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The Relationship Between Perceived Beauty and Safety in Urban Recreation Parks  [PDF]
Haldun Muderrisoglu,Zeki Demir
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Slides of three urban recreation parks in different locations of Istanbul were evaluated by Istanbul University students in three different campuses, for perceived security, scenic quality, or both. The aims of this study are to determine whether judgments of personal safety in urban recreation parks show sufficient reliability to be usefully studied, to use such judgments to identify park design features effecting perception of security in urban parks and to identify the relations between visibility, perceived security and perceived attractiveness of urban parks. A conclusion of the study showed that there is a strong relationship between the visual features and perceived security and beauty. Another finding is a low correlation between the perceived safety and beauty
Correspondence between objective and perceived walking times to urban destinations: Influence of physical activity, neighbourhood walkability, and socio-demographics  [cached]
Dewulf Bart,Neutens Tijs,Van Dyck Delfien,de Bourdeaudhuij Ilse
International Journal of Health Geographics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-072x-11-43
Abstract: Background Doing regular physical activity has positive effects on health. Several environmental factors are identified as important correlates of physical activity. However, there seems to be a difference between perceived and objective measures of the environment. This study examines the influence of physical activity, neighbourhood walkability, and socio-demographic characteristics on the correspondence between self-reported and objectively measured walking time to urban destinations of adults in the city of Ghent (Belgium). Methods Previously collected survey data was used from 1164 respondents in the city of Ghent who reported walking times to various closest destinations in the neighbourhood of residence. These were compared with corresponding walking times that were objectively measured through geographical information systems. Physical activity was recorded over a 7-day period using accelerometers. Neighbourhood walkability was assessed on the basis of residential density, connectivity, and land-use mix. Results We observed a relatively poor agreement between objective and perceived walking times. Stronger agreements were noted amongst the most physically active group, while low-level walkers tended to overestimate walking time. Surprisingly, however, people residing in a low-walkable neighbourhood underestimated walking times more frequently relative to those in high-walkable neighbourhoods. Conclusions Researchers investigating the influence of environmental attributes on physical activity behavior should thus be cautious when using only self-reported environmental data, since these are a priori influenced by physical activity levels and various socio-demographic factors.
Lack of agreement between measured and self-reported distance from public green parks in Glasgow, Scotland
Sally Macintyre, Laura Macdonald, Anne Ellaway
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-5-26
Abstract: We used previously collected data in a community survey in Glasgow in which 658 respondents aged around 40 and 60 were asked whether they lived within half a mile of a public park. We compared their answers with GIS measures of whether there was a park within a half mile service area of their home (and whether their home was within a half mile crow fly buffer of a park).Agreement was poor; percentage agreement between measured network distance and reported residence within 0.5 miles of a park was 62.0%, and the kappa value was 0.095. Agreement was no higher than poor in any socio-demographic subgroup, or when using crow fly buffers instead of service areas.One should be cautious about assuming that respondents' self reports of proximity to a resource are a valid proxy for actual distance, or vice versa. Further research is needed to establish whether actual or self-reported proximity predict physical activity or other behaviours, and if so which is the strongest predictor. Further, qualitative study, also needs to examine the basis of people's judgements about the location of resources, and the possibility that these are shaped by their social and personal significance.In recent years there has been considerable interest in the potential health benefits of public parks, other green spaces, or greenery in general. Much of this work has focused on possible associations between proximity to parks and physical activity [1-6], but some has considered broader, public health and mental health aspects of proximity to parks [7-9]. Initially most of the investigations into associations between health or physical activity and proximity to parks was based on respondents' self-reported accounts of their access to parks [10,11], but more recently Geographic Information Systems (GIS) (computerised systems which manage spatially referenced data [12]) or trained observers have been used to measure access to parks or the greenness of the immediate environment objectively [4-6,13]. Re
Journal of Sustainability Science and Management , 2012,
Abstract: This research intends to evaluate the importance and satisfaction level of tourists in regard to the environmental service quality offered by marine parks, namely Tioman Island Marine Park (TIMP), Redang Island Marine Park (RIMP), and Payar Island Marine Park (PIMP). The measurement of importance and satisfaction is based on mean analysis of both the importance mean (estimated/expected mean) and perceived mean (satisfaction mean). The difference between these mean values signifies gap value. In explaining the existence of difference, the gap analysis in this research is assisted by the paired t-test analysis. If the result is significant, this indicates that the tourists get what they expected from their visits. However, if the result is not significant, it must be ascertained as to whether their visits fulfilled their expectations or otherwise. Research results show that all tourists express the importance of and satisfaction towards the environmental service quality offered by all the three marine parks, i.e. TIMP, RIMP and PIMP. Overall, all the marine parks are important and satisfying. Nonetheless, there is a difference between the mean values in the gap analysis and the paired t-test. Gap analysis shows that the mean values for most of the environmental service quality under study are negative for TIMP, but positive for RIMP, PIMP and for the overall marine parks. This indicates that when the three marine parks are evaluated separately, tourist satisfaction differs. However, in general, most of the tourists are satisfied with the environmental services offered. The tourist overall satisfaction index shows that the highest satisfaction goes to RIMP at 86.8 percent, followed by TIMP at 70.3 percent and PIMP at 67.0 percent.
