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Metacognitive Strategies and Test Performance: An Experience Sampling Analysis of Students' Learning Behavior  [PDF]
Ulrike E. Nett,Thomas Goetz,Nathan C. Hall,Anne C. Frenzel
Education Research International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/958319
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to explore students’ learning-related cognitions prior to an in-class achievement test, with a focus on metacognitive strategy use. A sample of 70 students in grade 11 (58.6% female, years) completed a series of structured, state-based measures over a two-week period via the experience sampling method until the day before a class test. Results illustrated students’ self-regulatory ability to preserve their motivational and cognitive resources, with test-related cognitions evidenced significantly more often in learning-related as opposed leisure settings. Metacognitive strategy use was also found to significantly increase as the test date approached underscoring the goal-oriented nature of situated learning behaviors. Higher intercepts and increases in frequency of test-related cognitions over time positively corresponded to test performance. Of the three metacognitive strategies assessed, monitoring was found to positively correspond with test performance. Implications for future practice as well as implications for future research employing the experience sampling method are discussed. 1. Introduction Metacognitive competencies have over the past three decades developed from a largely neglected issue to one of the most elaborated areas of theory and research in the educational sciences [1, 2]. Since the pioneering work of Flavell [3], the concept of metacognition has become inextricably linked with learning theories [4] and nearly equated with the construct of self-regulated learning in terms of planning, monitoring, and evaluation of learning and problem solving [5, 6]. This immense growth in interest is largely due to an emerging consensus among policy makers, teachers, educators, parents, and researchers concerning the importance of fostering students’ ability to autonomously direct their learning processes [5]. In light of the present societal emphasis on lifelong learning and economic climate requiring individuals to rapidly acquire new employment skills, this increase in theoretical and empirical interest in individuals’ metacognitive ability to independently and efficiently regulate their learning is likely to continue. Despite considerable research on metacognitive strategies, several questions warrant further investigation. More specifically, how often and when are metacognitive strategies applied in a learning process (e.g., when is it best to start to prepare for a test)? Which metacognitive learning strategies are most commonly employed in actual learning situations and most effective with respect to
Metacognitive strategies in the teaching and learning of mathematics  [cached]
Stephan du Toit,Gary Kotze
Pythagoras , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/pythagoras.v0i0.39
Abstract: The broad aim of this study was to investigate the use of metacognitive strategies by Grade 11 mathematics learners and their teachers. Two objectives were stated: To investigate which metacognitive strategies Grade 11 mathematics learners and mathematics teachers can employ to enhance metacognition among learners, and to investigate the extent to which Grade 11 mathematics learners and teachers use metacognitive strategies. Questionnaires were used to obtain quantitative data about the use of metacognitive strategies by learners and teachers. The findings indicate that planning strategy and evaluating the way of thinking and acting were used most by bothteachers and learners. Journal–keeping and thinking aloud were used least by teachers and learners.
Autonomous Learning and Metacognitive Strategies Essentials in ESP Class  [cached]
Parviz Ajideh
English Language Teaching , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/elt.v2n1p162
Abstract: The reform in teaching and curriculum involves not only in the teaching content, but more so in teachers’ methodology, the students’ learning strategies and the changed relationship between students and teachers in the classroom setting. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that what is needed for ESP is a different orientation to English study and to outline an approach which departs from that which is generally taken. Broadly, what is involved is a shift of the focus of attention from the grammatical to the communicative properties of language. This view that the difficulties which the students encounter arise not so much from a defective knowledge of the system of language but from unfamiliarity with English use is acceptable but not sufficient. It is suggested that although specification of language needs is necessary for ESP course and it will be useful for selecting and grading materials, in teaching ESP learning strategies should play an important role. Accordingly, autonomous learning and metacognitive strategies are suggested as basic essentials for teaching and learning ESP.
Do mathematics learning facilitators implement metacognitive strategies?
