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Políticas de identidade: perfil de DNA e a identidade genético-criminal
Machado,Helena; Silva,Susana; Amorim,António;
Análise Social , 2010,
Abstract: dna is seen by many as the ?true? basis of human identity, insofar as it is a biological structure that is, in principle, unique in each individual. this notion of ?uniqueness?, a fundamental pillar of criminal investigation and forensic genetics, has fostered identity politics by modern states through the classification and storage of information about ?criminals?. this article explores the alignment of science and state bureaucracy for producing the ?genetic-criminal? identity in the context of the portuguese forensic dna database for forensic purposes. we discuss the impacts of this sort of identity politics for the management, categorization, and surveillance of individuals classified as criminals.
Culture, Politics and Identity: active appropriation of language on formation of new subjects of change Cultura, Política e Identidade: apropria o ativa da linguagem na forma o de novos sujeitos de mudan a na zona rural  [cached]
Adriana Tenório Cordeiro,Sérgio Carvalho Benício de Mello
Semina : Ciências Sociais e Humanas , 2009, DOI: 10.5433/
Abstract: This paper seeks, in the narrative of an NGO acting in state of Pernambuco’s Brazil rural zone, a dialogue between culture and politics, discussing the way how the identification that establishes cultural segments transforms itself into a proactive action field in which new subjects of change emerge. The “cultural” aspect gains political strength whenever cultural formation contradicts political or economic logic that try to re-functionalize it for means of exploitation or domination. Cultural elements, that alone do not have necessary political connotations, are articulated in alternative discourse, in opposition to a dominant repressive structure. The relation between identity and localism is then re-articulated towards social change, and the emphasis of action is defined according to matters of global relevance. Este trabalho busca na narrativa de uma ONG, atuante na zona rural de Pernambuco, uma interlocu o entre cultura e política, e discute o modo como a identifica o que constitui campos culturais transforma-se num campo de a o proativa em que novos sujeitos de mudan a emergem. O “cultural” obtém for a política quando uma forma o cultural entra em contradi o com lógicas políticas ou econ micas que tentam efuncionalizá-la para explora o ou domina o. Os elementos culturais, por si sós n o, possuem conota es políticas necessárias s o articulados num discurso alternativo, em oposi o a uma estrutura dominante repressiva. A rela o identidade-localismo é rearticulada em prol da mudan a social, e a ênfase da a o se define em fun o de quest es de relevancia global.
Improving Rwandan Criminal Justice through Forensic DNA Evidence: An Appraisal  [PDF]
Murangira B. Thierry
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2016.74032
Abstract: At present, the utility of forensic evidence has acquired admissibility in the area of criminal justice. This utility has been applied in various legal systems worldwide; wherein scientific evidence such as DNA helps the courts to decide complicated high-tech crime cases. Scientific evidence such as DNA is a tool used to ascertain the guilt or innocence of suspect with certainty when evidence such as blood, semen have been left at crime scene. It plays a duo role either to exonerate individual falsely accused or convict those guilty of crimes. DNA evidence is normally used to resolve criminal case in various ways. The first scenario is when the suspect is known and DNA sample collected from him/her is compared from the DNA sample collected from the scene of crime to ascertain the involvement of suspect in commission of crime. The second one is when the suspect is unknown but he/she leaves the biological evidence at the crime scene where these evidence can be analysed and compared with perpetrator’s DNA profile from DNA database to establish his/her identity. Moreover, through the use of DNA profile from database, DNA evidence collected from crime scene when the originator is unidentified be utilised to link other already committed crimes. In these circumstances, DNA technology is increasingly vital to safeguard correctness and objectivity in crime solving. Its use in Rwandan criminal justice system has not yet yielded significant impact on administration of justice. This is due to the fact that in criminal justice, forensic science in general and DNA technology in particular are still at infant stage and have not yet been introduced as subject in any law curriculum; lack of specific DNA legislation is another stumbling block wherein DNA evidence is considered as circumstantial evidence with minor consideration. It is the time wherein all actors of justice and all stakeholders (criminal justice chain and law colleges) should realize that this genetic evidence is a powerful and helpful tool for securing prosecution as well as helping to eliminate suspects early in investigation and increase prosecution rate, hence giving justice. The enactment of specific DNA legislation will guide the Investigators and Prosecutors in conducting investigation and prosecution and also the Judges in directing or evaluating DNA tests. For these reasons, DNA evidence and database need to be legally recognized through such new legislation and DNA technology be introduced in law colleges. This is one of mechanisms to break the circle of lack of awareness, admissibility of DNA
