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Concepts of anemia among low income Nicaraguan women
Ailinger, Rita L.;Moore, Jean B.;Pawloski, Lisa;Cortés, Lidya Ruth Zamora;
Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-11692009000200002
Abstract: anemia is a common health problem among women throughout the world, however, there has been minimal research on women's concepts of anemia. the purpose of this study was to examine concepts of anemia in low income nicaraguan women. a qualitative design was used. audio-taped open-ended interviews in spanish with 14 women were used to obtain data. tapes were transcribed and content analyzed. the findings indicate that few of the women had biomedically accurate concepts of anemia, such as that it was due to lack of iron from poor eating. others held folk medical beliefs including home remedies, for example drinking the milk of a mare or beet juice and eating certain foods such as bean soup. most of the women did not know any symptoms of anemia and a few reported that it can develop into leukemia. these concepts of anemia are instructive for nurses working with patients from nicaragua and will be useful in developing nursing interventions to alleviate this public health problem.
Family Meal- and Related-Practices in Families of Preschoolers: Differences by Family Income  [PDF]
Emily E. Nowlin, John Worobey, Harriet S. Worobey
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.65054
Abstract: The present study asked parents of preschool-aged children from differing socioeconomic groups to complete a questionnaire regarding the frequency of specific behaviors that comprise the food environment. Participants were 94 mothers of preschool-age children who attended either Day Care (middle-income) or Head Start (low-income) programs. Many of the items tested showed similar characteristics for the food environment between the Head Start and Day Care centers, including the frequency that children were involved in meal preparation, the frequency that children were encouraged to finish the food on their plate, the frequency that a parent ate a meal at the table with the child, and the frequency of opportunities to try foods that the parents disliked themselves. Relative to the Head Start children, however, children attending Day Care were more restricted from eating desserts and salty snacks, more encouraged to try new foods, and more often consumed breakfast. Aside from characteristics of the food environment, children in Day Care spent more minutes in outdoor play and slept nearly an hour more each night, while those who attended Head Start spent more time watching television and playing video games. It is recommended that families make a better effort to create an optimal food environment for their children.
Early Clinical Features of Dengue Virus Infection in Nicaraguan Children: A Longitudinal Analysis  [PDF]
Hope H. Biswas,Oscar Ortega,Aubree Gordon,Katherine Standish,Angel Balmaseda,Guillermina Kuan,Eva Harris
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001562
Abstract: Background Tens of millions of dengue cases and approximately 500,000 life-threatening complications occur annually. New tools are needed to distinguish dengue from other febrile illnesses. In addition, the natural history of pediatric dengue early in illness in a community-based setting has not been well-defined. Methods Data from the multi-year, ongoing Pediatric Dengue Cohort Study of approximately 3,800 children aged 2–14 years in Managua, Nicaragua, were used to examine the frequency of clinical signs and symptoms by day of illness and to generate models for the association of signs and symptoms during the early phase of illness and over the entire course of illness with testing dengue-positive. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using generalized estimating equations (GEE) for repeated measures, adjusting for age and gender. Results One-fourth of children who tested dengue-positive did not meet the WHO case definition for suspected dengue. The frequency of signs and symptoms varied by day of illness, dengue status, and disease severity. Multivariable GEE models showed increased odds of testing dengue-positive associated with fever, headache, retro-orbital pain, myalgia, arthralgia, rash, petechiae, positive tourniquet test, vomiting, leukopenia, platelets ≤150,000 cells/mL, poor capillary refill, cold extremities and hypotension. Estimated ORs tended to be higher for signs and symptoms over the course of illness compared to the early phase of illness. Conclusions Day-by-day analysis of clinical signs and symptoms together with longitudinal statistical analysis showed significant associations with testing dengue-positive and important differences during the early phase of illness compared to the entire course of illness. These findings stress the importance of considering day of illness when developing prediction algorithms for real-time clinical management.
Developmental status at age 12 months according to birth weight and family income: a comparison of two Brazilian birth cohorts
Halpern, Ricardo;Barros, Aluísio J. D.;Matijasevich, Alicia;Santos, Iná S.;Victora, Cesar G.;Barros, Fernando C.;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2008001500010
Abstract: two cohorts of children born in the city of pelotas, southern brazil, in 1993 and 2004, were compared in terms of neuro-psychomotor development at the age of 12 months. children were evaluated using the denver ii screening test. analyses were performed using the poisson regression technique. the prevalence of suspected developmental delay fell from 37,1% in 1993 to 21.4% in 2004 and was inversely proportional to family income and birth weight. among children born weighing under 2,000 g, there was a fourfold reduction in the prevalence of developmental delay between 1993 and 2004. with regard to family income, the poorest group showed the greatest reduction between the two cohorts - a 30% reduction in risk. our results confirm the influence of income and birth weight on child development. the decrease in the prevalence of developmental delay in the last decade reflects, among other factors, improvements in neonatal care, increased coverage of developmental monitoring in the first year of life, and longer breastfeeding duration. despite this reduction, the prevalence of developmental delay is still high, reinforcing the need for early diagnosis and intervention.