Miniature Parks and the Sample of Miniaturk  [PDF]
Zohre Bulut,Hasan Yilmaz
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Miniature parks are outdoor facilities where some of the historical and cultural heritages of a country are displayed as miniature models in specially-designed gardens. In this study, the significance of miniature parks, which form a new park area identity, carrying various cultural and social functions, is discussed in comparison with other urban recreational areas. The information concerning the design of Miniatürk, the first miniature park in Turkey, is presented as well as a thorough examination of other similar parks in the world. Some suggestions are also made about the planning and design principles of miniature parks.
Non-specific physical symptoms in relation to actual and perceived proximity to mobile phone base stations and powerlines
Christos Baliatsas, Irene van Kamp, Gert Kelfkens, Maarten Schipper, John Bolte, Joris Yzermans, Erik Lebret
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-421
Abstract: Analysis was performed on data obtained in a cross-sectional study on environment and health in 2006 in the Netherlands. In the current study, 3611 adult respondents (response rate: 37%) in twenty-two Dutch residential areas completed a questionnaire. Self-reported instruments included a symptom checklist and assessment of environmental and psychological characteristics. The computation of the distance between household addresses and location of base stations and powerlines was based on geo-coding. Multilevel regression models were used to test the hypotheses regarding the determinants related to the occurrence of NSPS.After adjustment for demographic and residential characteristics, analyses yielded a number of statistically significant associations: Increased report of NSPS was predominantly predicted by higher levels of self-reported environmental sensitivity; perceived proximity to base stations and powerlines, lower perceived control and increased avoidance (coping) behavior were also associated with NSPS. A trend towards a moderator effect of perceived environmental sensitivity on the relation between perceived proximity to BS and NSPS was verified (p = 0.055). There was no significant association between symptom occurrence and actual distance to BS or powerlines.Perceived proximity to BS, psychological components and socio-demographic characteristics are associated with the report of symptomatology. Actual distance to the EMF source did not show up as determinant of NSPS.Technological development does not only improve people's quality of life but is often accompanied by increased worry about potential health effects related to environmental exposures [1]. A considerable part of the general population does not only express serious concerns but also attributes various health complaints and symptoms to relatively low-level exposure to Electromagnetic fields (EMF), emitted by sources such as mobile phone devices, base stations and powerlines [2-5]. This phenomeno
Objective B-Fields and a Hitchin-Kobayashi Correspondence  [PDF]
Shuguang Wang
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: A simple trick invoking objective B-fields is employed to refine the concept of characteristic classes for twisted bundles. Then the objective stability and objective Einstein metrics are introduced and a new Hitchin-Kobayashi correspondence is established between them. As an application the SO(3)-instanton moduli space is proved to be always orientable.