Criminal Genomic Pragmatism: Prisoners' Representations of DNA Technology and Biosecurity
Helena Machado,Susana Silva
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/592364
Abstract: Background. Within the context of the use of DNA technology in crime investigation, biosecurity is perceived by different stakeholders according to their particular rationalities and interests. Very little is known about prisoners’ perceptions and assessments of the uses of DNA technology in solving crime. Aim. To propose a conceptual model that serves to analyse and interpret prisoners’ representations of DNA technology and biosecurity. Methods. A qualitative study using an interpretative approach based on 31 semi-structured tape-recorded interviews was carried out between May and September 2009, involving male inmates in three prisons located in the north of Portugal. The content analysis focused on the following topics: the meanings attributed to DNA and assessments of the risks and benefits of the uses of DNA technology and databasing in forensic applications. Results. DNA was described as a record of identity, an exceptional material, and a powerful biometric identifier. The interviewees believed that DNA can be planted to incriminate suspects. Convicted offenders argued for the need to extend the criteria for the inclusion of DNA profiles in forensic databases and to restrict the removal of profiles. Conclusions. The conceptual model entitled criminal genomic pragmatism allows for an understanding of the views of prison inmates regarding DNA technology and biosecurity.
Singapore: The Politics of Inventing National Identity
Stephan Ortmann
Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs , 2009,
Abstract: This study wants to shed new light on the politics of Singapore’s national identity invention. Since independence in 1965, the Singaporean government has tried to generate a sense of national identity in Singapore. While at first, the priority was on pragmatic values to promote the economic development, this changed in the late 1980s when the government became concerned with the widespread materialism within the society. As an alternative, so-called Asian values sought to provide an ideological alternative and a new basis for a stronger national identity. At the same time, average Singaporeans have developed their own unique conceptions of the city-state’s national identity, which sometimes contradict the official nation-building efforts and thus constitute a subtle form of opposition. Many Singaporeans demand greater participation in the negotiation of their Singaporean identity, which demonstrates the difficulty of constructing a sustainable authoritarian civic national identity.
Modalidades e identidade transmundana =Modalities and transworld identity
Rebello, Jaime P.
Veritas , 2012,
Abstract: Modelos baseados em mundos possíveis têm demonstrado ser muito úteis na interpreta o de express es modais. No entanto, há uma diferen a na maneira em que matemáticos e filósofos podem usar tais modelos. O matemático os constrói para servir os seus propósitos, determinando assim as suas propriedades. O filósofo, por outro lado, n o tem tanta liberdade. O seu objetivo, que é o de obter uma melhor compreens o da linguagem, lhe imp e limites. Nem tudo pode ser estipulado. Esse fato às vezes é esquecido. Um exemplo disso é o uso quase irrestrito da no o de identidade transmundana em explica es e discuss es filosóficas. O primeiro objetivo do artigo é mostrar que tal uso irrestrito é ilegítimo. Por outro lado, seria importante manter a possibilidade de usar a no o. O segundo objetivo do artigo é precisamente mostrar como isso pode ser conseguido. O tipo de estrutura que parece mais adequado para dar conta de como modalidades s o aplicadas a particulares é ent o explicitado, aplica es formais do modelo s o brevemente apresentadas e as condi es de aplica o da no o de identidade transmundana na interpreta o da linguagem natural s o consideradas. Models based on possible worlds have proved to be very useful in the interpretation of modal expressions. However, there is a difference in the way that mathematicians and philosophers may use such models. The mathematician constructs them to serve his own purposes and thereby determines their properties. The philosopher, on the other hand, does not have so much freedom. His objective, which is to achieve a better understanding of language, puts limits on this. Not everything can be stipulated. This fact is sometimes forgotten. An example of this is the almost unrestricted use of the notion of transworld identidy in philosophical explanations and discussions. The first objective of the article is to show that this unrestricted use is illegitimate. On the other hand, it would be important to maintain the possibility of using the notion. The second objective of the article is precisely to show how this can be achieved. The kind of structure which appears to be most appropriate to account for how modalities are applied to particulars is then made explicit, formal applications of the proposed model are briefly presented, and the conditions for the application of the notion of transworld identity in the interpretation of natural language are considered.