M va der Walt, K Maree
South African Journal of Education , 2007,
Abstract: It is widely accepted that mathematical skills are critically important in our technologically sophisticated world. Educators' metacognition directs, plans, monitors, evaluates and reflects their instructional behaviour and this can promote learners ' learning with und ers tanding. The p urpos e of this study was to investigate the exten t to which mathematics educators implemented and taught metacognit ive strategies. Res ults of the quantitative part of the study were triangulated with the results of the qualitative part. Results suggested that whereas mathematics educators may well have possess ed metacognitive skills and utilised them intuitively, thes e s kills were not implemented to a s atisfa ctory extent in the classes we observed.
Building an e-portfolio learning model: Goal orientation and metacognitive strategies
Jeff J.S. Huang,Stephen J.H. Yang,Poky Y.F. Chiang,Luis S.Y. Tzeng
Knowledge Management & E-Learning : an International Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Recent wide acceptance of e-Portfolios has occurred because researchers believe it helps promote students’ learning in higher education. This study uses goal orientation theory to investigate the relationship between goal orientations, metacognitive strategies, and enjoyment when students use e-Portfolio. This paper contributes to research by goal orientation, metacognitive strategies and enjoyment to explain student learning behavior when using e-Portfolio to providing further evidence. A sample of 219 university students took part in this research to verify the proposed model. The study employs structural equation modeling with the LISREL to explain the model. The results show that students’ mastery goals for using e-Portfolio have a positive effect on their metacognitive strategies and enjoyment. Performance-approach goals have a negative effect on metacognitive strategies and a positive effect on enjoyment. Performance-avoidance goals have a positive effect on metacognitive strategies. Students’ enjoyment has a positive effect on their metacognitive strategies, and mastery goals can predict metacognitive strategies through enjoyment. This paper also discusses study findings and implications for future research.
Socioscientific Decision Making in the Science Classroom: The Effect of Embedded Metacognitive Instructions on Students' Learning Outcomes  [PDF]
Sabina Eggert,Frauke Ostermeyer,Marcus Hasselhorn,Susanne B?geholz
Education Research International , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/309894
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of cooperative training strategies to enhance students' socioscientific decision making as well as their metacognitive skills in the science classroom. Socioscientific decision making refers to both “describing socioscientific issues” as well as “developing and evaluating solutions” to socioscientific issues. We investigated two cooperative training strategies which differed with respect to embedded metacognitive instructions that were developed on the basis of the IMPROVE method. Participants were 360 senior high school students who studied either in a cooperative learning setting (COOP), a cooperative learning setting with embedded metacognitive questions (COOP+META), or a nontreatment control group. Results indicate that students in the two training conditions outperformed students in the control group on both processes of socioscientific decision making. However, students in the COOP+META condition did not outperform students in the COOP condition. With respect to students' learning outcomes on the regulation facet of metacognition, results indicate that all conditions improved over time. Students in the COOP+META condition exhibited highest mean scores at posttest measures, but again, results were not significant. Implications for integrating metacognitive instructions into science classrooms are discussed. 1. Introduction Over the past decades curriculum authorities as well as science educators and researchers worldwide have called for changes in the way science is taught at schools (e.g., [1–4]). Modern science education should not only foster the acquisition of scientific content knowledge but engage students in scientific inquiry, in lifelong learning and in discussions about modern science problems, their technological applications as well as their personal and societal implications [1–5]. In a similar vein, the implementation of socioscientific issues into the science classroom has been proposed for more than two decades (e.g., [6–10]). Socioscientific issues represent modern science problems, such as global climate change or the loss of worldwide biodiversity, that are tightly linked to social, political, and economical concerns (e.g., [11]). They are complex, real-world scenarios at the interplay between science and society and thus, can no longer be solved by relying on scientific knowledge only [8, 10, 11]. Consequently, they fundamentally challenge the aims and scope of traditional science instruction. A growing body of research within the area of science education highlights
Use of the Metacognitive English Language Learning Strategies Based on Personality Traits
Seyed Hossein Fazeli
Theory and Practice in Language Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.4304/tpls.2.3.531-539
Abstract: The present study aims to find out the relationship between use of the Metacognitive English Language Learning Strategies (MELLSs) for learners of English as a foreign language based on personality traits, and the role of personality traits in the prediction of use of such Strategies. Four instruments were used, which were Adapted Inventory for Metacognitive English Language Learning Strategies based on Metacognitive category of Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) of Rebecca L. Oxfords (1990), A Background Questionnaire, NEO-Five Factors Inventory (NEO-FFI), and Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). Two hundred and thirteen Iranian female university level learners of English language as a university major in Iran, were asked to participate in this research work. The intact classes were chosen. The results show that however, there is a significant relationship between four traits of personality and use of the MELLSs, but personality traits cannot be as a strong predictor with high percent of contribution to predict use of the MELLSs.
