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Occupational therapists’ conceptions on mental health care line
Michelle Helena Pereira de Paiva,Heloísa Cristina Figueiredo Frizzo
Cadernos de Terapia Ocupacional , 2012,
Abstract: The care line recommended by the Brazilian Health System - SUS must be attained by every professionalof the area, milieu and subject. This study aimed to know the occupational therapists’ conceptions about the lineof care in mental health. The data of this study were obtained from a questionnaire sent via virtual network ofcontacts and snowball technique. Data were subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis. Most participantswere professionals from the southeast region of the country with over five years of training. They exercise theprofessional activity mainly in Psychiatric Hospitals, Psychosocial Assistance Centers – CAPS II and MentalHealth Clinics. There was no registry of professional performance in Residential Therapeutic Services – SRTand Outpatient Clinics - UBS. Regarding care line, six participants did not respond and five were unaware of theterm, followed by the psychosocial rehabilitation principles and therapeutic project; only one answer identified care line as a practice based on care management with reception principles and articulation of social networksand services. Results showed that the professionals’ practices are little guided in care line logic; however, thereis the need systematization of the assistance according this logic in order to apply the Psychiatric Reform,searching the quality of life improvement and reestablishment of the citizenship of people with psychologicaldistress insofar as, in addition to optimizing the care network, which promotes comprehensive humane careand social contractualism.
Public perception of mental health in Iraq
Sabah Sadik, Marie Bradley, Saad Al-Hasoon, Rachel Jenkins
International Journal of Mental Health Systems , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1752-4458-4-26
Abstract: We aimed to assess public attitudes and perceptions to mental illness. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire (additional file 1), which was designed specifically for Iraqi contexts and was made available in 2 languages. The survey was carried out in 500 participants' homes across 2 districts of Baghdad.The response rate of the survey was 86.4%. The paper shows respondents views on the aetiology of mental illness, perceptions of people with mental illness and attitudes towards care and treatment of people with mental illness.This survey of public attitudes towards mental illness in Iraq has shown that community opinion about the aetiology of mental illness is broadly compatible with scientific evidence, but understanding of the nature of mental illness, its implications for social participation and management remains negative in general.Across the world, people with mental health problems, mental health services, mental health professionals and even the very concept of mental health receive negative publicity and are stigmatised in public perceptions [1,2], despite growing evidence of the importance of mental health for economic, social and human capital. Indeed the concept of mental capital for countries has recently been described [1]. Therefore increasing efforts are being made to challenge this negative publicity and stigma through anti-stigma campaigns, public education through schools, and the media etc [3].Iraq is a Middle Eastern country of 30 Million largely Moslem population who have lived through extremely difficult conditions for many years, including physical privations, political repression and prolonged conflict. Mental health services in Iraq have historically been highly centralised in urban areas and hospital based, with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently [4]. General primary health care services are relatively sparsely distributed, with 1 primary care centre (40 Healthcare Workers including
Involvement in Mental Health and Substance Abuse Work: Conceptions of Service Users  [PDF]
Minna Laitila,Merja Nikkonen,Anna-Maija Pietil?
Nursing Research and Practice , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/672474
Abstract: Service user involvement (SUI) is a principal and a guideline in social and health care and also in mental health and substance abuse work. In practice, however, there are indicators of SUI remaining rhetoric rather than reality. The purpose of this study was to analyse and describe service users' conceptions of SUI in mental health and substance abuse work. The following study question was addressed: what are service users' conceptions of service user involvement in mental health and substance abuse work? In total, 27 users of services participated in the study, and the data was gathered by means of interviews. A phenomenographic approach was applied in order to explore the qualitative variations in participants' conceptions of SUI. As a result of the data analysis, four main categories of description representing service users' conceptions of service user involvement were formed: service users have the best expertise, opinions are not heard, systems make the rules, and courage and readiness to participate. In mental health and substance abuse work, SUI is still insufficiently achieved and there are obstacles to be taken into consideration. Nurses are in a key position to promote and encourage service user involvement. 1. Introduction Service user involvement (SUI) is emphasized in many strategies, plans, and declarations. It is a recognized value in social work and in health care, yet in practice, SUI is not always achieved [1–3]. There is a dissonance between the philosophies of SUI and the existence of these philosophies in the reality of mental health nursing practice [4]. SUI is a difficult and complex concept to define, and it is often used as a synonym for participation [5]. On the other hand, a distinction can be made between these two concepts. Service user involvement entails preconditions of the service user’s impact on services in some way while user participation can mean users merely taking part in an activity or acting as an informant [6]. There are two main models behind SUI. Consumerism or the ethos of markets sees service users as customers, consumers or stakeholders whose views need to be taken into account [7]. Consumerism can be described as a “top-down” [8] or “means to an end” [9] approach where service user involvement serves the interests of the organizations, service systems, and markets. In contrast, the democratic, or empowerment model is concerned with service users having a voice in services, civil rights, and equal opportunities [7]. The empowerment model is more about the “bottom-up” interests of service users themselves
