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Access to Alcohol Outlets, Alcohol Consumption and Mental Health  [PDF]
Gavin Pereira, Lisa Wood, Sarah Foster, Fatima Haggar
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053461
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate residential exposure to alcohol outlets in relation to alcohol consumption and mental health morbidity (anxiety, stress, and depression). This was a cross-sectional study of 6,837 adults obtained from a population representative sample for the period 2006–2009 in Perth, Western Australia. The number of alcohol outlets was ascertained for a 1600 m service area surrounding the residential address. Zero-inflated negative binomial and logistic regression were used to assess associations with total alcohol consumption, harmful alcohol consumption (7–10 drinks containing 10 g of alcohol for men, 5–6 drinks for women) and medically diagnosed and hospital contacts (for anxiety, stress, and depression), respectively. The rate ratio for the number of days of harmful consumption of alcohol per month and the number of standard drinks of alcohol consumed per drinking day was 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.11) and 1.01 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.03) for each additional liquor store within a 1600 m service area, respectively. The odds ratio of hospital contact for anxiety, stress, or depression was 1.56 (95% CI: 0.98, 2.49) for those with a liquor store within the service area compared to those without. We observed strong evidence for a small association between residential exposure to liquor stores and harmful consumption of alcohol, and some support for a moderate-sized effect on hospital contacts for anxiety, stress, and depression.
Calorie Intake of Pregnant Women and Related Factors in Health Centers of Urban Areas Qom, 2007  [cached]
Z Abedini
Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background and Objectives: Pregnancy is a critical period during which good maternal nutrition plays a key role influencing the health of both mother and child. The present study aimed at determining the intakes of energy and related factors in pregnant women. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 1036 pregnant women were selected from health centers of urban areas in Qom. Personal interviews using the questionnaire of 24 -hour dietary recall were carried out to elicit information. Calorie intake efficacy was calculated based on nutrient substance intake. The data analysis was performed by SPSS software program. X2 test was used to determine the significance of differences (p<0/05). Results: Calorie intake of 50% of subjects was adequate. The majority of pregnant women who had reported higher intake of energy were illiterate (%56.4) and house holders (%51/1) and in the third trimester (%58.8) There was a significant difference between calorie intake, occupation, level of education and stage of pregnancy. The mean of energy from oil and fat was higher than that of other food groups. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that the nutritional education is a component of programs targeted at working women and low income families.
Calorie Intake of Pregnant Women and Related Factors in Health Centers of Urban Areas Qom, 2007
Abedini Z,Ahmari Tehran H,Ahangari R
Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal , 2011,
Abstract: Background and Objectives: Pregnancy is a critical period during which good maternal nutrition plays a key role influencing the health of both mother and child. The present study aimed at determining the intakes of energy and related factors in pregnant women.Methods: In this cross-sectional study 1036 pregnant women were selected from health centers of urban areas in Qom. Personal interviews using the questionnaire of 24 -hour dietary recall were carried out to elicit information. Calorie intake efficacy was calculated based on nutrient substance intake. The data analysis was performed by SPSS software program. X2 test was used to determine the significance of differences (p<0/05).Results: Calorie intake of 50% of subjects was adequate. The majority of pregnant women who had reported higher intake of energy were illiterate (%56.4) and house holders (%51/1) and in the third trimester (%58.8) There was a significant difference between calorie intake, occupation, level of education and stage of pregnancy. The mean of energy from oil and fat was higher than that of other food groups. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that the nutritional education is a component of programs targeted at working women and low income families.
Nutritional Value and Microbiological Safety of Fresh Fruit Juices sold through Retail Outlets in Qatar  [PDF]
J. H. Al-Jedah,R.K.Robinson
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2002,
Abstract: The nutritional value of ten fresh fruit juices purchased from retail outlets in Doha, Qatar was calculated on the basis that approximately 100 g of fruit is used to make one glass of juice (250 ml). Avocado juice was the best source of energy and potassium followed by banana juice, while guava juice was an outstanding source of vitamin C and carotene. By contrast, the microbiological quality of all the products was well outside the Gulf Standards for fruit juices, and coliform counts usually exceeded 1,000 cfu ml -1. In one sample of mixed fruit juice, the coliform count was above 1.0 x 106 cfu ml -1, and both Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis (1.0 x 107 cfu ml -1) were detected. It is concluded that, while the practice of consuming fresh fruit juices with meals should be encouraged on nutritional grounds, steps must be taken to improve the microbial quality of the products.
