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Influence of the extracts isolated from Ganoderma lucidum mushroom on some microorganisms  [PDF]
Klaus Anita,Nik?i? Miomir
Zbornik Matice Srpske za Prirodne Nauke , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/zmspn0713219k
Abstract: Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss.: Fr) Karst, a mushroom-like fungus is one of the most famous traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. It received wide popularity as a healthy food and medicine in the Far East for more than 2000 years because of its high medicinal value. One of very interesting aspects of G. lucidum's performance is antimicrobial effect due to the extracts derived from this mushroom, which contain bacteriolitic enzyme, lysozyme and acid protease. The effects of these extracts depend on their composition extraction mode and refining. Bioactive components isolated from several G. lucidum's strains showed different effects on the investigated microorganisms. In some cases, the influence was very intensive, with inhibitory or stimulating effect, while some of them did not show any influence on the investigated microorganisms.
Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum Prevents Colitis-Associated Carcinogenesis in Mice
Daniel Sliva,Jagadish Loganathan,Jiahua Jiang,Andrej Jedinak,John G. Lamb,Colin Terry,Lee Ann Baldridge,Jiri Adamec,George E. Sandusky,Shailesh Dudhgaonkar
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047873
Abstract: Epidemiological studies suggest that mushroom intake is inversely correlated with gastric, gastrointestinal and breast cancers. We have recently demonstrated anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity of triterpene extract isolated from mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (GLT). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether GLT prevents colitis-associated carcinogenesis in mice.
Medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum in the production of special beer types  [PDF]
Lesko?ek-?ukalovi? Ida I.,Despotovi? Sa?a M.,Nedovi? Viktor A.,Nik?i? Miomir P.
Zbornik Matice Srpske za Prirodne Nauke , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/zmspn0917111l
Abstract: Mushrooms like Ganoderma lucidum have been used for thousands of years as a traditional medicine in the Far East. Ganoderma received wide popularity as an eating mushroom with high nutritive value, but even more as medical fungi. It has been used for the treatment of various diseases: hepatitis, hypertension, insomnia, and even cancer. Due to its extraordinary action, it is often called 'Elixir of life', 'Food of gods' and 'Mushroom of universe'. The intracellular and extracellular polysaccharides (b-glucane) inhibit the growth of several types of cancer. Mushroom produces triterpenes of which especially ganoderic acid showed cytotoxicity on primary tumor liver cells, inhibition of histamine release, hepatoprotective effect, stimulation of the immune system functions, inhibition of the aggregation of blood plates, etc. On the other hand, beer as a purely natural beverage obtained in the process of fermentation, contains a number of ingredients which are important for human organism, and in moderate usage has favorable reaction on the general health condition of the body. As such, beer is a very good basis for the development of a number of new products with defined pharmacodynamics influence. In this work, we have investigated the possibilities of using extracts of mushroom Ganoderma lucidum in the production of special beer types. The composition of mushroom, properties of the most important active ingredients, extraction procedures, and sensory characteristics of the beers on the basis of such extracts were determined. The most important parameters of quality and possibility of adjustments using extracts of different medicinal herbs were investigated.
Antioxidant activities of herbs, fruit and medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum extracts produced by microfiltration process  [PDF]
Vukosavljevi? Predrag,Novakovi? Miroslav,Bukvi? Branka,Niksi? Miomir
Journal of Agricultural Sciences , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/jas0901045v
Abstract: This paper presents kinds of extraction and cross-flow filtration of composition of 46 healthful and aromatic herbs, 8 fruits and fungi Ganoderma lucidum. Those extracts are part of Bitter 55, which have significant antioxidant capacity. Antioxidative activities of plant extracts have been determined by DPPH test using method of Blois. Bitter 55 which was kept at the green bottle in the dark has EC50 = 141.07 μl/ml and it was stable during 150 days. Synthetic anti-oxidants BHT (ditertbutilhydroxytoluen, EC50 = 6.2 μgml-1), trolox (vitamin E analog soluble in water, EC50 = 6.8 μgml-1) were used for comparison. EC50 values were calculated as concentration of the extract necessary to decrease DPPH radical concentration for 50 %. Bitter 55 contents 35% vol of alcohol (wheat origin), 88.22 g/l total extract and slice of medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (1 % w/v) which was extracted 30 days before analyses. The main problem in practical applications of MF is the reduction of permeate flux with time, caused by the accumulation of feed components in the pores. During microfiltration bitter herbal liquor, the function of filtrate flux is decreased with VCR. Dependence of decreasing flux with VCR can be separated in three periods. For the first, starting period, rapid decrease of filtrate flux is characteristic. Second period is defined with much smaller decrease of the flux than in the first phase. Third period has as characteristic minor decrease of flux and can be defined as steady state. Steady state emerges after τs = 80 min.
Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Medicinal Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum  [PDF]
Jianqin Li, Jianhui Zhang, Haimei Chen, Xiangdong Chen, Jin Lan, Chang Liu
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072038
Abstract: Ganoderma lucidum is one of the well-known medicinal basidiomycetes worldwide. The mitochondrion, referred to as the second genome, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells and participates in critical cellular functions. Elucidating the structure and function of this genome is important to understand completely the genetic contents of G. lucidum. In this study, we assembled the mitochondrial genome of G. lucidum and analyzed the differential expressions of its encoded genes across three developmental stages. The mitochondrial genome is a typical circular DNA molecule of 60,630 bp with a GC content of 26.67%. Genome annotation identified genes that encode 15 conserved proteins, 27 tRNAs, small and large rRNAs, four homing endonucleases, and two hypothetical proteins. Except for genes encoding trnW and two hypothetical proteins, all genes were located on the positive strand. For the repeat structure analysis, eight forward, two inverted, and three tandem repeats were detected. A pair of fragments with a total length around 5.5 kb was found in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, which suggests the possible transfer of DNA sequences between two genomes. RNA-Seq data for samples derived from three stages, namely, mycelia, primordia, and fruiting bodies, were mapped to the mitochondrial genome and qualified. The protein-coding genes were expressed higher in mycelia or primordial stages compared with those in the fruiting bodies. The rRNA abundances were significantly higher in all three stages. Two regions were transcribed but did not contain any identified protein or tRNA genes. Furthermore, three RNA-editing sites were detected. Genome synteny analysis showed that significant genome rearrangements occurred in the mitochondrial genomes. This study provides valuable information on the gene contents of the mitochondrial genome and their differential expressions at various developmental stages of G. lucidum. The results contribute to the understanding of the functions and evolution of fungal mitochondrial DNA.
Extract from wild strain of mushroom Ganoderma lucidum as natural antioxidant  [PDF]
Kozarski Maja S.,Klaus Anita S.,Nik?i? Miomir P.
Zbornik Matice Srpske za Prirodne Nauke , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/zmspn1120289k
Abstract: Recently, much attention has been paid to revealing natural biomaterials for clinical purposes since use of synthetic antioxidants is restricted due to their carcinogenicity. Among various natural antioxidants, polysaccharides, in general, have strong antioxidant activities and can be explored as novel potential antioxidants. The aim of this work was to examine the antioxidant properties of hot water extracted polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum in the form of mature fruit bodies, collected from the Boj inska forest near Belgrade, the Republic of Serbia. Antioxidant properties were assayed in vitro, by the conjugated diene method, reducing power, scavenging abilities against 1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and chelating ability on ferrous ions. At concentrations of 1 mg/ml, the scavenging ability of G. lucidum polysaccharide extract on DPPH radicals was 74.7 %. At 1 mg/ml, the radical scavenging ability of the positive controls BHT, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol were 11.5, 77.1 and 79.4 %, respectively. The antioxidant activity of the polysaccharide extract increased as the concentration increased to 78.0% at 20 mg/ml. Antioxidant activities of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol were 63.8 % and 65.4% at 20 mg/ml. Polysaccharide extract from G. lucidum showed steady increase in the reducing activity as concentrations increased to 2.9 at 20 mg/ml. Ascorbic acid, used as a positive control, had a reducing power of 3.9 at 5 mg/ml. Chelating effects of the polysaccharide extract on ferrous ion increased with the increased concentrations. At 0.1-20 mg/ml, the chelating ability of G. lucidum polysaccharide extract was between 10.3-87.8%. The chelating effect of the synthetic metal chelator EDTA was 100% at 0.1-20 mg/ml, while citric acid did not prove to be good chelating agent for ferrous ions in this assay since its chelating ability was 10.3% at 20 mg/ml.
