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The environment and physical activity: The influence of psychosocial, perceived and built environmental factors
Ralph Maddison, Steven Hoorn, Yannan Jiang, Cliona Mhurchu, Daniel Exeter, Enid Dorey, Chris Bullen, Jennifer Utter, David Schaaf, Maria Turley
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-6-19
Abstract: Participants (n = 110) aged 12 to 17 years (M = 14.6 ± 1.55) were recruited from two large metropolitan high schools in Auckland, New Zealand, were included in the analysis. Participants completed measures of the revised TPB and the perceived environment. Individual factors such as ethnicity and level of deprivation were also collected. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) software was used to measure the physical environment (walkability, access to physical activity facilities). Physical activity was assessed using the ActiGraph accelerometer and the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A). Data from the various sources were combined to develop an integrated model integrated for statistical analysis using structural equation modeling.The TPB model variables (intention and perceived behavioral control) explained 43% of the variance of PAQ-A. Unique and individual contributions were made by intention and PBC and home ownership of home equipment. The model explained 13% of time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (Actigraph). Unique and individual contribution was made by intention.Social cognitive variables were better predictors of both subjective and objective physical activity compared to perceived environmental and built environment factors. Implications of these findings are discussed.Recent increase in global obesity rates has been proposed to be related to changes in our physical and social environments, which increasingly promote a high energy intake and sedentary behaviors [1]. The importance of supportive environments that promote healthy choices is enshrined within the Ottawa charter [2], and more recently, sophisticated environmental models have been developed that describe the interdependent influences of biological, social, behavioral and environmental factors on diet [3] and physical activity [4], which are key mediators for obesity [5]. Despite these proposed models, few studies have investigated the interrelationship be
Caring Behaviour of Nurses in Orthopaedic Wards of Selected Health Institutions as Perceived by Patients  [PDF]
Florence O. Adeyemo, Oladeji Oloyede Michael, Layi Okunlade, Pat. U. Okpala
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2016.65041
Abstract: Nurses are trained to provide hands-on care to patients in a variety of settings, which include physical care which can range from total care to helping a patient prevent illness. The health of a patient can significantly improve when they (patients) perceive caring nursing behaviours and are satisfied with the quality of care been received from their care giver. The aim of this study was to determine the caring behaviour of nurses as perceived by patients admitted to orthopaedic ward in some selected hospitals in Osogbo, Osun state, Nigeria. A descriptive comparative design was used. Convenient sample technique was used to select 616 respondents consisting of male and female patients admitted to orthopaedic wards of selected hospitals. The questionnaire on Caring Behaviour Assessment scale was adapted from CBI. The most highly ranked perceived nurses’ behaviour by patients rated “satisfactory” was the general perception of the patients and rendering of basic needs. The findings also revealed that patients rated nurses behaviour (care-giving) with respect to human needs assistance, the provision of safe environment, assisting in psychological care and giving physical comfort as average. Lastly, findings also revealed that patients rated perceived nurses behaviour (care-giving) as “not satisfactory” with regards to meeting their communication needs, nutritional needs and individualized care. In conclusion, care giving is an important branch of nursing and it depicts the quality of care received by a patient which in turn is capable of aiding speedy recovery.
Perceived Environmental Factors Associated with Physical Activity among Normal-Weight and Overweight Japanese Men  [PDF]
Yung Liao,Kazuhiro Harada,Ai Shibata,Kaori Ishii,Koichiro Oka,Yoshio Nakamura,Shigeru Inoue,Teruichi Shimomitsu
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8040931
Abstract: Although it is crucial to examine the environmental correlates of physical activity (PA) for developing more effective interventions for overweight populations, limited studies have investigated differences in the environmental correlates on body mass index (BMI). The purpose of the present study was to examine the perceived environmental correlates of PA among normal-weight and overweight Japanese men. Data were analyzed for 1,420 men (aged 44.4 ± 8.3 years), who responded to an internet-based cross-sectional survey of answering the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and its Environment Module. Binary logistic regression analyses were utilized to examine the environmental factors associated with meeting the PA recommendation (150 minutes/week) between the normal-weight and overweight men. After adjusting for socio-demographic variables, common and different environmental correlates of PA were observed among normal-weight and overweight men. Furthermore, significant interactions regarding PA were observed between BMI status and two environmental correlates: access to public transportation ( P = 0.03) and crime safety during the day ( P = 0.01). The results indicated that BMI status is a potential moderator between perceived environmental factors and PA and suggested that different environmental intervention approaches should be developed for overweight populations.
