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De Cómo Lograr Trascendencia Política Desde Abajo: Las Movilizaciones Cocaleras En Bolivia (1987-2001)
Pinto Ocampo,María Teresa;
Análisis Político , 2008,
Abstract: the present text displays a reflection around the coca growers mobilizations that have taken place in cochabamba's tropic between 1987 and 2001 analyzing the "structures of mobilization" that develops thanks to the processes of colonization carried out in the zone and to the formation of the pasents' unions. also, the article organizes the coca growers fights in different stages, characterizing each according to the elements of the confrontacional political speech (for the case, of the coca growers and of the government), the repertoires of the confrontation, the answers of the state, the confrontation degrees, among others.
Changes in the sociodemographic composition of the lowest socioeconomic group over time, 1987–2001
Frans JM Bongers, Linelle EN Deunk, Francois G Schellevis, Henk JM van den Hoogen, Jouke van der Zee, Wil JHM van den Bosch
BMC Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-305
Abstract: Our data were derived from the first and second Dutch National Survey of General Practice conducted in 1987 and 2001. In 1987 sociodemographic data from all listed patients (N = 334,007) were obtained by filling out a registration form at the practice (response 78.3%, 261,691 persons), in 2001 these data from all listed patients (385,461) were obtained by postal survey (response 76.9%, 296,243 persons). Participants were primarily classified according to their occupation into three SES groups: lowest, middle and highest.In comparison with 1987, the lowest SES group decreased in relative size from 34.9% to 29.5%. Within this smaller SES group, the relative contribution of persons with a higher education more than doubled for females and doubled for males. This indicates that the relation between educational level and occupation was less firmly anchored in 2001 than in 1987.The relative proportion of some disadvantaged groups (divorced, unemployed) increased in the lowest SES group, but the size of this effect was smaller than the increase from higher education. Young people (0–24 years) were proportionally less often represented in the lowest SES group.Non-Western immigrants contributed in 2001 proportionally less to the lowest SES group than in 1987, because of an intergenerational upward mobility of the second generation.On balance, the changes in the composition did not result in an accumulation of disadvantaged groups in the lowest SES group. On the contrary, the influx of people with higher educational qualifications between 1987 and 2001 could result in better health outcomes and health perspectives of the lowest SES groupBefore 1980 not much attention was paid to socioeconomic inequities in health. Most believed that the health differences related to socioeconomic differences would decrease by spreading of welfare and by achieving equal accessibility to the health care system for all. This changed in the early 1980's because of the publication of the Black Rep
哈密市1987~2001年麻疹疫情动态分析  [PDF]
张艳霞,陈玲娣
中国公共卫生 , 2003, DOI: 10.11847/zgggws2003-19-10-44
Abstract: ?为探讨哈密市麻疹流行规律,笔者对本市1987~2001年麻疹疫情动态进行分析.资料来源与方法疫情资料来源于哈密市防疫站法定传染病疫情报告档案.人口资料来自市统计局(年平均人口数).通过麻疹疫情资料的统计分析,根据流行特点,制定控制干预措施.结果与分析(1)流行强度:1987~2001年共报告麻疹649例,无死亡病例.麻疹疫情总体上呈下降趋势.
Increasing incidence of skin disorders in children? A comparison between 1987 and 2001
Robbert SA Mohammedamin, Johannes C van der Wouden, Sander Koning, Michiel W van der Linden, Fran?ois G Schellevis, Lisette WA van Suijlekom-Smit, Bart W Koes
BMC Dermatology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-5945-6-4
Abstract: We used data on all children aged 0–17 years derived from two consecutive surveys performed in Dutch general practice in 1987 and 2001. Both surveys concerned a longitudinal registration of GP consultations over 12 months. Each disease episode was coded according to the International Classification of Primary Care. Incidence rates of separate skin diseases were calculated by dividing all new episodes for each distinct ICPC code by the average study population at risk. Data were stratified for socio-demographic characteristics.The incidence rate of all skin diseases combined in general practice decreased between 1987 and 2001. Among infants the incidence rate increased. Girls presented more skin diseases to the GP. In the southern part of the Netherlands children consulted their GP more often for skin diseases compared to the northern part. Children of non-Western immigrants presented relatively more skin diseases to the GP. In general practice incidence rates of specific skin diseases such as impetigo, dermatophytosis and atopic dermatitis increased in 2001, whereas warts, contact dermatitis and skin injuries decreased.The overall incidence rate of all skin diseases combined in general practice decreased whereas the incidence rates of bacterial, mycotic and atopic skin diseases increased.In general practice, skin disease accounts for a substantial part of morbidity in children and adolescents [1-4]. Compared to 1987, in 2001 the childhood morbidity encountered in Dutch general practice has changed; proportionally more skin diseases were presented to the general practitioner (GP) whereas other most frequent diseases (e.g. respiratory tract and general diseases) were presented less often. By the same token the overall consultation rate in general practice decreased by 22% [5,6]. Did the incidence rate of skin diseases in general practice increase?However, little information is currently available about the epidemiology of skin diseases encountered in general practice.
