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A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Health Behaviors between Saudi and British Adolescents Living in Urban Areas: Gender by Country Analyses  [PDF]
Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa,Yahya Al-Nakeeb,Michael J. Duncan,Hana I. Al-Sobayel,Nada A. Abahussain,Abdulrahman O. Musaiger,Mark Lyons,Peter Collins,Alan Nevill
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10126701
Abstract: This study investigated the cross-cultural differences and similarity in health behaviors between Saudi and British adolescents. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted at four cities in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh and Al-Khobar; N = 1,648) and Britain (Birmingham and Coventry; N = 1,158). The participants (14–18 year-olds) were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included anthropometric, screen time, validated physical activity (PA) questionnaire and dietary habits. The overweight/obesity prevalence among Saudi adolescents (38.3%) was significantly ( p < 0.001) higher than that found among British adolescents (24.1%). The British adolescents demonstrated higher total PA energy expenditure than Saudi adolescents (means ± SE = 3,804.8 ± 81.5 vs. 2,219.9 ± 65.5 METs-min/week). Inactivity prevalence was significantly ( p < 0.001) higher among Saudi adolescents (64%) compared with that of British adolescents (25.5%). The proportions of adolescents exceeding 2 h of daily screen time were high (88.0% and 90.8% among Saudis and British, respectively). The majority of Saudi and British adolescents did not have daily intakes of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. MANCOVA showed significant ( p < 0.05) gender by country interactions in several lifestyle factors. There was a significant ( p < 0.001) gender differences in the ratio of physical activity to sedentary behaviors. In conclusion, Saudi and British adolescents demonstrated some similarities and differences in their PA levels, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors among adolescents appear to be a cross-cultural phenomenon.
Risk Estimation of Type 2 Diabetes and Dietary Habits among Adult Saudi Non-diabetics in Central Saudi Arabia
Abdelmarouf Hassan Mohieldein,Mohammad Alzohairy,Marghoob Hasan
Global Journal of Health Science , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v3n2p123
Abstract: Background: International Diabetes Federation ranked Saudi Arabia on third among the top 10 countries for prevalence of diabetes in 2010. Identifying people those are at increased risk for diabetes, followed by blood glucose testing to establish the diagnosis, and are considered to be an appropriate way of dealing with this problem. Objectives and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted for the first time in Saudi Arabia to estimate the 10-years risk of developing type 2 diabetes using the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and to investigate the dietary habits in such individuals among the Saudi non-diabetic population from July 2009 to March 2010. A total of 2007 Saudi citizens from all 11 provinces of Al-Qassim region were assessed using combined pre-piloted questionnaires. Statistical analysis was done utilizing SPSS version 13.0. Results: The gender ratio of the study participants was 1.6 male: 1.0 female. The mean (SD) age was 26.6 (10.2) years. The mean (SD) weight and height for males were 75.7 (19.6) kg and 169.4 (30.1) cm and for females were 64.4 (17.8) kg and 157.2 (10.4) respectively. Males had significantly higher body weight (kg), height (cm), and waist circumstance (cm) as compared to females (p <0.05). Our findings estimated that more than one-fourth of Saudi non-diabetics were found to be at moderate (one in six), high (one in three), and very high (one in two) risk to develop type 2 diabetes within 10 years. Majority of them were overweight and obese (36.8% and 60% respectively). More than ninety percent were found to have very limited physical activity with poor dietary habits. Conclusion: This study provides insight into progression and onset of type 2 diabetes in Saudi non-diabetic population within next 10 years using FINDRISC. The population at risk characterized by the sedentary activities, unhealthy dietary habits, obesity, and central obesity. Our findings suggest the need for urgent efforts to increase the level of physical activity, minimize sedentary lifestyle, and to improve the pattern of dietary habits especially among the population at risk in Saudi general population.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Dietary Habits in Northern Saudi Arabia  [PDF]
Saleh Hadi Alharbi, Fahad A. Alateeq, Khalil Ibrahim Alshammari, Abdulaziz Saad Sharea Alshammri, Naif Abdulmohsen Naif Alabdali, Motab Ali Saud Alsulaiman, Sami Mamdouh Ibrahim Algothi, Abdulrahman Sulaiman Altoraifi, Maha Qasem Almutairi, Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed
Health (Health) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/health.2019.113025
Abstract: Background: dietary habit is one of the most universally recounted initiators of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The objective of the present study was to determine the role of some dietary habits in the etiology of IBS in Northern Saudi Arabia. Methodology: In this community based cross-sectional survey, data about IBS were obtained from 930 Saudi volunteers living in the city of Hail, Northern Saudi Arabia. IBS was diagnosed using Rome IV criteria. Results: The prevalence of IBS was 11% among males vs. 12.5% among females. The prevalence of IBS symptoms among males was 30% vs. 36.5% females. IBS was significantly associated with reduced water intake, the RR (95% CI) = 1.1800 (1.0146 to 1.3722), P = 0.0316. In the present study, the majority of the study population 904/929 (97.3%) didn’t accustom to vegetables/fruits intake. Conclusion: IBS is prevalent in Northern Saudi Arabia, both among males and females with relatively increasing among females. Low water intake and insufficient fibers intake (particularly, in vegetables and fruits) might be behind the growing prevalence of IBS in Saudi Arabia.