Environmental Scanning Behavior of Small and Medium Firms in Developing Economies: Evidence from Botswana  [PDF]
Zalealem T. Temtime
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: Although environmental scanning is a key concept in management research, its application and importance particularly in developing African countries is not well investigated. Researchers in strategic management in African developing countries have paid only little attention to the study of the environmental scanning behavior of corporate leaders. Scanning the company’s external environment for the purpose of xploiting opportunities and minimizing threats is a precondition for the surival and success of firms in the developed economies. Does this precondition also apply to African developing countries like Botswana? Are firms in Botswana formulating their strategies for the attainment of organizational goals without scanning their environment? If not, what are their scanning behaviors? Data were collected from a randomly selected samples of 44 firms in Botswana to answer these and other basic questions. The perceived uncertainty of six environmental sectors is determined by measuring the perceived importance (I), degree of complexity( C), and rate of change ( R) in each environmental sector on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from very low( 1) to very high ( 5). Then perceived strategic uncertainly (PSU) is found by adapting the formula used by Saweyerr (1993) and Elenkov(1997), i.e., PSU= I(C+R). Frequency of scanning sources employed by coporate leaders to analyze each environmental sector is also measured using a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from least frequency used(1) to most frequency used(5) sources. Finally correlation coefficients were calculated between frequency of scanning sources and perceived strategic uncertainty of environmental sector to evaluate how frequently corporate leaders gather, interpret and use information about each sector as perceived strategic uncertainty increases and decreases. The findings indicated that companies in Botswana do scan their environment and use the information in major managerial decision-making processes, particularly in strategy formulation. Though more importance is attached to the customer/market, competition and economic sectors, corporate leaders in Botswana tend to rely more on impersonal and internal sources as opposed to personal and external sources to analyze an increasingly uncertain sector. This scanning practice calls for the attention of researchers in strategic management in developing African countries. Further implications for future research are highlighted.
Gender differences in perceived environmental correlates of physical activity
Enrique Bengoechea, John C Spence, Kerry R McGannon
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-2-12
Abstract: Using a telephone-administered survey, data was collected on leisure time physical activity (LTPA), perceptions of the neighbourhood environment, and self-efficacy in a representative sample of 1209 adults from the province of Alberta, Canada. LTPA was regressed on ten measures of perceived neighbourhood environment and self-efficacy in a series of logistic regressions.Women were more likely than men to perceive their neighbourhood as unsafe to go for walks at night (χ2 = 67.46, p < 0.001) and to report seeing people being active in their neighbourhood (χ2 = 6.73, p < 0.01). Conversely, women were less likely to perceive easy access to places for PA (χ2 = 11.50, p < 0.01) and availability of places to buy things within easy walking distance from home (χ2 = 4.30, p < 0.05). Adjusting for age, education, income, and place of residence, access to places for PA (OR = 2.49) and interesting things to look at in the neighbourhood (OR = 1.94), were associated with higher levels of LTPA in men. Access to places for PA (OR = 2.63) and reporting seeing people being active (OR = 1.50) were associated with increased LTPA among women. After controlling for sociodemographic variables and self-efficacy, the presence of shops and places to buy things within easy walking distance from home (OR = 1.73), interesting things to look at in the neighbourhood (OR = 1.65), and access to places for PA (OR = 1.82) were associated with higher levels of LTPA in men. Among women, no significant relationships were observed between perceived environment and LTPA after adjusting for self-efficacy.The results provide additional support for the use of models in which gender is treated as a potential moderator of the link between the perceived environment and PA. Further, the results suggest the possibility of differential interventions to increase PA based on factors associated with gender.A growing body of scientific evidence has brought to public attention the negative effects of physical inactivity
Environment and environmental impacts
Rejane de Fátima Victor Vasconcelos
Engenharia Ambiental : Pesquisa e Tecnologia , 2009,