Evolution of the Radio Remnant of SN 1987A: 1990 -- 2001  [PDF]
R. N. Manchester,B. M. Gaensler,V. C. Wheaton,L. Staveley-Smith,A. K. Tzioumis,N. S. Bizunok,K. J. Kesteven,J. E. Reynolds
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1071/AS01042
Abstract: The development of the radio remnant of SN 1987A has been followed using the Australia Telescope Compact Array since its first detection in 1990 August. The remnant has been observed at four frequencies, 1.4, 2.4, 4.8 and 8.6 GHz, at intervals of 4 - 6 weeks since the first detection. These data are combined with the 843 MHz data set of Ball et al. (2001) obtained at Molonglo Observatory to study the spectral and temporal variations of the emission. These observations show that the remnant continues to increase in brightness, with a larger rate of increase at recent times. They also show that the radio spectrum is becoming flatter, with the spectral index changing from -0.97 to -0.88 over the 11 years. In addition, at roughly yearly intervals since 1992, the remnant has been imaged at 9 GHz using super-resolution techniques to obtain an effective synthesised beamwidth of about 0".5. The imaging observations confirm the shell-morphology of the radio remnant and show that it continues to expand at ~3000 km/s. The bright regions of radio emission seen on the limb of the shell do not appear to be related to the optical hotspots which have subsequently appeared in surrounding circumstellar material.
Search for TeV gamma-rays from SN 1987A in 2001  [PDF]
R. Enomoto,L. T. Ksenofontov,H. Katagiri,K. Tsuchiya,CANGAROO-II collaboration
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/376978
Abstract: We searched for TeV gamma-rays from the remnant of SN 1987A around 5400 days after the supernova. The observations were carried out in 2001, from November 16 to December 11, using the CANGAROO-II Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope. In total, 708 minutes of ON- and 1019 minutes of OFF-source data were obtained under good conditions. The detection threshold was estimated to be 1 TeV, due to the mean zenith angle of 39$^\circ$. The upper limits for the gamma-ray flux were obtained and compared with the previous observations and theoretical models. The observations indicate that the gamma-ray luminosity is lower than $1\times 10^{37}$ erg s$^{-1}$ at $\sim 10$ TeV.
Otologic surgical procedures in an ear, nose and throat department in Subotica from 1987 to 2001  [PDF]
Sente Marko,Topolac Radivoj,Aleksov-Hatvan Gabriela
Medicinski Pregled , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/mpns0402067s
Abstract: Introduction This paper deals with otologic surgical procedures performed in a an Ear, Nose and Throat Depertment during a 15-year period. The authors compared the number of otologic surgical procedures with the number of laryngomicroscopies and procedures performed in Waldeyer's ring. RESULTS From January 1, 1987 to December 31, 2001, 1184 patients underwent the following surgical procedures in total endotracheal anesthesia: 285 paracenteses, 473 ventilation tubes insertions, 175 antrotomies or mastoidectomies, 194 tympanoplasties, 34 radical mastoidectomies, 4 facial nerve decompressions, 5 exostoses or osteoma of the external auditory canal operations and 14 stapedectomies. DISCUsSION Otologic surgical procedures are presented in table 1. In Yugoslav literature Topolac reports approximately 700 tympanoplasties in a 10-year period (1968-1978). Radonji and associates report 2272 ear operations in the period 1975-1985. Distribution of operations is presented in table 2, whereas in table 3 we can see that the number of operated ears is much greater than the number of operated patients. CONCLUSION We think that the number of operations is not bigger, because we operate only in critical cases. Our human and technical resources should provide advanced ear microsurgery, but only with financial and organizational support.
