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Orality and Medicine: The Efficacy of the Word in the Practice of Therapeutic Cures in Traditional African Medicine
Francis Mowang Ganyi,Atunka Patrick Ogar
Studies in Sociology of Science , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/2686
Abstract: The practice of medicine or herbal cures in traditional societies particularly in Africa has often been viewed with mixed feelings and sometimes with outright disdain yet it has its own history of achievements particularly in the areas of bone setting and therapeutic cures or exorcism. This notwithstanding, today in Nigeria however, one notices that modern technological innovations and education have greatly impacted on traditional medical practice and medicine men are encouraged to improve upon their practices, particularly their environments. The efficacy of traditional herbal cures in most of our societies encouraged this writer to examine some of the methods employed by the medicine men. The result of this was the interesting discovery that traditional medicine men place high priority on the power of the word as evidenced in their incantations, invocations and chants. The “word” in the healing process is seen as an appeal to a supernatural being who is summoned to the aid of the patient. That supernatural force could be the supreme God or the traditional deities believed to be in control of human existence. In the end, the writer discovered that the traditional medicine men possessed the best stock of poetical expressions and dramatic dialogue which they employ to establish a relationship or rapport between man and nature or the supernatural in the process of healing. Key words: Traditional African Medicine; Nigeria; Traditional medical practice; Herbal cures
Therapeutic efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine, Shen-Mai San, in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy: study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Lo Lun-Chien,Chen Chia-Yun,Chen Shou-Tung,Chen Hung-Chang
Trials , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-13-232
Abstract: Background Cancer is one of the major health issues worldwide. An increasing number of cancer patients are offered treatment with surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the most common complementary therapies offered to cancer patients in Taiwan. We designed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of TCM in patients with cancer. Methods/design In this study, inclusion criteria are postoperative patients with histologically confirmed cancer within 3 years who are undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy, more than 18 years old, have given signed informed consent, have the ability to read Chinese, and the ability for oral intake. Exclusion criteria include being pregnant, breast feeding, having completed chemotherapy or radiotherapy, brain metastasis with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of two to four, delusion or hallucinations, acute infection, and have received medications under other clinical trials. The patients were separated into an intervention group (Shen-Mai-San, SMS) and a placebo group for four weeks using a randomized, double-blind procedure. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life questionnaire (QOL-C30) was used to evaluate the quality of life. General data, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), TCM diagnosis data and heart rate variability (HRV) were also recorded. These data were collected at baseline, two weeks and four weeks after receiving medication. The patients were prescribed granules which contained therapeutic medicines or placebo. Paired-T test was used for statistical analysis. Discussion Shen-Mai-San is composed of processed Ginseng radis, Liriope spicata, and Schizandrae fructus. It was found to be effective for treating cancer-related fatigue and had anti-fatigue activity. In TCM theory, SMS has a synergistic effect for qi and yin deficiency and has the ability to prevent fatigue. The symptoms of qi and yin deficiency are similar to chemotherapy- or radiotherapy-induced side effects. In order to evaluate the efficacy of SMS on cancer treatment, we designed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Trial registration This study is registered to Clinical Trails.gov NCT01580358
On the Tumor Therapeutic Effect Assessment in Traditional Chinese Medicine

Lin Hongsheng,Zhang Ying,
,张 英

世界科学技术-中医药现代化 , 2009,
Abstract: To widely apply the effective treatment of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in cancer therapy, objective and scientific research methods will be needed to assess the therapeutic effect of TCM. Based on the systematic evaluation of the routine standards of therapeutic effect assessment, and following the characteristic of clinical practice of TCM, an integrated indexing system was established in this study for the assessment of tumor TCM treatment, including the therapeutic effect assessment in modern medicine, syndrome therapeutic effect assessment in TCM, life quality evaluation. This assessment system will not only reflect the genuine efficacy of the preventive and therapeutic effect of TCM, but also help to introduce the TCM efficacy of tumor treatment to the outside world.
