated with the eastward electrojet, and flow away is associated with the westward electrojet. The difference in the backscatter intensity variation as a function of Doppler velocity is attributed to asymmetries between the eastward and westward electrojets and the geophysical parameters controlling the backscatter amplitude.
On the altitude dependence of the spectral characteristics of decametre-wavelength E region backscatter and the relationship with optical auroral forms
S. E. Milan, M. Lester, N. Sato,H. Takizawa
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2001,
Abstract: Observations of E region backscatter by the Ice-land East SuperDARN HF radar from the 30 minute period 2330 to 2400 UT on 13 September 1999 are presented, along with simultaneous observations of auroral luminosity from two all-sky cameras. Interferometric techniques are employed to estimate the altitude of origin of each echo observed by the radar. Under investigation is a region of backscatter which is L-shell aligned and exists in a region of low auroral luminosity bounded to the north and the south by two auroral arcs. The spectral characteristics of the backscatter fall into three main populations: broad, low Doppler shift spectra; narrow, high Doppler shift spectra; and exceptionally narrow, low Doppler shift spectra. The first two populations are similar to type II and type I spectra observed with VHF radars, respectively. These populations scatter from near the peak of the E region. The high Doppler shift population appears to exist in a region of sub-critical electric field. The third population originates below the E region peak at altitudes between 80 and 100 km. We argue that a non-coherent scattering process is responsible for this backscatter. Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities)
Dayside convection and auroral morphology during an interval of northward interplanetary magnetic field  [PDF]
S. E. Milan,M. Lester,S. W. H. Cowley,M. Brittnacher
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: We investigate the dayside auroral dynamics and ionospheric convection during an interval when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) had predominantly a positive Bz component (northward IMF) but varying By. Polar UVI observations of the Northern Hemisphere auroral emission indicate the existence of a region of luminosity near local noon at latitudes poleward of the dayside auroral oval, which we interpret as the ionospheric footprint of a high-latitude reconnection site. The large field-of-view afforded by the satellite-borne imager allows an unprecedented determination of the dynamics of this region, which has not previously been possible with ground-based observations. The location of the emission in latitude and magnetic local time varies in response to changes in the orientation of the IMF; the cusp MLT and the IMF By component are especially well correlated, the emission being located in the pre- or post-noon sectors for By < 0 nT or By > 0 nT, respectively. Simultaneous ground-based observations of the ionospheric plasma drift are provided by the CUTLASS Finland HF coherent radar. For an interval of IMF By approx 0 nT, these convection flow measurements suggest the presence of a clockwise-rotating lobe cell contained within the pre-noon dayside polar cap, with a flow reversal closely co-located with the high-latitude luminosity region. This pattern is largely consistent with recent theoretical predictions of the convection flow during northward IMF. We believe that this represents the first direct measurement of the convection flow at the imaged location of the footprint of the high-latitude reconnection site. Key words: Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; magnetopause · cusp · and boundary layers; plasma convection)
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item

Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.