The Carter Center Mental Health Program: Addressing the Public Health Crisis in the Field of Mental Health Through Policy Change and Stigma Reduction
Rebecca G. Palpant, MS,Rachael Steimnitz,Thomas H. Bornemann, EdD,Katie Hawkins
Preventing Chronic Disease , 2006,
Abstract: Some of the most pervasive and debilitating illnesses are mental illnesses, according to World Health Organization’s The World Health Report 2001 — Mental Health: New Understanding, New Hope. Neuropsychiatric conditions account for four of the top five leading causes of years of life lived with disability in people aged 15 to 44 in the Western world. Many barriers prevent people with mental illnesses from seeking care, such as prohibitive costs, lack of insurance, and the stigma and discrimination associated with mental illnesses. The Carter Center Mental Health Program, established in 1991, focuses on mental health policy issues within the United States and internationally. This article examines the public health crisis in the field of mental health and focuses on The Carter Center Mental Health Program’s initiatives, which work to increase public knowledge of and decrease the stigma associated with mental illnesses through their four strategic goals: reducing stigma and discrimination against people with mental illnesses; achieving equity of mental health care comparable with other health services; advancing early promotion, prevention, and early intervention services for children and their families; and increasing public awareness about mental illnesses and mental health issues.
Public Health Surveillance for Mental Health  [cached]
Elsie J. Freeman, MD, MPH,Lisa J. Colpe, PhD, MPH,Tara W. Strine, MPH,Satvinder Dhingra
Preventing Chronic Disease , 2010,
Abstract: Public health systems have relied on public health surveillance to plan health programs, and extensive surveillance systems exist for health behaviors and chronic disease. Mental health has used a separate data collection system that emphasizes measurement of disease prevalence and health care use. In recent years, efforts to integrate these systems have included adding chronic disease measures to the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys and depression measures to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System; other data collection systems have been similarly enhanced. Ongoing challenges to integration include variations in interview protocols, use of different measures of behavior and disease, different interval reference periods, inclusion of substance abuse disorders, dichotomous vs continuous variables, and approaches to data collection. Future directions can address linking surveillance efforts more closely to the needs of state programs, increasing child health measurements in surveys, and improving knowledge dissemination from survey analyses.
The conceptions of public healthcare nurses about care  [cached]
Sonia Silva Marcon,Keli Regiane Tomeleri,Betina Barbedo Andrade,Lilian Denise Mai
Online Brazilian Journal of Nursing , 2007,
Abstract: The art of caring is arousing the conscience of being a nurse to a redirection of his/her role as a caring being who becomes involved with other beings. This study aims to identify the understanding that nurses have about caretaking and its practical applicability according to the theorists Leonardo Boff and Vera Regina Waldow. A descriptive and qualitative study, carried out with nurses from Basic Healthcare Units, where 94.1% are women, 58.8% are between 41-50 years old, the majority (76.5%) of them are specialists and 52.9% graduated in the 1980s. This situation produced three categories: the Assistance category – "do something for somebody", the Feeling category – "care with humanistic values", and the Education category – "promotion of the quality of life". It was observed that that nurses spoke mainly in terms of “doing to” or “doing for” someone, rather than "doing with" someone. A great difficulty and certain confusion were observed, when speaking about care.
The conceptions of public healthcare nurses about care
Sonia Silva Marcon,Keli Regiane Tomeleri,Betina Barbedo Andrade,Lilian Denise Mai
Online Brazilian Journal of Nursing , 2007,
Abstract: The art of caring is arousing the conscience of being a nurse to a redirection of his/her role as a caring being who becomes involved with other beings. This study aims to identify the understanding that nurses have about caretaking and its practical applicability according to the theorists Leonardo Boff and Vera Regina Waldow. A descriptive and qualitative study, carried out with nurses from Basic Healthcare Units, where 94.1% are women, 58.8% are between 41-50 years old, the majority (76.5%) of them are specialists and 52.9% graduated in the 1980s. This situation produced three categories: the Assistance category – "do something for somebody", the Feeling category – "care with humanistic values", and the Education category – "promotion of the quality of life". It was observed that that nurses spoke mainly in terms of “doing to” or “doing for” someone, rather than "doing with" someone. A great difficulty and certain confusion were observed, when speaking about care.