宁波市城区老年人1987~2001年病伤死亡原因分析  [PDF]
程志华
中国公共卫生 , 2002, DOI: 10.11847/zgggws2002-18-10-05
Abstract: ?目的探讨影响宁波市城区老年人健康的主要死亡原因及其变化情况,为制定卫生政策和预防控制措施提供科学依据。方法对15年间(1987~2001)宁波市城区老年人的病伤死亡原因年报表进行了分析。结果老年人因病伤致死的标化死亡率为3438.63/10万,男性死亡率是女性的1.64倍。男性前3位死因顺位分别为肿瘤、循环系统疾病和呼吸系统疾病;而女性分别为循环系统疾病、呼吸系统疾病和肿瘤。分年龄组分析发现,70岁及以下年龄组老年人中肿瘤所致标化死亡率为最高;75,80岁年龄组中因患循环系统疾病所致标化死亡率为最高;而85岁及以上年龄组老年人中则因患呼吸系统疾病所致标化死亡率为最高。结论加强我市城区老年人预防保健工作的重点应放在循环系统疾病、肿瘤、呼吸系统疾病及伤害上。
The association of the ankle-brachial index with incident coronary heart disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) study, 1987–2001
Beth D Weatherley, Jeanenne J Nelson, Gerardo Heiss, Lloyd E Chambless, A Richey Sharrett, F Javier Nieto, Aaron R Folsom, Wayne D Rosamond
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2261-7-3
Abstract: The ABI was measured in 12186 white and African American men and women in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study in 1987–89. Fatal and non-fatal CHD events were ascertained through annual telephone contacts, surveys of hospital discharge lists and death certificate data, and clinical examinations, including electrocardiograms, every 3 years. Participants were followed for a median of 13.1 years. Age- and field-center-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox regression models.Over a median 13.1 years follow-up, 964 fatal or non-fatal CHD events accrued. In whites, the age- and field-center-adjusted CHD hazard ratio (HR, 95% CI) for PAD (ABI<0.90) was 2.81 (1.77–4.45) for men and 2.05 (1.20–3.53) for women. In African Americans, the HR for men was 4.86 (2.76–8.47) and for women was 2.34 (1.26–4.35). The CHD risk increased exponentially with decreasing ABI as a continuous function, and continued to decline at ABI values > 1.0, in all race-gender subgroups. The association between the ABI and CHD relative risk was similar for men and women in both race groups. A 0.10 lower ABI increased the CHD hazard by 25% (95% CI 17–34%) in white men, by 20% (8–33%) in white women, by 34% (19–50%) in African American men, and by 32% (17–50%) in African American women.African American members of the ARIC cohort had higher prevalences of PAD and greater risk of CHD associated with ABI-defined PAD than did white participants. Unlike in other cohorts, in ARIC the CHD risk failed to increase at high (>1.3) ABI values. We conclude that at this time high ABI values should not be routinely considered a marker for increased CVD risk in the general population. Further research is needed on the value of the ABI at specific cutpoints for risk stratification in the context of traditional risk factors.The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a simple, non-invasive measure of subclinical atherosclerosis [1]. Prospective studies have found that those with ABI-defined peripheral arterial
Teste de Papanicolaou: cobertura em dois inquéritos domiciliários realizados no município de S?o Paulo em 1987 e em 2001-2002
Ozawa, Carolina;Marcopito, Luiz Francisco;
Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-72032011000500006
Abstract: purpose: to compare the coverage of conventional papanicolaou cytology in women aged 15 to 59 years between two home surveys, related to some personal attributes and to the tendency to die from cervical cancer. methods: we analyzed data collected in two home surveys, with complex sampling, in the city of s?o paulo, brazil, over the years from 1987 to 2001 and 2002. the self-reported answers of 968 women in the first inquiry and of 1,125 women in the second inquiry were compared regarding the reply to the question about the execution of the papanicolaou test "sometimes in a lifetime" in relation to age distribution, black skin, marital status, years of education and tendency to die because cervical cancer during the period from 1980 to 2007. the fisher exact test was used to compare the sample regarding each item, with the level of significance set at p value >5%. results: from the first to the second inquiry there was a 24% increase in the execution of conventional papanicolaou cytology (from 68.8% to 85%). the greatest variations in the increased coverage related to the personal attributes of the women were detected in black skin color, among single women and among women of lower schooling. regarding the tendency to mortality rates due to cervical cancer, no clear ascending or declining tendency was observed along the 28 years studied (1980 to 2007). conclusion: there was an increase in access to the cytological papanicolaou test among the most vulnerable women. since 2001 and 2002, the 85% coverage already reached who recommendation, although without a clear trend of decline in mortality due to cervical cancer in the following years, indicating that screening is only part of an effective and organized program for the control of cervical cancer, whose model must guarantee full women's health care.
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