Nutritional intake during a 244 km multisport ultraendurance race  [PDF]
Paolo C. Colombani,Christof Mannhart,Caspar Wenk,Walter O. Frey
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2002,
Abstract: Data about the nutrition during ultraendurance competitions are scarce, with the exceptions of few case reports. Because very long lasting sports events become more and more popular, we aimed to describe the nutritional intake during an extreme ultraendurance race carried out in Switzerland in 1998. The ultraendurance multisport race was 244 km long (48 km mountain biking, 122 km road cycling, 28 km roller blading, 3.5 km swimming, 42.5 km running; total altitude difference 4000 m). The 12 male finishers participating in the study completed the race in a median (and range) time of 18.6 (17.0-19.8) hours. Their energy intake during the race was 22.6 (12.4-33.6) MJ and corresponded to 44 % of their estimated energy expenditure. Carbohydrate, protein, net fluid, and net sodium intake amounted to 60 (36-90) g h-1 , 0.8 (0.1-2.4) g kg-1 body mass, 560 (310-790) mL h -1, and 13 (7-19) mmol L-1 net fluid intake, respectively. In conclusion, the nutrition during the ultraendurance race was similar to the one recommended for shorter events like a marathon run and the focus was set upon a high carbohydrate intake.
Dietary intake and nutritional status in a Scandinavian adult cystic fibrosis-population compared with recommendations
Inger E. Moen,Kristina Nilsson,Anna Andersson,Morten W. Fagerland
Food & Nutrition Research , 2011, DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v55i0.7561
Abstract: Malnutrition is a well-known complication in cystic fibrosis (CF). There is good evidence that maintaining a normal body-weight correlates well with improved survival in CF. Energy intake in excess of 120% of the estimated average requirement (EAR) has been advised since 1980s.To investigate the nutritional intake and status in the adult Scandinavian CF-population.A cross-sectional multi-centre study was used to investigate the nutritional status of 456 adult CF-patients (2003 2006). Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) and z-scores were calculated. Pulmonary function was examined by dynamic spirometry. A 7-day pre-coded food record (FR) obtained energy and nutrient intake data in 180 patients.The mean energy intake was 114 (SD 30.0)% of EAR and thus significantly lower than the target of 120% EAR (p< 0.001) for patients with pancreatic insufficiency (PI) (n=136). Mean BMI was 22.0 (SD 2.9), the prevalence of BMI <18 was 13% and the prevalence of BMI ≥25 was 15% (n = 136). Mean BMI was 20.8 (SD 2.4) in PI-patients with FEV1 <70% and 23.2% (SD 3.0), in PI-patients with FEV1 ≥70%, mean difference 2.4, (95% CI: 1.5, 3.3) (p<0.001), but there was no difference in energy intake. BMI ≥18.5 and a reported energy intake <120% were revealed in 54% of the PI-patients.The energy intake did not reach the recommended 120% EAR, but the prevalence of underweight was lower than reported in other studies. The recommendation may exceed the requirement for a number of CF-patients. The nutritional status must still be closely monitored and nutritional advice and intervention should be individualised and adjusted to actual needs.
Correlation of nutritional status and food intake in hemodialysis patients
Morais, Alvaro A. C.;Silva, Maria A. T.;Faintuch, Joel;Vidigal, Erica J.;Costa, Rozilene A.;Lyrio, Daniele C.;Trindade, Celia R.;Pitanga, Karoline K.;
Clinics , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1807-59322005000300002
Abstract: background: patients in end-stage renal disease often suffer from poor appetite, various comorbidities, and dietary restrictions. despite regular hemodialysis, nutritional imbalances are frequently reported. aiming to correlate nutritional status with food ingestion, a prospective study was done in an outpatient group. methods: stable patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis for at least 3 months (n = 44) were investigated by dietary recall and standard anthropometric, biochemical, and bioimpedance determinations, including subjective and objective global assessment. the mean age of the group was 47.0 ± 16.9 years, and 63.6% were men. body mass index was 22.2 ± 3.9 kg/m2 (mean ± sd), calorie intake was 1471 ± 601 kcal/day (20.7 ± 6.7 kcal/kg/day), and protein ingestion was 74.3 ± 16.6 g protein/day (1.2 g/kg/day). dietary and clinical findings were correlated with nutritional indices by linear regression analysis. results: malnutrition estimated by subjective global assessment was very common (>90%), despite the fact that body mass index and serum albumin were within an acceptable range in the majority of the population. objective global assessment yelded roughly comparable numerical findings, with 6.8% being well nourished, 61.4% at nutritional risk or lightly undernourished, 29.6% moderately malnourished, and 2.3% severely malnourished. total calorie intake was devoid of associations, but protein, carbohydrate, and lipid input positively correlated with triceps skinfold (p=.02). lipid ingestion was the only marker directly associated with arm circumference, and it correlated with body mass index, as well as with total body fat (bioimpedance analysis) (p <.001). conclusions: 1) bioimpedance analysis was useful and was correlated with clinical findings; 2) lipid intake was the best dietary index in this experience, surpassing protein or total energy; 3) despite its shortcomings, dietary recall was useful in the assessment of hemodialysis patients.
