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Congenital Cytomegalovirus Mortality in the United States, 1990–2006  [PDF]
Benjamin N. Bristow ,Kaitlin A. O'Keefe,Shira C. Shafir,Frank J. Sorvillo
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001140
Abstract: Background Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common intrauterine infection in the United States disproportionately affecting minority races and those of lower socio-economic class. Despite its importance there is little information on the burden of congenital CMV-related mortality in the US. To measure congenital CMV-associated mortality in the US and assess possible racial/ethnic disparities, we reviewed national death certificate data for a 17-year period. Methods Congenital CMV-associated deaths from 1990 through 2006 were identified from multiple-cause-coded death records and were combined with US census data to calculate mortality rates. Results A total of 777 congenital CMV-associated deaths occurred over the 17-year study period resulting in 56,355 years of age-adjusted years of potential life lost. 71.7% (557) of congenital CMV-associated deaths occurred in infants (age less than 1 year). Age-adjusted mortality rates stratified by race/ethnicity revealed mortality disparities. Age-adjusted rate ratios were calculated for each racial/ethnic group using whites as the reference. Native Americans and African Americans were 2.34 (95% CI, 2.11–2.59) and 1.89 (95% CI, 1.70–2.11) times respectively, more likely to die from congenital CMV than whites. Asians and Hispanics were 0.54 (95% CI, 0.44–0.66) and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.83–1.10) times respectively, less likely to die from congenital CMV than whites. Conclusions/Significance Congenital CMV infection causes appreciable mortality in the US exacting a particular burden among African Americans and Native Americans. Enhanced surveillance and increased screening are necessary to better understand the epidemiology of congenital CMV infection in addition to acceleration of vaccine development efforts.
Socioeconomic Disparities in Maternity Care among Indian Adolescents, 1990–2006  [PDF]
Chandan Kumar, Rajesh Kumar Rai, Prashant Kumar Singh, Lucky Singh
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069094
Abstract: Background India, with a population of more than 1.21 billion, has the highest maternal mortality in the world (estimated to be 56000 in 2010); and adolescent (aged 15–19) mortality shares 9% of total maternal deaths. Addressing the maternity care needs of adolescents may have considerable ramifications for achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG)–5. This paper assesses the socioeconomic differentials in accessing full antenatal care and professional attendance at delivery by adolescent mothers (aged 15–19) in India during 1990–2006. Methods and Findings Data from three rounds of the National Family Health Survey of India conducted during 1992–93, 1998–99, and 2005–06 were analyzed. The Cochran-Armitage and Chi-squared test for linear and non-linear time trends were applied, respectively, to understand the trend in the proportion of adolescent mothers utilizing select maternity care services during 1990–2006. Using pooled multivariate logistic regression models, the probability of select maternal healthcare utilization among women by key socioeconomic characteristics was appraised. After adjusting for potential socio-demographic and economic characteristics, the likelihood of adolescents accessing full antenatal care increased by only 4% from 1990 to 2006. However, the probability of adolescent women availing themselves of professional attendance at delivery increased by 79% during the same period. The study also highlights the desolate disparities in maternity care services among adolescents across the most and the least favoured groups. Conclusion Maternal care interventions in India need focused programs for rural, uneducated, poor adolescent women so that they can avail themselves of measures to delay child bearing, and for better antenatal consultation and delivery care in case of pregnancy. This study strongly advocates the promotion of a comprehensive ‘adolescent scheme’ along the lines of ‘Continuum of Maternal, Newborn and Child health Care’ to address the unmet need of reproductive and maternal healthcare services among adolescent women in India.
Ground Level Ozone Precursors: Emission Changes in Lithuania 1990–2006  [cached]
Renata DAGILIūT?,Inga U?DANAVI?IūT?
Environmental Research, Engineering and Management , 2011,
Abstract: Lithuanian national strategy for sustainable development is aiming to reduce air pollution per GDP unit significantly and to ensure compliance with international commitments in the air pollution sphere. Ground-level ozone (O3) is one of the most important secondary air pollutants, which is assigned to be harmful to environmental and human health and is one of the main problems of air pollution in cities. This paper aims to overview the changes in the emissions of ground level ozone precursors and their ozone forming potential as well as the achieved progress in foreseen goals. During the analysis period (1990 - 2006) emissions of ground-level ozone precursors declined twofold in Lithuania. After transitional decline intensity of ground level ozone precursors also significantly decreased due to advanced technologies, more efficient energy consumption and changes in fuel mix. However, intensity of ground-level ozone precursors in Lithuania was higher compared to the old EU member states on average, therefore much more attention should be given to special air pollution mitigation measures. Remiantis Lietuvos nacionaline darnaus vystymosi strategija, reikalinga suma inti oro tar , tenkan i BVP vienetui, ir u tikrinti tarptautini sipareigojim gyvendinim . Prie emio ozonas (O3) yra vienas i svarbiausi antrini oro ter al , daran i neigiam poveik aplinkai ir mogaus sveikatai. Pastaruoju metu tai yra viena i pagrindini miest oro tar os problem . Straipsnyje siekiama aptarti prie emio ozono pirmtak i lak poky ius Lietuvoje. Tiriamuoju laikotarpiu (1990-2006 m.) Lietuvoje prie emio ozono pirmtak emisijos suma jo beveik perpus. Prie emio ozono pirmtak intensyvumas taip pat suma jo perpus. Nepaisant to, is rodiklis Lietuvoje vis dar yra didesnis nei Europos S jungos senbuv se. Tod l ir toliau reik t daugiau d mesio skirti būtent oro tar os ma inimo priemoni diegimui.