Metacognitive Strategies and Test Performance: An Experience Sampling Analysis of Students' Learning Behavior  [PDF]
Ulrike E. Nett,Thomas Goetz,Nathan C. Hall,Anne C. Frenzel
Education Research International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/958319
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to explore students’ learning-related cognitions prior to an in-class achievement test, with a focus on metacognitive strategy use. A sample of 70 students in grade 11 (58.6% female, years) completed a series of structured, state-based measures over a two-week period via the experience sampling method until the day before a class test. Results illustrated students’ self-regulatory ability to preserve their motivational and cognitive resources, with test-related cognitions evidenced significantly more often in learning-related as opposed leisure settings. Metacognitive strategy use was also found to significantly increase as the test date approached underscoring the goal-oriented nature of situated learning behaviors. Higher intercepts and increases in frequency of test-related cognitions over time positively corresponded to test performance. Of the three metacognitive strategies assessed, monitoring was found to positively correspond with test performance. Implications for future practice as well as implications for future research employing the experience sampling method are discussed.
An Empirical Study on the Relationship between Metacognitive Strategies and Online-learning Behavior & Test Achievements  [cached]
Yuhui Liu,Hao Feng
Journal of Language Teaching and Research , 2011, DOI: 10.4304/jltr.2.1.183-187
Abstract: By using Wen Qiufang's Questionnaire on English Learning Strategies, 93 students from thirteen different majors in Beijing University of Technology are surveyed about their use of metacognitive strategies and self-learning on line. Based on the survey, the relationship between metacognitive strategies and online-learning behavior & test achievements is analyzed with suggestions for strategy training and ability development.
Metacognitive Online Reading Strategies of Adult ESL Learners Using a Learning Management System  [cached]
Nor Fazlin Mohd Ramli,Saadiyah Darus,Nadzrah Abu Bakar
Theory and Practice in Language Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.4304/tpls.1.3.195-204
Abstract: In managing online learning, most educational institutions utilize Learning Management Systems (LMS). It is a learning platform that allows the administrators of the institution to manage and monitor learners, teachers and content of courses. Learners of this online learning environment have access to a variety of online learning tools and features that allow them to communicate with peers as well as instructors. Hence, these learners need to be equipped with appropriate learning strategies, particularly metacognitive strategies to help them manage their learning. As for English as a Second Language (ESL) learners, employing appropriate metacognitive strategies may help them regulate, plan, manage and monitor their learning. The study aims to investigate the metacognitive online reading strategies of adult learners of an ESL course at Universiti Technology MARA, Malaysia. A survey was used to gather information of these adult learners in semester one and two. The survey is adapted from the online survey of reading strategies or OSORS developed by Anderson (2003). The results of the survey reveal that the learners mostly used global reading strategies followed by problem solving strategies and support reading strategies. Also, independent t-test reveals that there is no significant difference between semester one and semester two students in using global reading strategies, problem solving strategies and support reading strategies. As indicated by the results of this study, it can be concluded that the learners have learning goals and purpose since they used mainly global reading strategies, but they do not effectively utilize online learning tools and features that are available in the LMS.
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