Nutritional Assessment And The Dietary Intake Among Adolescents In Tribal Area Of Bihar  [cached]
Yadav R.J,Singh Padam
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 1998,
Abstract: Research question: What id the nutritional status and dietary intake of adolescents in tribal area of Bihar? Objective : To study the dietary intake and nutritional status of the adolescent boys and girls of the tribal districts of Bihar. Study design: Two stage design was adopted with probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling. Setting: Study covered 396 villages from 17 tribal districts of Bihar. Subjects: 2321 adolescents (1342 boys & 979 girls) of the age groups 7 a€" 17 years were studied. Methods: 24 hours recall method was used to assess the dietary intake and anthropometric measurements included height and weight. Dietary intake was compared with Indian Council of Medical Research recommended dietary allowances(RDA) and nutritional status assessed using distance chart. Results: Thee intake of protein was broadly in line with the recommended dietary allowances(RDA) in all age groups. The calorie deficiency was 29 percent and the magnituse of protein deficiency was about 21 percent. More than half of the adolescents were taking diets deficient in calories in Godda and Singhbhum(east & west). Conclusion: General development and intervention strategies are needed to improve the dietary intake of adolescents specially girls so that their requirement of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals are met.
Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adolescents: Association with Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Supermarkets and Fast Food Outlets
Chalida M. Svastisalee,Bj rn E. Holstein,Pernille Due
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/185484
Abstract: Background. We investigated differences in family social class associations between food outlet exposure and fruit and vegetable intake. Methods. We supplemented data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School Aged Children Study (=6,096) with geocoded food outlet information surrounding schools (=80). We used multilevel logistic regression to examine associations between infrequent fruit and vegetable intake and supermarket and fast food outlet concentration, stratified by family social class. Results. Boys and older children were most likely to eat fruit and vegetables infrequently. High fast food outlet exposure was marginally significant for low fruit intake in low social class children only. Children from middle and low social class backgrounds attending schools with combined high fast food outlet/low supermarket exposure were most likely to report infrequent fruit intake (ORlow=1.60; CI:1.02-2.45; ORmid=1.40; CI:1.03-190). Children from low social class backgrounds were also likely to report infrequent vegetable intake, given low supermarket and high fast food outlet exposure (OR=1.79; CI:0.99-3.21). Conclusion. Our findings suggest social class modifies the relationship between intake and food outlet concentration. School interventions improving fruit and vegetable intake should consider neighborhood surroundings, targetting older children from low social class backgrounds.
Nutrition Therapy for Liver Diseases Based on the Status of Nutritional Intake  [PDF]
Kenichiro Yasutake,Motoyuki Kohjima,Manabu Nakashima,Kazuhiro Kotoh,Makoto Nakamuta,Munechika Enjoji
Gastroenterology Research and Practice , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/859697
Abstract: The dietary intake of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is generally characterized by high levels of carbohydrate, fat, and/or cholesterol, and these dietary patterns influence hepatic lipid metabolism in the patients. Therefore, careful investigation of dietary habits could lead to better nutrition therapy in NAFLD patients. The main treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is interferon-based antiviral therapy, which often causes a decrease in appetite and energy intake; hence, nutritional support is also required during therapy to prevent undernourishment, treatment interruption, and a reduction in quality of life. Moreover, addition of some nutrients that act to suppress viral proliferation is recommended. As a substitutive treatment, low-iron diet therapy, which is relatively safe and effective for preventing hepatocellular carcinoma, is also recommended for CHC patients. Some patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) have decreased dietary energy and protein intake, while the number of LC patients with overeating and obesity is increasing, indicating that the nutritional state of LC patients has a broad spectrum. Therefore, nutrition therapy for LC patients should be planned on an assessment of their complications, nutritional state, and dietary intake. Late evening snacks, branched-chain amino acids, zinc, and probiotics are considered for effective nutritional utilization. 1. Introduction The liver is one of the main organs of nutritional metabolism, including protein synthesis, glycogen storage, and detoxification. These functions become damaged to a greater or lesser extent in patients with liver diseases, resulting in various metabolic disorders, and their disturbed nutritional condition is associated with disease progression. Therefore, dietary counseling and nutritional intervention can support other medical treatments in some liver diseases. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a disease caused by excessive dietary intake, which leads to hepatocytic triglyceride accumulation, obesity, and insulin resistance; hence, nutrition therapy is a basic treatment for NAFLD. NAFLD has a wide spectrum of pathologic conditions from simple steatosis to steatosis with necroinflammation and fibrosis, the condition termed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Nutritional intake in NAFLD patients is characterized as energy overload by a high-carbohydrate and high-fat diet, or excessive cholesterol intake. In patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), nutritional support is expected to promote the effect of antiviral treatment, for example,
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