LA POLíTICA DEL PASADO EN CHILE 1990- 2006: ?UN MODELO CHILENO?
Ruderer,Stephan;
Universum (Talca) , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-23762010000200010
Abstract: this article analyzes the politics of the past in chile from 1990 to the death of pinochet in december 2006. grounded in theoretical concepts of the politics of the past from the german and european academic debates, it discusses five phases in the development of the chilean politics of the past. with special attention to the public discourse, the article tries to get to an impartial result, which recognizes the big achievements of chile in dealing with the past, but does not follow the idea of the chilean politics of the past as "a model" to follow.
LA POLíTICA DEL PASADO EN CHILE 1990- 2006: UN MODELO CHILENO?
Stephan Ruderer
Universum : Revista de Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales , 2010,
Abstract: Este artículo analiza la política del pasado en Chile desde el a o 1990 hasta la muerte de Pinochet en diciembre de 2006. Basado en conceptos teóricos del debate alemán y europeo, acerca del enfrentamiento del pasado traumático, se abordan cinco etapas en el desarrollo de la política del pasado en Chile. Con especial énfasis en el discurso público, se trata de llegar a un balance imparcial que reconozca los grandes logros de la política chilena en el enfrentamiento del pasado sin adscribirle, por eso, al desarrollo chileno el carácter de un "modelo" a seguir. This article analyzes the politics of the past in Chile from 1990 to the death of Pinochet in December 2006. Grounded in theoretical concepts of the politics of the past from the German and European academic debates, it discusses five phases in the development of the Chilean politics of the past. With special attention to the public discourse, the article tries to get to an impartial result, which recognizes the big achievements of Chile in dealing with the past, but does not follow the idea of the Chilean politics of the past as "a model" to follow.
大石桥市1990~2006年乙型肝炎流行病学分析  [PDF]
郝庆智,王莉
中国公共卫生 , 2008, DOI: 10.11847/zgggws2008-24-11-29
Abstract: ?为了解辽宁省大石桥市病毒性乙型肝炎流行特征,以指导今后乙肝防治工作,对大石桥市1990~2006年乙型肝炎发病情况进行分析。现将结果报告如下。材料与方法资料来源于本市历年的疫情年报表、月报表、传染病登记资料,免疫规划管理资料,乙肝病例个案调查资料。采用描述流行病学方法进行分析。
Ground Level Ozone Precursors: Emission Changes in Lithuania 1990–2006 Prie emio ozono pirmtak i lak poky i analiz Lietuvoje 1990–2006 metais  [cached]
Renata DAGILIūT?,Inga U?DANAVI?IūT?
Environmental Research, Engineering and Management , 2011, DOI: 10.5755/j01.erem.54.4.95
Abstract: Lithuanian national strategy for sustainable development is aiming to reduce air pollution per GDP unit significantly and to ensure compliance with international commitments in the air pollution sphere. Ground-level ozone (O3) is one of the most important secondary air pollutants, which is assigned to be harmful to environmental and human health and is one of the main problems of air pollution in cities. This paper aims to overview the changes in the emissions of ground level ozone precursors and their ozone forming potential as well as the achieved progress in foreseen goals. During the analysis period (1990 - 2006) emissions of ground-level ozone precursors declined twofold in Lithuania. After transitional decline intensity of ground level ozone precursors also significantly decreased due to advanced technologies, more efficient energy consumption and changes in fuel mix. However, intensity of ground-level ozone precursors in Lithuania was higher compared to the old EU member states on average, therefore much more attention should be given to special air pollution mitigation measures. Remiantis Lietuvos nacionaline darnaus vystymosi strategija, reikalinga suma inti oro tar , tenkan i BVP vienetui, ir u tikrinti tarptautini sipareigojim gyvendinim . Prie emio ozonas (O3) yra vienas i svarbiausi antrini oro ter al , daran i neigiam poveik aplinkai ir mogaus sveikatai. Pastaruoju metu tai yra viena i pagrindini miest oro tar os problem . Straipsnyje siekiama aptarti prie emio ozono pirmtak i lak poky ius Lietuvoje. Tiriamuoju laikotarpiu (1990-2006 m.) Lietuvoje prie emio ozono pirmtak emisijos suma jo beveik perpus. Prie emio ozono pirmtak intensyvumas taip pat suma jo perpus. Nepaisant to, is rodiklis Lietuvoje vis dar yra didesnis nei Europos S jungos senbuv se. Tod l ir toliau reik t daugiau d mesio skirti būtent oro tar os ma inimo priemoni diegimui.
