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Spatial confidentiality and GIS: re-engineering mortality locations from published maps about Hurricane Katrina
Andrew J Curtis, Jacqueline W Mills, Michael Leitner
International Journal of Health Geographics , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1476-072x-5-44
Abstract: We show that the residence of an individual, visualized as a generalized point covering approximately one and half city blocks on a map, can be re-engineered back to identify the actual house location, or at least a close neighbour, even if the map contains little spatial reference information. The degree of re-engineering success is also shown to depend on the urban characteristic of the neighborhood.The results in this paper suggest a need to re-evaluate current guidelines for the display of point (address level) data. Examples of other point maps displaying health data extracted from the academic literature are presented where a similar re-engineering approach might cause concern with respect to violating confidentiality. More research is also needed into the role urban structure plays in the accuracy of re-engineering. We suggest that health and spatial scientists should be proactive and suggest a series of point level spatial confidentiality guidelines before governmental decisions are made which may be reactionary toward the threat of revealing confidential information, thereby imposing draconian limits on research using a GIS.Geospatial technologies and even Internet applications such as Google Earth are now frequently used in both social and biological sciences in the search for spatial patterns and processes (for recent commentaries and examples see [1-3]). Geospatial display on the internet, such as Google Earth, not only provides a means to publicize the importance of "geography", but also acts as a dissemination tool for spatial results. This democratisation of spatial insight can have a dramatic impact on communities without the technical ability, hardware or software to use a Geographic Information System (GIS). At a recent symposium jointly hosted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the Association of American Geographers [4], in the concluding discussion session the universal appreciation of GIS was obvious. However, there was also a general
Mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina
Kessler,Ronald C.; Galea,Sandro; Jones,Russell T.; Parker,Holly A.; ,;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862006001200008
Abstract: objective: to estimate the impact of hurricane katrina on mental illness and suicidality by comparing results of a post-katrina survey with those of an earlier survey. methods: the national comorbidity survey-replication, conducted between february 2001 and february 2003, interviewed 826 adults in the census divisions later affected by hurricane katrina. the post-katrina survey interviewed a new sample of 1043 adults who lived in the same area before the hurricane. identical questions were asked about mental illness and suicidality. the post-katrina survey also assessed several dimensions of personal growth that resulted from the trauma (for example, increased closeness to a loved one, increased religiosity). outcome measures used were the k6 screening scale of serious mental illness and mild-moderate mental illness and questions about suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. findings: respondents to the post-katrina survey had a significantly higher estimated prevalence of serious mental illness than respondents to the earlier survey (11.3% after katrina versus 6.1% before; c21= 10.9; p < 0.001) and mild-moderate mental illness (19.9% after katrina versus 9.7% before; c21 = 22.5; p < 0.001). among respondents estimated to have mental illness, though, the prevalence of suicidal ideation and plans was significantly lower in the post-katrina survey (suicidal ideation 0.7% after katrina versus 8.4% before; c21 = 13.1; p < 0.001; plans for suicide 0.4% after katrina versus 3.6% before; c21 = 6.0; p = 0.014). this lower conditional prevalence of suicidality was strongly related to two dimensions of personal growth after the trauma (faith in one's own ability to rebuild one's life, and realization of inner strength), without which between-survey differences in suicidality were insignificant. conclusion: despite the estimated prevalence of mental illness doubling after hurricane katrina, the prevalence of suicidality was unexpectedly low. the role of post-traumatic personal
Earth oscillations induced by Hurricane Katrina  [PDF]
Randall D. Peters
Physics , 2006,
Abstract: Seismograph records show that Katrina was responsible for many motions of the Earth in addition to the well known microseismic `noise' that is known to accompany oceanic disturbances.
Dana Rolison HARWELL,Mae Ellis DAN?EL
e-International Journal of Educational Research , 2010,
Abstract: Hurricane Katrina highlighted teacher needs when serving students who have experienced a critical incident. The purpose of this single case study was to describe the perceptions of preschool teachers’ self-efficacy in terms of meeting the needs of students following a critical incident. These teachers had received into their classroom one or more students displaced by a critical incident, Hurricane Katrina. Specifically, using a survey with independent samples t test analysis, this study examined differences, by grade level, years of experience, and education level, in teacher perception of their addressing needs of displaced students. For the survey, a random sample was drawn from a single district population of K-5 teachers who had in class at least one student displaced by Hurricane Katrina. Results of the study indicated teachers with low self-efficacy were found to blame outside factors when things did not go as well as desired and no differences based on grade level taught or teacher educational level. However, teachers with fewer than five years of experience showed significantly less teacher self-efficacy. The findings contain implications for social change in that they demonstrated need for a plan to assist teachers in meeting the needs of critical incident students and a need to provide teachers with appropriate professional development.