Ideological conceptions of health workers about epidemiologic surveillance  [PDF]
Santos SSBS,Lelo CM,Perreault M
Pratiques et Organisation des Soins , 2010,
Abstract: This article analyses the ideologies expressed by health workers in their conception about epidemiological monitoring.It is a component of the research named Evaluation of the decentralization of epidemiological monitoring in a family health team. A political model of implantation’s analysis, was used to understand what interfere in the results of the intervention. The primary data is coming from a non structured interview with health managers of the secretariat of health and health workers in a municipality of Bahia, Brazil. The secondary data was produced by documental analysis.The actor’s enunciations reflect the ideological conceptionsof epidemiological monitoring which is still based on authoritarian actions of a medical police, or transformed in a strict control of the transmissible diseases.Prat Organ Soins 2010;41(1):143-149
Mental health first aid training for the public: evaluation of effects on knowledge, attitudes and helping behavior
Betty A Kitchener, Anthony F Jorm
BMC Psychiatry , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-2-10
Abstract: Data are reported on the first 210 participants in public courses. Evaluation questionnaires were given at the beginning of courses, at the end and at 6 months follow-up. Data were analyzed using an intention-to-treat approach.The course improved participants' ability to recognize a mental disorder in a vignette, changed beliefs about treatment to be more like those of health professionals, decreased social distance from people with mental disorders, increased confidence in providing help to someone with a mental disorder, and increased the amount of help provided to others.Mental Health First Aid training appears to be an effective method of improving mental health literacy which can be widely applied.First aid courses are a well-established way of improving the public's handling of medical emergencies, but such courses typically ignore mental health issues. However, there are several reasons for extending this approach to mental disorders. Firstly, the prevalence of mental disorders is so high that virtually everyone in the community can be expected to either develop a mental disorder themselves or to have close contact with someone who does [1,2]. Secondly, the public often have poor mental health literacy [3]. They cannot recognize specific disorders or different types of psychological distress and they differ from mental health experts in their beliefs about the causes of mental disorders and the most effective treatments. Finally, there is a widespread stigma on mental disorders which causes an additional burden on sufferers [4]. These factors lead to delays in recognition and help-seeking, hinder public acceptance of evidence-based mental health care, and cause people with mental disorders to be denied effective self-help and appropriate support from others in the community [3].To help overcome these problems, we have devised a first aid course, called Mental Health First Aid, focusing specifically on mental health issues. We did not believe it was possible t
Mental health first aid training for the Chinese community in Melbourne, Australia: effects on knowledge about and attitudes toward people with mental illness
Angus YK Lam, Anthony F Jorm, Daniel FK Wong
International Journal of Mental Health Systems , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1752-4458-4-18
Abstract: Respondents were 108 participants of three MHFA training workshops for the Chinese community in Melbourne conducted by a qualified MHFA trainer. Participants completed the research questionnaire prior to the commencement of the training (pre-test) and at its completion (post-test). The questionnaires assessed participants' ability to recognize a mental disorder (depression and schizophrenia) described in the vignettes, knowledge about the professional help and treatment, and negative attitudes towards people with mental illness.Between pre- and post-test there was significant improvement in the recognition of mental disorders, beliefs about treatment became more concordant with health professionals, and negative attitudes reduced.The MHFA training course for general members of the Chinese community in Melbourne produced significant positive change in the level of mental health literacy and reductions in stigmatizing attitudes. The evidence from this study, together with the accumulated evidence of the benefits of MHFA training in the general Australian community, suggests that this approach should be scaled up to a level where it can have an impact on the whole of the Chinese community in Australia.General community members often have some knowledge about handling common physical health problems, whereas knowledge about mental health problems is much less well developed [1]. The prevalence of mental disorders, however, is so high that virtually everyone in the community can be expected to either develop a mental disorder themselves or to have close contact with someone who does [2,3]. Studies on mental health literacy have found that in a number of countries, the general public have poor recognition of mental disorders and beliefs about treatments that often diverge from those of health professionals [4-6]. Finally, there is a widespread stigma on mental disorders which causes an additional burden on sufferers."Mental health literacy" refers to knowledge and beliefs
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