On the necessity of developing quality of life instruments in traditional Chinese medicine
Zheng-kun Hou,Feng-bin Liu
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao , 2011,
Abstract: : The development of health-related quality of life (HRQL) instrument in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is increasing rapidly in China, but few studies focus on their necessity. This study explores the necessity of the development of TCM instruments from both theoretical and practice perspectives, and aims to explain whether the adoption of the cross-medical style is valid. Through theoretical analysis, both TCM and Western medicine instruments show the same objectives, whereas TCM instruments are more suitable for the Chinese social behavior, customs and expectations. In practical analysis, 47 TCM instruments were identified, among which 17 had 18 corresponding Western medical instruments. In the domains layer, except for physiological, psychological and social factors, TCM instruments focus more on the harmony between body and spirit, humanity and nature or human and society and the constitution, etc. In the facts layer, TCM instruments focus on the emotions, initiative social intercourse, TCM symptoms, diet, sleep, taste, feces and urine, etc. In addition, significant differences existed in the methods of information selection. There is no need to modify cross-medical style research except when TCM characteristic terms exist, but attention must be paid to the influence of culture in different areas. Therefore, the TCM instruments can resolve the limitations of the application of Western medical instruments to the Chinese setting, while also having remarkable abilities of information coverage and detection. Both forms of instruments have the capacity and requirement to inter-communicate with each other in order to serve the whole Chinese cultural system. Generally speaking, there is no need to modify the instruments in cross-medical style research. But this point requires further demonstration in the rigorous designed clinical trials.
Evaluation of Clinical Efficacy on Acute Pancreatitis Treated with Combination of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine: A Meta-Analysis  [PDF]
Jixiang Ao, Hui Long
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2018.94022
Abstract: Objective: Meta-analysis was conducted to assess whether combination of traditional Chinese and western medicine could enhance clinical outcomes compared to single western medicine in the treatment of acute pancreatitis (AP). Methods: This systematic review will include prospective and retrospective comparative studies in all languages and evaluate the clinical efficacy of integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine versus single western medicine in treatment AP. Animal studies will not be considered. Published articles were acquired from Jan. 2001 to Dec. 2017 by a comprehensive search in Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure database (CNKI), Chinese WANFANG database. Exclusion criteria were non-comparative studies, hybrid treatment. The main points include clinical efficacy; carefully evaluating and reviewing the literature and filtering the literature according to inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria. Statistical analyses were performed using software Review Manager (Version 5.0). Publication biases of main results were examined by Stata 12.0. Results: 1262 cases of 1342 cases were effective and the effective rate reaches 94.04% in the group of integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine, while 949 cases of 1223 cases were effective and its effective rate can be up to 77.60% in the group of single western medicine (P > 0.05%, I2 = 0%, Odds Ratio (OR) = 4.98, 95% CI = 3. 79 - 6.54, P < 0.01.). Conclusion: These results suggest that the therapeutic effects of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine on AP are better in treatment of AP than that of western medicine alone.
Principal factor analysis of symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and their correlations with efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine
Yi-ting HE,Ai-ping LU
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao , 2008,
Abstract: Objective: To explore the correlations between symptom-based principal factors of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the effect of traditional Chinese medicine or Western medicine on RA after factor analysis of RA symptoms.Methods: Four hundred and thirteen RA patients from 9 clinical centers were included in the clinical trial. They were randomly divided into Western medicine (WM) treated group with 204 cases and traditional Chinese medicine (CM) treated group with 209 cases. A complete physical examination and 18 common clinical manifestations were recorded before the randomization and after the treatment. The WM therapy included voltaren extended action tablet, methotrexate and sulfasalazine. The CM therapy included glucosidorum Tripterygll totorum tablet and Yishen Juanbi Tablet. The American College of Rheumatology 20 (ACR20) was used for efficacy evaluation. All data were analyzed on SAS 8.2 statistical package. Eighteen symptoms in the RA patients were analyzed by factor analysis and the relationships between the factors and effects were analyzed with Chi-Square test.Results: Four principal factors were obtained from the analysis results of the 18 symptoms. The factors could represent the symptoms related to joints, cold-syndrome, deficiency syndrome and heat-syndrome in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), respectively. The effect of WM therapy was better than CM therapy. After 12 weeks of treatment, the effect of CM on patients without deficiency-syndrome was better than the patients with deficiency-syndrome. After 24 weeks of treatment, WM therapy showed better effect on patients with cold syndrome than patients without cold syndrome.Conclusion: The results based on the factor analysis of RA symptoms are similar to the results of syndrome differentiation of TCM, and the factor-related different categories of symptoms are associated with the curative effect, thus further research on the symptoms is necessary.