Politics of Tribe Identity with reference to the Kukis  [cached]
Ngamkhohao Haokip
Journal of North East India Studies , 2012,
Abstract: This article discusses the problem of tribe identity among the Kukis of Manipur. Kuki in Northeast India is a national group composed of more than 20 sub-groups. These sub-groups speak different dialects of the same language. In 1956, the government of India recognised each dialect group as separate tribe. One of them is Thadou. Some among the Thadous do not like to be under Thadou tribe although they speak the same dialect and practice the same culture. This article attempts to assess how far politics of tribe identity affects unity and social harmony amongst the Kukis.
The poetics and politics of identity at the Crossroads of cultural difference and The poetics and politics of identity at the Crossroads of cultural difference and
Roland Walter
Ilha do Desterro , 2008,
Abstract: O presente ensaio enfoca as dinamicas da diferen a cultural e da diversidade e suas representa es na fic o panamericana de Gisèle Pineau, Maryse Condé, Dionne Brand, T. C. Boyle, Concei o Evaristo e Alejo Carpentier. Ao longo do texto, s o abordadas e problematizadas as seguintes quest es:como é constituída, produzida e encenada a identidade quando formas de opress o com base na identidade negam ou delimitam a negocia o e compreens o de seus significados? Como a diferen a e a diversidade designam o outro? Como s o constituídos, mantidos ou descontruídos os limites da diferen a e as fronteiras da diversidade? E, finalmente, se esses limites ou fronteiras constituem o espa o das rela es de poder onde as identifica es s o performatizadas, ent o, quais s o seus efeitos sobre a forma o da identidade? Palavras-chaves: identidade cultural; diferen a cultural (como separa o); diversidade cultural (como rela o); transcultura o; espa o mangrove (mangue); fronteiras. This essay traces the relational dynamics of cultural difference and diversity as represented in Pan-American fiction by Gisèle Pineau, Maryse Condé, Dionne Brand, T. C. Boyle, Concei o Evaristo, and AlejoCarpentier. In the process, it addresses and problematizes the following questions: How is identity constituted, produced, and enacted when identity- based forms of oppression deny or delimit the negotiation and comprehension of its meanings? How do difference and diversity designate the other? How are boundaries of difference and borderlands of diversity constituted, maintained or deconstructed? And finally, if these boundaries and borderlands constitute the space of power relations where identifications are performed, then, what are their effects on the formation of identity?
Introduction: Dynamic Perspectives of Identity Politics  [PDF]
Art Leete
Folklore : Electronic Journal of Folklore , 2012,
Abstract: This collection of papers is inspired by the idea of examining the concept of identity at various levels of dialogue between collective and individual agents, in different regional and social environments. At the same time, a collective collaborative and interdisciplinary approach and methodological examination has been initiated. In a way, it is an initial step in specific scholarly cooperation in the framework of the CECT. Although particular topics and conceptualframes of these articles differ a lot, in a certain way a step towards somehow shared theoretical ground has been made.
Becoming the World Versus Identity Politics
Mieke Bal
Nordlit : Tidsskrift i litteratur og kultur , 2009,
Abstract: Taking up some moments from the documentary film Becoming Vera, in this article I offer a plea for a cultural life "de-limited" by identity (Schimanski and Wolfe). Through the awaking cultural awareness of a three-year-old girl who negotiates borders established by education, linguistics, gender, and nationality, mostly by ignoring their relevance, I speculate that too exclusive or tenacious a focus on cultural, ethnic, racial, and other identities erects more boundaries than it levels. Secondarily, I contend that a messy mixture of identities not only enhances but in fact constitutes the vibrancy of cultural life. The film also shows the unavoidable framing of individuals - in this case, the framing of a child - that occurs simultaneously to their negotiation of borders.
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