Neighbourhood crime and smoking: the role of objective and perceived crime measures
Martine Shareck, Anne Ellaway
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-930
Abstract: Data from 2,418 men and women participating in the 2007/8 sweep of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study were analyzed. Smoking status and perceived crime were collected through face-to-face interviews with participants. Police-recorded crime rates were obtained from the Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics website at the datazone scale. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for the likelihood of current smoking using logistic regression models. Adjusted mean daily amount smoked and F statistics were calculated using general linear models. Analyses were conducted for all respondents and stratified by sex and age cohort.Compared to individuals living in low crime areas, those residing in an area characterized by high police-recorded crime rates or those perceiving high crime in their neighbourhood were more likely to be current smokers, after controlling for individual characteristics. The association with smoking was somewhat stronger for police-recorded crime than for perceived crime. Associations were only slightly attenuated when adjusting for either the objective or subjective crime measures, suggesting that these indicators may exert an independent influence on the risk of smoking. Stronger effects were observed for women compared to men. Police-recorded crime rates were more strongly related to smoking status among older respondents than among the younger cohort, whereas the strongest effect for perceived crime was observed among younger participants.Our findings highlight the relevance of paying attention to both objective and perceived neighbourhood crime measures when aiming to prevent smoking.Smoking is a major public health challenge and the principal risk factor for cancer, cardiovascular diseases and tuberculosis. Together, these are responsible for 70% of all deaths that occur in adults over 30 years-old worldwide[1]. As such, smoking is the main modifiable cause of premature death [1] and exposures that influence smoking and cou
Objective and perceived availability of physical activity opportunities: differences in associations with physical activity behavior among urban adolescents
Richard G Prins, Anke Oenema, Klazine van der Horst, Johannes Brug
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-6-70
Abstract: Cross-sectional data on physical activity, the perceived availability of physical activity opportunities (perceived physical environment) was assessed through a questionnaire and the objective availability of PA opportunities (objective physical environment) was obtained through GIS data. The final sample included 654 adolescents with a mean age of 14.1 (SD = 1.2) years.Perceived availability of sports facilities and parks was significantly associated with engaging in sports (OR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.16-2.56) and with walking and cycling in leisure time (OR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.07-2.57) respectively. Agreement between objective and perceived environment was low to moderate with Kappa values ranging from -0.005 to 0.053.The perceived environment was the stronger correlate of PA behavior among adolescents. There were substantial differences between assessments of objective and perceived physical environment.Insufficient physical activity (PA) is one of the major risk factors for chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer and obesity [1,2]. The Dutch PA guidelines state that adolescents have to engage in moderate-intensity PA for at least one hour each day [3,4], and to engage at least three times a week for at least 20 minutes in vigorous intensity activities such as sports ("fitness norm") [5]. Only 27% of Dutch adolescents meet this guideline [6], and 34% meet the "fitness norm". Similar figures have been found in other Western countries [5,7-10]. Increasing PA is therefore important for population health. Adolescents are a particularly important group to target, since sufficient PA can result in considerable health gains for this group. The health benefits of regular PA for adolescents include a lower risk of becoming overweight or obese [2,11], higher bone density [2,11], a lower risk of depression [2] and healthier cardiovascular risk profiles [11]. These benefits may be experienced earlier as well as later in life [12]. Furthermore, physically active adoles
National parks and environmental justice: Comparing access rights and ideological legacies in three countries  [cached]
Dahlberg Annika,Rohde Rick,Sandell Klas
Conservation & Society , 2010,
Abstract: National parks are often places where people have previously lived and worked-they have been formed by a combination of natural and human processes that embody an identifiable history of cultural and political values. Conservation of protected areas is primarily about how we perceive such landscapes, how we place differential values on different landscape components, and who gets to decide on these values. Thus, conservation has been and still is very much about issues of power and environmental justice. This paper analyses the social, political and environmental histories of three national park regimes (South Africa, Sweden and Scotland) through the lens of public access rights. We examine the evolving status of access rights-in a broad sense that includes access to land, resources and institutions of governance-as a critical indicator of the extent to which conservation policies and legislation realise the aims of environmental justice in practice. Our case studies illustrate how access rights are contingent on the historical settings and ideological contexts in which the institutions controlling national park management have evolved. Dominant cultural, political and scientific ideologies have given rise to historical precedents and institutional structures that affect the promotion of environmental justice in and around national parks today. In countries where national parks were initially created to preserve perceived ′wilderness′, with decisions taken by powerful elites and central authorities, this historical legacy has prevented profound change in line with new policy directives. The comparative analysis of national park regimes, where historical trajectories both converge and diverge, was useful in improving our understanding of contemporary issues involving conservation, people and politics.
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