Analysis of literature on therapeutic methods and medicines of traditional Chinese medicine for primary liver cancer  [cached]
LIU Qing,LING Chang-Quan
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao , 2005,
Abstract: Objective: To find out the rules of therapeutic methods, formulas and medicines of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for primary liver cancer (PLC). Methods: The frequencies of treatments and medicines of TCM in 978 pieces of documents concerning PLC were analyzed. Results: Among the 165 therapeutic methods, 277 formulas and 459 kinds of herbs, the methods for activating blood circulation, the formulas for regulating qi-flowing and the herbs for invigorating qi are the most commonly used. Conclusion: Therapeutic methods such as invigorating qi, regulating qi-flowing and activating blood circulation are the main choices for PLC, and the methods such as clearing heat, removing dampness and nourishing yin are used as supplements.
Construction of a therapeutic effect evaluation system for patients with primary liver cancer based on syndrome differentiation in traditional Chinese medicine  [cached]
Dong-tao LI,Chang-quan LING
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao , 2007,
Abstract: Objective: To construct a system of therapeutic effect evaluation for patients with primary liver cancer according to the theory of syndrome differentiation in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and to examine its reliability. Methods: Analytic hierarchy process and 100 mm surveyor's rod method were applied to obtain bottom layer and top level syndromes, which were used to construct the method of therapeutic effect evaluation, and its reliability was verified in clinical practice by comparing with some evaluation criteria in Western medicine, such as cancer severity scale; Karnofsky performance scale; Child-Pugh classification, cancer staging classification, and quality of life scale, etc. Results: A system of therapeutic effect evaluation was constructed, and it could reflect the progress of tumor, changes of hepatic function and constitution. The evaluation scores acquired from the system were highly associated with the quality of life of the patients. Conclusion: The system of therapeutic effect evaluation can reflect the severity of disease and the characteristics of TCM treatment.
Evaluation of therapeutic effects of traditional Chinese medicine combined with western medicine on breast cancer after resection: Analysis of 71 cases  [cached]
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao , 2003,
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) combined with western medicine on breast cancer after surgical resection. Methods: Seventy-one patients with breast cancer received chemotherapy, radiotherapy, endocrine therapy and TCM following resection. Results: None of the patients died during the follow-up period.Fifty-seven patients were treated with TCM shortly after undergoing resection.Two recurrences (3.5%) and 6 metastases (10.5%) were observed in 8 patients, whose median disease free survival was 5.9 years.Fourteen patients didn't receive TCM until recurrence or metastasis emerged, with a median disease free survival of 3.5 years.There was significant difference between the two groups (P=0.033). Conclusion: TCM combined with western medicine is efficient in preventing and delaying recurrence and metastasis.
A qualitative study of exploring the therapeutic components of traditional Chinese medicine as a complex intervention through grounded theory
He Yu
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: To explore and identify the therapeutic components of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as a complex intervention through grounded theory, and the correlation and interaction within this model and the possible effects that they may have on the therapeutic effects of TCM.Methods: Data were collected through 41 half-day participant observations and 7 in-depth interviews, and the study design and data analysis were based on the grounded theory. Results: The components of TCM practice that emerged were: prescribed Chinese medicinal herbs, doctor’s medical advice, psychological intervention, doctor-patient relationship, and patient adherence. There were some overlaps in the TCM diagnosis and treatment process, and there were underlying therapeutic effects associated with diagnosis. TCM herbal intervention was considered as a main therapeutic component which might dominate patients’ outcome. We summarized this process as a process of problem finding and solving from macroscopic and microcosmic perspectives, which embodies the concept of a holistic approach and highly individualized pattern through syndrome differentiation and treatment.Conclusion: TCM is a complex whole system, and all therapeutic components of TCM may contribute to global treatment effect. In the future, we need more participants to test and improve the model of grounded theory through qualitative and quantitative methods such as randomized controlled trials so as to identify and explore the relevance of each therapeutic component of TCM with the treatment effect
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