Cardioprotective Effect of a Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum Against Adriamycin Induced Toxicity  [PDF]
M. Rajasekaran,C. Kalaimagal
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2012,
Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the cardioprotective role of a medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum against the toxicity of an anticancer drug adriamycin. Wistar rats were administered with adriamycin (1.5 mg kg-1 b.wt.) for three weeks to induce cardiotoxicity. Another group was treated with adriamycin and Ganoderma extract (250 mg kg-1) for 30 days. Adriamycin treatment resulted in increased serum levels of marker enzymes such as alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK). Besides increasing the lipid peroxidation (LPO), adriamycin significantly reduced antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the heart tissue. Level of reduced glutathione (GSH) was also significantly reduced. However, in G. lucidum extract treated rats the alterations were not significant, but found to be nearer to the control. The study shows that G. lucidum extract exhibits significant antioxidant property and protect the heart from free radical mediated toxicity of adriamycin.
Antioxidant properties of hot water extracts from carpophore and spores of mushroom Ganoderma lucidum  [PDF]
Klaus Anita S.,Kozarski Maja S.,Nik?i? Miomir P.
Zbornik Matice Srpske za Prirodne Nauke , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/zmspn1120279k
Abstract: Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss.:Fr.) Karst is one of the medicinal mushrooms, which possesses enviable antioxidant properties. Objective of this investigation was to evaluate antioxidant activity, reducing power, scavenging abilities on 1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and chelating effects on ferrous ions of hot water extracts obtained from carpophore and spores of this mushroom. Hot water extract from carpophore (Gl-I) showed high antioxidant activity of 85.7 ± 0.7%, at 10 mg/ml, while antioxidant activity of hot water extract from spores (Gl-Is) was 9.2 ± 0.3% at 10 mg/ml. Reducing power of Gl-I reached a plateau of 3.4 ± 0.1 at 20 mg/ml, and 0.3 ± 0.0 at 20 mg/ml for Gl-Is. At 10 mg/ml, scavenging ability on DPPH radicals of Gl-I increased to 96.8 ± 2.5%, whereas Gl-Is scavenged DPPH radicals by 69.6 ± 2.5% at 10 mg/ml. Gl-I chelated 81.6 ± 3.6 % of ferrous ions at 20 mg/ml, while the chelating effect of Gl-Is was 73.8 ± 1.7%. The antioxidative activities of hot water extracts from carpophore and spores of the mushroom G. lucidum were concentration dependent and increased with an increase in the concentration.
Synthesis of Polyacethylenes and Polysaccharides by Mushroom Ganoderma Lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst and Pleurotus Ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm  [PDF]
Konul Farukh Bahshaliyeva, Nizami Rza Namazov, Arzu Rasul Hasanova, Sevinch Chamaladdin Garayeva, Sevil Ehtibar Nagiyeva
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2019.108017
Abstract: The purpose of the present work was to study the biosynthesis of various compounds of basidial xylotrophic mushroom Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus ostreatus, which were taken to the pure culture from the fruit body of the mushroom living on hornbeam and beech. Shown, that mushroom can synthesize various substances, which composed includes fractions differing in functionality. Among the found fractions, one relates to the polyacetylene (PA), which are characterized by a high degree of unsaturation, contain many double and triple bonds, and are well absorbed in the ultraviolet range.
Generation and Analysis of the Expressed Sequence Tags from the Mycelium of Ganoderma lucidum  [PDF]
Yen-Hua Huang, Hung-Yi Wu, Keh-Ming Wu, Tze-Tze Liu, Ruey-Fen Liou, Shih-Feng Tsai, Ming-Shi Shiao, Low-Tone Ho, Shean-Shong Tzean, Ueng-Cheng Yang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061127
Abstract: Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is a medicinal mushroom renowned in East Asia for its potential biological effects. To enable a systematic exploration of the genes associated with the various phenotypes of the fungus, the genome consortium of G. lucidum has carried out an expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing project. Using a Sanger sequencing based approach, 47,285 ESTs were obtained from in vitro cultures of G. lucidum mycelium of various durations. These ESTs were further clustered and merged into 7,774 non-redundant expressed loci. The features of these expressed contigs were explored in terms of over-representation, alternative splicing, and natural antisense transcripts. Our results provide an invaluable information resource for exploring the G. lucidum transcriptome and its regulation. Many cases of the genes over-represented in fast-growing dikaryotic mycelium are closely related to growth, such as cell wall and bioactive compound synthesis. In addition, the EST-genome alignments containing putative cassette exons and retained introns were manually curated and then used to make inferences about the predominating splice-site recognition mechanism of G. lucidum. Moreover, a number of putative antisense transcripts have been pinpointed, from which we noticed that two cases are likely to reveal hitherto undiscovered biological pathways. To allow users to access the data and the initial analysis of the results of this project, a dedicated web site has been created at http://csb2.ym.edu.tw/est/.
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