Abstract: The article shows what can be environmental impacts and how those happen, both by the actions made by human kind and by natural disasters. Another concern of the research is the unstoppable incident of the natural resources destruction, result f the globalization actions and the economy, and that the environment impacts have happen in every direction, independently of the geographic scale, harming the life in earth, without giving importance who is the target. The article made reference to incidents because of the disorder of the environment, the consequences of rural exodus, the improper tourism, and which actions to solve this problem have not been enough. With reference to sustainable development, it is waited that everyone can live under environmental, social and economical equilibrium, and also has reasonable habit, being sensible to the conservation of the environmental practice. The article emphasizes the values as a need in the equilibrium of sustainability, and even made reference to the lost of the country in the sustainable development and that Brazil could have more interest by the cause, mainly in the managing in the use of pesticides e fungicides in agriculture. The concern with the globalized economy is a radical change which the developing countries are facing. The cause affects of pollutions resulting in health problems. The danger that humanity faces with its own action, as predatory fishing, causing aquatic disorder and the invasion of commerce in the area of permanent conservation.
Perceived community environment and physical activity involvement in a northern-rural Aboriginal community
Allison M Kirby, Lucie Lévesque, Virgina Wabano, Jennifer Robertson-Wilson
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-4-63
Abstract: Two hundred and sixty three residents (133 women, mean age = 35.6 years, SD = 12.3 and 130 men, mean age = 37.2 years, SD = 13.1) from Moose Factory, Ontario were asked about environmental factors related to walking and PA involvement. Survey items were drawn from standardized, validated questionnaires. Descriptive statistics (means, standard deviations, percentages) were calculated. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions were performed to determine associations between walking and overall PA with perceived environmental variables.Hierarchical multiple regression to predict walking revealed significant associations between walking and perceived safety and aesthetics. Owning home exercise equipment predicted strenuous PA. Different aspects of the physical environment appear to influence different types of physical activities. The significant amount of variance in behaviour accounted for by perceived environmental variables (5.3% walking) included safety, aesthetics, convenience, owning home exercise equipment and comfortable shoes for walking.Results suggest that a supportive physical environment is important for PA involvement and that walking and activities of different intensity appear to be mediated by different perceived environmental variables. Implications for PA promotion in rural environments where Aboriginal people face many unique environmental features (e.g., bears, mosquitoes, extreme cold) are discussed.The well-established connection between diabetes prevention and physical activity involvement [1-3] provides great impetus for promoting regular, physical activity involvement to sedentary or irregularly active persons at risk for diabetes. Initiatives to promote physical activity involvement increasingly encourage persons to become involved in moderate-intensity activities such as brisk-walking to achieve health benefits [4,5]. Walking is reported to be the most popular type of physical activity in the general population and also in major subgrou
The Association between Walking and Perceived Environment in Chinese Community Residents: A Cross-Sectional Study  [PDF]
Yingnan Jia, Tricia Usagawa, Hua Fu
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090078
Abstract: Background The neighborhood environment, as a determinant of walking, has been assessed in several developed countries. However, few studies have investigated these associations in Chinese populations. Objective To examine the association between the perceived neighborhood environment and walking for recreation or transportation purposes among Chinese community residents. Methods We used a multi-stage stratified random sampling design to conduct a cross-sectional study of 1528 Chinese adults in Shanghai. Environmental and walking variables were assessed using a revised Abbreviated Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Chinese subjects and a long version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Self-reported demographic variables including gender, age, employment status, and location of community were also collected. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the association between the neighborhood environment and walking. Results Based on the results of IPAQ, 13.7% of the overall subjects were physical inactive, which was considered to be lowly active. For all participants, accessibility to services was significantly associated with walking for both recreation and transportation (odds ratio = 1.062, 95% confidence interval: 1.016, 1.110; odds ratio = 1.053; 95% confidence interval: 1.008, 1.100, respectively). In males, accessibility to services was significantly associated both with walking for recreation and walking for transportation. However, a significantly negative association was found between the neighborhood surroundings and walking for recreation. In contrast, females who perceived good traffic safety tended to walk for recreation. Data also revealed a difference between working and retired individuals. Among working participants, perceived environmental variables were not significantly associated with walking for recreation and transportation. Conclusions The association between neighborhood environment and walking varied depending on the reason for walking and the characteristics of the participants. Our findings suggest that interventions to promote walking in community residents should include improving the neighborhood environment, particularly accessibility to services such as building more stores, parks, and public transit facilities.