中国化石能源使用可持续性评估——基于1990~2006年数据  [PDF]
赵震宇,宋冬林
地理科学 , 2010,
Abstract: 进入1990年代,中国经济走上了前所未有的快速增长轨道,而化石能源作为推动经济增长的最主要动力源泉却同时也是造成环境恶化的双刃剑。采用加拿大生态经济学家Ree和Wackernagel共同发展的生态足迹模型,对1990~2006中国化石能源使用的生态足迹和生态承载力进行了计算,得到了该时期中国化石能源使用已处于生态赤字状态的评估结果。而化石能源使用过程中单位能源的CO2排量没有得到显著改善和森林覆盖率没有明显的增长是造成该时期中国化石能源使用处于生态赤字状态的主要原因。
A democratised market: Development of South Africa's daily newspapers 1990 - 2006  [cached]
Tobias Bauer
Global Media Journal : African Edition , 2011, DOI: 10.5789/3-1-16
Abstract: The article looks at the development of the South African daily newspaper market between 1990 and 2006. The leading interest is to find out whether the market was able to develop from its apartheid-trenched roots, and in which areas the market is still influenced by its specific past. The market determinants, namely participants, growth, entrance barriers, distribution, readership, economic and editorial concentration, will be scrutinised over the 16 years. The relevant political, economical and legal background and the transformations taking place in these areas will be articulated. The data will reveal that by growing more and more, especially since the turn of the century, the market enables itself to break free from its old structure. This is mainly due to the successful introduction of new papers which break with the traditional orientation of South African papers towards a wealthy readership and thus win new readers for the product newspaper in general.
Surface ozone at the Caucasian site Kislovodsk High Mountain Station and the Swiss Alpine site Jungfraujoch: data analysis and trends (1990–2006)  [PDF]
O. A. Tarasova,I. A. Senik,M. G. Sosonkin,J. Cui
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: Long-term ozone measurements of two background mountain sites, namely the Kislovodsk High Mountain Station in Caucasus, Russia (KHMS, 43.70° N, 42.70° E, 2070 m a.s.l.) and the Jungfraujoch in Switzerland (JFJ, 46.55° N, 7.98° E, 3580 m a.s.l.) are compared. Despite of more than 1.5 km altitude difference ozone concentrations are comparable at JFJ an KHMS in the beginning of measurements (1990–1993) while the annually averaged levels at JFJ are around 15 ppb higher than the ones at KHMS for the most recent years (1997–2006). Averaged for different periods ozone concentrations at KHMS are comparable with the respective values observed at the elevated sites in the midlatitudes, situated in the altitude range 1600–2400 m a.s.l. Distribution function of the hourly concentrations has two peaks at JFJ and it is close to Gaussian distribution in the case of KHMS. Seasonality at both sites is characterized by double spring-summer maximum. Spring maximum at both stations is more pronounced for the air masses with the longest contact with upper free troposphere and stratosphere. Average concentrations increased at JFJ but decreased at KHMS for the period 1990–2006. Trends are more pronounced for the 1990s (+0.73±0.20 ppb/year at JFJ and 0.91±0.17 ppb/year at KHMS for the period 1991–2001) in comparison with later years (+0.04±0.21 ppb/year at JFJ and 0.37±0.14 ppb/year at KHMS for the period 1997–2006). Trends show a distinct seasonality, which is different for the different periods. To investigate possible reasons for this remarkable trends difference 3-D trajectories using LAGRANTO trajectory model are used. Effects of the horizontal and vertical transport on ozone trends are considered. In general we could not find any systematic changes in the transport patterns which could explain the significant changes of the trends between 1991–2001 and 1997–2006. It is likely that the position of the main emission source areas relative to the stations is among the main reason for the opposite surface ozone trends. During the 1990s the JFJ trend reflects increase of the ozone in the upper free troposphere/lower stratosphere. In contrary KHSM is much more influenced by dramatic emission decrease in the earlier 1990s in former USSR and emissions regulations in Western Europe. For later years ozone trends at KHMS are controlled by slight emission increase in the region, while trends at JFJ correspond to the scenario of European emissions control.
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