Family Income Affects Children’s Altruistic Behavior in the Dictator Game  [PDF]
Yongxiang Chen, Liqi Zhu, Zhe Chen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080419
Abstract: This study aimed to examine how family income and social distance influence young rural Chinese children’s altruistic behavior in the dictator game (DG). A total of 469 four-year-old children from eight rural areas in China, including many children left behind by parents who had migrated to urban areas for work, played the DG. Stickers comprised the resource, while recipients in the game were assumed to be either their friends or strangers, with the social distance (i.e., strangers compared to friends) as a between-subjects variable. Children donated significantly more stickers to their friends than to strangers. Moreover, children from lower income families donated more stickers than children from higher income families. However, no gender and parental migrant status differences in children’s prosocial behaviors were evident in this sample. Findings of this study suggest that children’s altruistic behaviours to peers are influenced by family characteristics since preschool age. The probable influence of local socialization practices on development and the possible adaptive significance were discussed.
A Family of Generalized Beta Distributions for Income  [PDF]
J. H. Sepanski,Lingji Kong
Statistics , 2007,
Abstract: The mathematical properties of a family of generalized beta distribution, including beta-normal, skewed-t, log-F, beta-exponential, beta-Weibull distributions have recently been studied in several publications. This paper applies these distributions to the modeling of the size distribution of income and computes the maximum likelihood estimation estimates of parameters. Their performances are compared to the widely used generalized beta distributions of the first and second types in terms of measures of goodness of fit.
Early Childhood Caries and Body Mass Index in Young Children from Low Income Families  [PDF]
Luciane Rezende Costa,Anelise Daher,Maria Goretti Queiroz
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10030867
Abstract: The relationship between early childhood caries (ECC) and obesity is controversial. This cross-sectional survey investigated this association in children from low-income families in Goiania, Goias, Brazil and considered the role of several social determinants. A questionnaire examining the characteristics of the children and their families was administered to the primary caregiver during home visits. In addition, children (approximately 6 years of age) had their height, weight, and tooth condition assessed. The primary ECC outcome was categorized as one of the following: caries experience (decayed, missing, filled tooth: “dmft” index > 0), active ECC (decayed teeth > 0), or active severe ECC (decayed teeth ≥ 6). Descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The participants in the current study consisted of 269 caregiver-child dyads, 88.5% of whom were included in the Family Health Program. Caregivers were mostly mothers (67.7%), were 35.3 ± 10.0 years old on average and had 9.8 ± 3.1 years of formal education. The mean family income was 2.3 ± 1.5 times greater than the Brazilian minimum wage. On average, the children in the current study were 68.7 ± 3.8 months old. Of these, 51.7% were boys, 23.4% were overweight or obese, 45.0% had active ECC, and 17.1% had severe ECC. The average body mass index (BMI) of the children was 15.9 ± 2.2, and their dmft index was 2.5 ± 3.2. BMI was not associated with any of the three categories of dental caries ( p > 0.05). In contrast, higher family incomes were significantly associated with the lack of caries experience in children (OR 1.22, 95%CI 1.01–1.50), but the mother’s level of education was not significantly associated with ECC.
Nicaraguan Migrants in Costa Rica
Marquette, Catherine M.
Población y Salud en Mesoamérica , 2006,
Abstract: This document is the executive summary of a detailed document entitled, Nicaraguan Migrants and Poverty in Costa Rica, which was prepared for the World Bank in 2006. The more detailed background paper from which this summary is derived was commissioned as a background paper in preparation for an upcoming poverty mission by the World Bank to Costa Rica. This summary and the larger document from which it comes provides: (1) a general overview of the socioeconomic and health situation of Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica and (2) a review of the poverty characteristics of these migrants. The primary data sources for the larger paper were successive recent rounds of the Annual National Household Survey in Costa Rica and the 2000 Census. The more detailed report on which this summary is based also reviews issues of data quality, comparability, and methodological problems with respect to existing information on Nicaraguan migrants in Costa Rica. As a summary, the document below, does not include detailed citations, which are of course included in the larger report. Readers are thus, referred to the larger report for citations and more detailed information on the data included in this summary.
Family-School Connections, Early Learning, and Socioeconomic Inequality in the US  [cached]
Robert Crosnoe
REMIE : Multidisciplinary Journal of Educational Research , 2012,
Abstract: Policy interest in parental involvement in the U.S. has rapidly grown, necessitating a deeper understanding of how families and schools can partner to promote learning and reduce performance disparities in this country. Matching multidisciplinary theory with growth curve analyses of American children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal StudyKindergarten Cohort, this study found that familyschool engagement (in which school personnel and parents reached out to each other) and familyschool symmetry (in which parents and teachers constructed parallel learning environments) were associated with greater reading gains during the primary grades. Socioeconomically disadvantaged children appeared more at risk from one-sided engagement, and their more advantaged peers appeared to benefit more from symmetry.
Assessing the Quality of Early Years Learning Environments  [cached]
Glenda Walsh,John Gardner
Early Childhood Research & Practice , 2005,
Abstract: This article describes a means of evaluating early years classrooms from the perspective of the child's experience. Nine key themes, such as motivation and independence, are identified as representing significant aspects of a high-quality environment for learning. The manner in which these manifest themselves in relation to the three elements of the interactional triangle—the children, the adults, and their physical environment—is assessed by means of an observation schedule called the Quality Learning Instrument (QLI). The paper illustrates the design and validation of the instrument with data from a project involving observations of classroom practice in Northern Ireland primary schools and Danish kindergartens. It describes how judgments made using the instrument can be triangulated or “calibrated” against the judgments of experts not connected with the data collection. The article concludes with the argument that the instrument may be successfully used to provide a basis for external quality assessments or as a means for early years teachers to reflect on the environment for learning that they generate in their own classrooms.
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