Measured and perceived environmental characteristics are related to accelerometer defined physical activity in older adults
Scott J Strath, Michael J Greenwald, Raymond Isaacs, Teresa L Hart, Elizabeth K Lenz, Christopher J Dondzila, Ann M Swartz
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-9-40
Abstract: One-hundred and forty-eight older individuals, mean age 64.3 ± 8.4, were randomly recruited from one of four neighborhoods that were pre-determined as either having high- or low walkable characteristics. Individual residences were geocoded and 200 m network buffers established. Both objective environment audit, and self-perceived environmental measures were collected, in conjunction with accelerometer derived physical activity behavior. Using both perceived and objective environment data, analysis consisted of a macro-level comparison of physical activity levels across neighborhood, and a micro-level analysis of individual environmental predictors of physical activity levels.Individuals residing in high-walkable neighborhoods on average engaged in 11 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day more than individuals residing in low-walkable neighborhoods. Both measured access to non-residential destinations (b = .11, p < .001) and self-perceived access to non-residential uses (b = 2.89, p = .031) were significant predictors of time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Other environmental variables significantly predicting components of physical activity behavior included presence of measured neighborhood crime signage (b = .4785, p = .031), measured street safety (b = 26.8, p = .006), and perceived neighborhood satisfaction (b = .5.8, p = .003).Older adult residents who live in high-walkable neighborhoods, who have easy and close access to nonresidential destinations, have lower social dysfunction pertinent to crime, and generally perceive the neighborhood to a higher overall satisfaction are likely to engage in higher levels of physical activity behavior. Efforts aimed at promoting more walkable neighborhoods could influence activity levels in older adults.Regular physical activity has been shown to reduce coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and some forms of cancer [1]. Physical activity has also been shown to improve sl
Walking for leisure among adults from three Brazilian cities and its association with perceived environment attributes and personal factors
Grace AO Gomes, Rodrigo S Reis, Diana C Parra, Isabela Ribeiro, Adriano AF Hino, Pedro C Hallal, Deborah C Malta, Ross C Brownson
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-111
Abstract: To describe walking for leisure and to identify its association with perceived environment and personal factors among residents of three state capitals from different regions of BrazilCross sectional phone surveys were conducted in Recife, Curitiba and Vitória (n = 6,166) in 2007, 2008 and 2009 respectively. Physical activity was measured using the leisure-time sections of the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Perceived environment characteristics were assessed using a modified version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS). Multivariable analysis tested the associations between walking for leisure and perceived environment characteristics across the cities using logistic regression.The proportions of respondents meeting physical activity recommendations through walking for leisure were 9.6%, 16.0% and 8.8% in Curitiba, Recife and Vitoria, respectively. Engaging in 150 min/wk or more of walking for leisure was significantly associated with younger age, higher education, better self-rated health and with lack of sidewalks on nearby streets. We did not find positive associations between walking for leisure and traffic conditions and safety related to cycling/walking during the day or night.Most environmental features were not associated with walking for leisure. Personal factors were stronger predictors of walking for leisure as compared with perceived environment factors.Regular practice of physical activity is associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases and mortality [1-3]. In spite of the evidence about the benefits of physical activity for health, inactivity prevails in both high and low and middle income countries [4].In high income countries, such as the United States, the percentage of people not meeting recommended levels of total physical activity is about 50,0% [5]. In addition, only 34,0% of people in the United States reports walking regularly [6]. Lack of physical activity is also a
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