Are screen-based sedentary behaviors longitudinally associated with dietary behaviors and leisure-time physical activity in the transition into adolescence?  [cached]
Gebremariam Mekdes K,Bergh Ingunn H,Andersen Lene F,Ommundsen Yngvar
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-10-9
Abstract: Background There is a need for more longitudinal studies investigating the associations between screen-based sedentary behaviors (SB), dietary behaviors and leisure-time physical activity (PA). Methods In the HEIA cohort study, 908 children were followed from age 11 to age 13 (September 2007 – May 2009). The children self-reported their intake of fruits, vegetables, soft drinks with sugar and snacks. TV/DVD use, computer/game use and leisure-time PA were also self-reported. Multilevel generalized linear mixed model analysis was used to assess longitudinal associations between the screen-based SB and each of the two other behaviors. Results Twenty-month changes in TV/DVD use and computer/game use were positively associated with changes in the consumption of soft drinks with sugar and unhealthy snacks in the same period; and inversely associated with change in vegetable consumption. Change in computer/game use was also inversely related to change in fruit consumption. An inverse but non-substantive association was found between change in TV/DVD use and change in leisure-time PA. Change in computer/game use was not significantly associated with change in leisure-time PA. Conclusions Changes in screen-based SB were associated with multiple unfavorable changes in dietary habits, although the associations were weak. These associations need to be further investigated in intervention/experimental studies, to assess whether changing screen-based SB will result in clinically relevant changes in dietary behaviors. However, the findings of this study suggest that screen-based SB and leisure-time PA are largely independent behaviors which should be addressed separately in health promotion activities.
Differences in lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and familial factors among normal-weight, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents  [cached]
Guo Xiaofan,Zheng Liqiang,Li Yang,Yu Shasha
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-9-120
Abstract: Background Pediatric obesity has become a global public health problem. Data on the lifestyle behaviors, dietary habits, and familial factors of overweight and obese children and adolescents are limited. The present study aims to compare health-related factors among normal-weight, overweight, and obese Chinese children and adolescents. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study consisted of 4262 children and adolescents aged 5–18 years old from rural areas of the northeast China. Anthropometric measurements and self-reported information on health-related variables, such as physical activities, sleep duration, dietary habits, family income, and recognition of weight status from the views of both children and parents, were collected by trained personnel. Results The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 15.3 and 6.4%, respectively. Compared to girls, boys were more commonly overweight (17.5% vs. 12.9%) and obese (9.5% vs. 3.1%). Approximately half of the parents with an overweight or obese child reported that they failed to recognize their child’s excess weight status, and 65% of patients with an overweight child reported that they would not take measures to decrease their child’s body weight. Obese children and adolescents were more likely to be nonsnackers [odds ratio (OR): 1.348; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.039–1.748] and to have a family income of 2000 CNY or more per month (OR: 1.442; 95% CI: 1.045–1.99) and less likely to sleep longer (≥7.5 h) (OR: 0.475; 95% CI: 0.31–0.728) than the normal-weight participants. Conclusions Our study revealed a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in a large Chinese pediatric population. Differences in sleep duration, snacking, family income, and parental recognition of children’s weight status among participants in different weight categories were observed, which should be considered when planning prevention and treatment programs for pediatric obesity.