Postpartum mental health after Hurricane Katrina: A cohort study
Emily W Harville, Xu Xiong, Gabriella Pridjian, Karen Elkind-Hirsch, Pierre Buekens
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2393-9-21
Abstract: Interviews were conducted in 2006–2007 with women who had been pregnant during or shortly after Hurricane Katrina. 292 New Orleans and Baton Rouge women were interviewed at delivery and 2 months postpartum. Depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Depression Scale and PTSD using the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist. Women were asked about their experience of the hurricane with questions addressing threat, illness, loss, and damage. Chi-square tests and log-binomial/Poisson models were used to calculate associations and relative risks (RR).Black women and women with less education were more likely to have had a serious experience of the hurricane. 18% of the sample met the criteria for depression and 13% for PTSD at two months postpartum. Feeling that one's life was in danger was associated with depression and PTSD, as were injury to a family member and severe impact on property. Overall, two or more severe experiences of the storm was associated with an increased risk for both depression (relative risk (RR) 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–2.89) and PTSD (RR 3.68, 95% CI 1.80–7.52).Postpartum women who experience natural disaster severely are at increased risk for mental health problems, but overall rates of depression and PTSD do not seem to be higher than in studies of the general population.Disaster increases community psychopathology [1], with depression and PTSD being especially common [1,2]. In most cases, symptoms recede with time, and many victims prove resilient [3]. However, a certain proportion of the population will develop long-lasting problems [4]. Some aspects of the disaster, such as number of lives lost and whether it was natural or human-caused, may enhance psychopathology [1]. The person's own experience of the hurricane also influences their later mental health. Studies have shown that fearing one's life was at risk [4-7], having a relative die [8,9], and being injured [4] all predict psychopathology.Personal characteristics also affect
Identifying the Economic Effects of Salt Water Intrusion after Hurricane Katrina  [cached]
Vereda Johnson Williams
Journal of Sustainable Development , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/jsd.v3n1p29
Abstract: Hurricane Katrina made landfall August 29, 2005 becoming the costliest and one of the deadliest hurricanes in U.S. history. Katrina caused widespread loss of life, with over 700 bodies recovered in New Orleans by October 23, 2005. Before Hurricane Katrina, the region supported approximately one million non-farm jobs, with 600,000 of them in New Orleans. The ecological consequences were considerable including storm surge floods into coastal areas. These ecological impacts are still being felt throughout the region through human-driven coastal erosion and saltwater intrusion—issues that have long been damaging the region's natural storm buffers—were made worse by the hurricane. Specifically this research will: (1) provide current updates of the economic and ecological impacts from Katrina (2) review the current literature relating to salt water intrusion and (3) identify the economic impact of salt water erosion from hurricane Katrina.