Overweight and obesity and their association with dietary habits, and sociodemographic characteristics among male primary school children in Al-Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Amin Tarek,Al-Sultan Ali,Ali Ayub
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 2008,
Abstract: Objectives: To assess the magnitude of obesity and overweight among male primary school children, and to find the possible association between obesity/overweight and dietary habits and sociodemographic differentials among them. Study design and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study, including 1139 Saudi male children enrolled in the 5 th and 6 th grades in public primary schools in Al Hassa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), was conducted. The test included a multistage random sampling technique, based on interview using Youth and Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire, gathering data regarding dietary intake, dietary habits, followed by anthropometric measurements with the calculation of body mass index (BMI), the interpretation of which was based on Cole′s tables for the standard definition of overweight and obesity. Sociodemographic data were collected through a parental questionnaire from. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS 12 software (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, USA); both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results: The age of the school children ranged from 10-14 years. The prevalence of overweight among the subjects was 14.2%, while that of obesity was 9.7%; the prevalence was more in the urban, older age students. The mothers of obese and overweight children were less educated and more working. Missing and or infrequent intake of breakfast at home, frequent consumption of fast foods, low servings per day of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, with frequent consumption of sweets/candy and carbonated drinks were all predictors of obesity and overweight among the schoolchildren studied. Conclusion: The prevalence of childhood obesity is escalating and approaching figures that have been reported till now from the developed countries. Less healthy dietary habits and poor selection of food may be responsible for this high prevalence.
Clustering patterns of physical activity, sedentary and dietary behavior among European adolescents: The HELENA study
Charlene Ottevaere, Inge Huybrechts, Jasmin Benser, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Magdalena Cuenca-Garcia, Jean Dallongeville, Maria Zaccaria, Frederic Gottrand, Mathilde Kersting, Juan P Rey-López, Yannis Manios, Dénes Molnár, Luis A Moreno, Emmanouel Smpokos, Kurt Widhalm, Stefaan De Henauw, the HELENA Study Group
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-328
Abstract: The study comprised a total of 2084 adolescents (45.6% male), from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured using self-reported questionnaires and diet quality was assessed based on dietary recall. Based on the results of those three indices, cluster analyses were performed. To identify gender differences and associations with socio-demographic variables, chi-square tests were executed.Five stable and meaningful clusters were found. Only 18% of the adolescents showed healthy and 21% unhealthy scores on all three included indices. Males were highly presented in the cluster with high levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and low quality diets. The clusters with low levels of MVPA and high quality diets comprised more female adolescents. Adolescents with low educated parents had diets of lower quality and spent more time in sedentary activities. In addition, the clusters with high levels of MVPA comprised more adolescents of the younger age category.In order to develop effective primary prevention strategies, it would be important to consider multiple health indices when identifying high risk groups.Unhealthy dietary habits and a lack of physical activity (PA) are well known risk factors for several chronic diseases (e.g. cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes) [1,2]. Together with the adoption of sedentary behaviors, they are likely major contributors to the increasing prevalence of obesity in youth [3]. Television watching or screen time, mostly used as a measure of sedentarism, have also been related to the consumption of foods advertised on television and the intake of energy-dense foods [4]. Furthermore, those health behaviors have the tendency of tracking from childhood into adulthood [5,6]. Children and adolescents should accumulate at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) per day [7]. According to prev
Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS): objectives, design, methodology and implications  [cached]
Al-Hazzaa HM,Musaiger AO; ATLS Research Group
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy , 2011,
Abstract: Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa1,2, Abdulrahman O Musaiger3, ATLS Research Group1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Sciences, College of Education, King Saud University, 2Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Arab Center for Nutrition, Manama, Bahrain, and Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, BahrainBackground: There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS). The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS.Design/Methods: The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14–19 years) from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia), Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Kuwait, Amman (Jordan), Mosel (Iraq), Muscat (Oman), Tunisia (Tunisia) and Kenitra (Morocco). Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits.Discussion: The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will simultaneously assess broad lifestyle variables in a large sample of adolescents from numerous urbanized Arab regions. This joint research project will supply us with comprehensive and recent data on physical activity/inactivity and eating habits of Arab adolescents relative to obesity. Such invaluable lifestyle-related data are crucial for developing public health policies and regional strategies for health promotion and disease prevention.Keywords: lifestyle, obesity, physical activity, sedentary behavior, dietary habits
Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS): objectives, design, methodology and implications
Al-Hazzaa HM, Musaiger AO; ATLS Research Group
Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S26676
Abstract: rab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS): objectives, design, methodology and implications Methodology (4480) Total Article Views Authors: Al-Hazzaa HM, Musaiger AO; ATLS Research Group Published Date December 2011 Volume 2011:4 Pages 417 - 426 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S26676 Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa1,2, Abdulrahman O Musaiger3, ATLS Research Group 1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physical Education and Movement Sciences, College of Education, King Saud University, 2Scientific Board, Obesity Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Arab Center for Nutrition, Manama, Bahrain, and Nutrition and Health Studies Unit, Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, Bahrain Background: There is a lack of comparable data on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, which limits our understanding and interpretation of the relationship between obesity and lifestyle parameters. Therefore, we initiated the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS). The ATLS is a multicenter collaborative project for assessing lifestyle habits of Arab adolescents. The objectives of the ATLS project were to investigate the prevalence rates for overweight and obesity, physical activity, sedentary activity and dietary habits among Arab adolescents, and to examine the interrelationships between these lifestyle variables. This paper reports on the objectives, design, methodology, and implications of the ATLS. Design/Methods: The ATLS is a school-based cross-sectional study involving 9182 randomly selected secondary-school students (14–19 years) from major Arab cities, using a multistage stratified sampling technique. The participating Arab cities included Riyadh, Jeddah, and Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia), Bahrain, Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Kuwait, Amman (Jordan), Mosel (Iraq), Muscat (Oman), Tunisia (Tunisia) and Kenitra (Morocco). Measured variables included anthropometric measurements, physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep duration, and dietary habits. Discussion: The ATLS project will provide a unique opportunity to collect and analyze important lifestyle information from Arab adolescents using standardized procedures. This is the first time a collaborative Arab project will simultaneously assess broad lifestyle variables in a large sample of adolescents from numerous urbanized Arab regions. This joint research project will supply us with comprehensive and recent data on physical activity/inactivity and eating habits of Arab adolescents relative to obesity. Such invaluable lifestyle-related data are crucial for developing public health policies and regional strategies for health promotion and disease prevention.
Dietary behaviors, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle associated with overweight and obesity, and their socio-demographic correlates, among Pakistani primary school children
Muhammad Umair Mushtaq, Sibgha Gull, Komal Mushtaq, Ubeera Shahid, Mushtaq Ahmad Shad, Javed Akram
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-130
Abstract: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage random cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Overweight (> +1 SD) and obesity (> +2 SD) were defined using the World Health Organization reference 2007. Chi-square test was used as the test of trend. Linear regression was used to examine the predictive power of independent variables in relation to body mass index (BMI). Logistic regression was used to quantify the independent predictors and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05.Children skipping breakfast (8%), eating fast food and snacks ≥ once a week (43%) and being involved in sedentary lifestyle > one hour a day (49%) were significantly more likely to be overweight and obese while those participating in physical activity > twice a week (53%) were significantly less likely to be overweight and obese (all P < 0.01). Skipping breakfast (P < 0.001), eating fast food and snacks (P = 0.001) and sedentary lifestyle (P < 0.001) showed an independent positive association with BMI while physical activity showed an independent inverse association (P = 0.001). Skipping breakfast (aOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.22-2.71), eating fast food and snacks ≥ once a week (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.07-1.86), physical activity > twice a week (aOR 0.49, 95% CI 0.34-0.70) and sedentary lifestyle > one hour a day (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.19-2.03) were independent predictors of being overweight. Skipping breakfast had independent inverse association with physical activity (aOR 0.63, 95% CI 0.45-0.89) and eating fast food and snacks had independent positive association with sedentary lifestyle (aOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.49-2.16). Female gender was independently associated with skipping breakfast (aOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.04-2.16). Male gender (aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.33-2.02), urban area with high SES (aOR 5.09, 95% CI 3.02-8.60) and higher parental education (aOR 1.
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