Hurricane Katrina – one hospital's experience
Robert G Aucoin
Critical Care , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/cc3941
Abstract: Hurricane Katrina came ashore in Louisiana during the early morning hours of 29 August 2005. The coastline of Louisiana, the city of New Orleans, and the heart of the state changed that same day. This is a brief account of one hospital's role before, during, and after the storm.Our Lady of the Lake Regional Medical Center (OLOL) is the dominant health care institution in the Greater Baton Rouge area. It is also the largest private medical center in Louisiana, with 763 licensed beds. In a given year, OLOL treats approximately 25,000 patients in the hospital and serves about 350,000 persons through outpatient locations with the assistance of almost 900 physicians and 3000 staff members. The pediatric emergency department sees approximately 25,000 children every year. The adult side treats more than 75,000.OLOL has a disaster plan in place as part of the general care program. This disaster plan is geared toward natural and man-made disasters that occur in the immediate area. Disaster drills are carried out on a regular basis. There is a disaster call tree in place throughout the organization, including a command and control structure to deal with immediate needs. These plans have been in place for years and are updated on a regular basis.On Sunday, 28 August, the first Administrative Report (Katrina Update I) was issued by Mr Kirk Wilson, President and Chief Operating Officer of OLOL, at 12:00 hours. The following is an excerpt."Katrina is a category V storm. Hurricane force winds may well extend to Baton Rouge area by as early as 7 a.m. Monday. New Orleans and many of the parishes south and east of Baton Rouge are evacuating. We expect to receive hospital to hospital transfers out of the New Orleans area for patients who cannot be sent further north. We may also receive unofficial direct patient transfers in the ER [emergency room]. Some hospitals in New Orleans may attempt to stay open. Those that do send patients may send staff with them if possible. This is all bei
A Comparison of HWRF, ARW and NMM Models in Hurricane Katrina (2005) Simulation  [PDF]
Venkata B. Dodla,Srinivas Desamsetti,Anjaneyulu Yerramilli
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8062447
Abstract: The life cycle of Hurricane Katrina (2005) was simulated using three different modeling systems of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. These are, HWRF (Hurricane WRF) designed specifically for hurricane studies and WRF model with two different dynamic cores as the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) model and the Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model (NMM). The WRF model was developed and sourced from National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), incorporating the advances in atmospheric simulation system suitable for a broad range of applications. The HWRF modeling system was developed at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) based on the NMM dynamic core and the physical parameterization schemes specially designed for tropics. A case study of Hurricane Katrina was chosen as it is one of the intense hurricanes that caused severe destruction along the Gulf Coast from central Florida to Texas. ARW, NMM and HWRF models were designed to have two-way interactive nested domains with 27 and 9 km resolutions. The three different models used in this study were integrated for three days starting from 0000 UTC of 27 August 2005 to capture the landfall of hurricane Katrina on 29 August. The initial and time varying lateral boundary conditions were taken from NCEP global FNL (final analysis) data available at 1 degree resolution for ARW and NMM models and from NCEP GFS data at 0.5 degree resolution for HWRF model. The results show that the models simulated the intensification of Hurricane Katrina and the landfall on 29 August 2005 agreeing with the observations. Results from these experiments highlight the superior performance of HWRF model over ARW and NMM models in predicting the track and intensification of Hurricane Katrina.
The road home: Returning to pre-Katrina homes during episodes of psychosis  [PDF]
Gayle Pletsch, Christopher Rodgman, Elizabeth Leimbach, Kelly Erwin, Janet Johnson
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.31001

Hurricane Katrina was a devastating event to New Orleans. There was a mandatory evacuation of the city during which victims in affected areas were not allowed to return for months. Many residents were unable to return to their previous residence due to the destruction of their home or change in ownership. In its aftermath, a phenomenon of displaced residents becoming psychotic and returning to their pre-Katrina homes that they no longer owned became apartment. While the clinical ramifications of these behaviors remain unclear, in the wake of Hurricane Sandy monitoring of psychotic patients for similar behaviors may be warranted. We present two such cases of this phenomenon, colloquially called “Post-Katrina Syndrome” by psychiatrists in the New Orleans area.

Predictors of Business Return in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina  [PDF]
Nina S. N. Lam, Helbert Arenas, Kelley Pace, James LeSage, Richard Campanella
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047935
Abstract: We analyzed the business reopening process in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, which hit the region on August 29, 2005, to better understand what the major predictors were and how their impacts changed through time. A telephone survey of businesses in New Orleans was conducted in October 2007, 26 months after Hurricane Katrina. The data were analyzed using a modified spatial probit regression model to evaluate the importance of each predictor variable through time. The results suggest that the two most important reopening predictors throughout all time periods were the flood depth at the business location and business size as represented by its wages in a logarithmic form. Flood depth was a significant negative predictor and had the largest marginal effects on the reopening probabilities. Smaller businesses had lower reopening probabilities than larger ones. However, the nonlinear response of business size to the reopening probability suggests that recovery aid would be most effective for smaller businesses than for larger ones. The spatial spillovers effect was a significant positive predictor but only for the first nine months. The findings show clearly that flood protection is the overarching issue for New Orleans. A flood protection plan that reduces the vulnerability and length of flooding would be the first and foremost step to mitigate the negative effects from climate-related hazards and enable speedy recovery. The findings cast doubt on the current coastal protection efforts and add to the current debate of whether coastal Louisiana will be sustainable or too costly to protect from further land loss and flooding given the threat of sea-level rise. Finally, a plan to help small businesses to return would also be an effective strategy for recovery, and the temporal window of opportunity that generates the greatest impacts would be the first 6~9 months after the disaster.
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