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Global justice, poverty and maternal mortality
Flor de María Cáceres M
Revista Facultad Nacional de Salud Pública , 2010,
Abstract: Global justice is currently situated in an ambiance of tension and debate, facing a series of statements attempting to explain relationships among countries, based on the background of agreements already accomplished by supranational agencies. This network of relationships, not always fair nor equitable, has resulted in an increased accumulation of wealth in just a few hands and poverty in a growing number of people in poor countries and geographic areas with restrictions to access both to resources and to technological and scientific advances. Poverty, exclusion and inequalities limit all together the opportunities for development in these communities, with the outcome of serious consequences such as the deterioration in basic indicators of development. Maternal mortality rate (mm) is considered a sentinel indicator since it belongs in most cases to premature deaths which would be avoidable through proper measures in education, health promotion and timely access to quality health services. The purpose of this essay is to defend the thesis that the lack of global justice has limited the scope of the goals related to poverty and mm reduction
Women, poverty and adverse maternal outcomes in Nairobi, Kenya
Chimaraoke O Izugbara, David P Ngilangwa
BMC Women's Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6874-10-33
Abstract: Secondary analysis of focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews data with women in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya.Urban poor women in Nairobi associate poverty with adverse maternal outcomes. However, their accounts and lived experiences of the impact of poverty on maternal outcomes underscore dynamics other than those typically stressed in the extant literature. To them, poverty primarily generates adverse maternal outcomes by exposing women to exceedingly hard and heavy workloads during pregnancy and the period surrounding it; to intimate partner violence; as well as to inhospitable and unpleasant treatment by service providers.Poverty has wider and more intricate implications for maternal outcomes than are acknowledged in extant research. To deliver their expected impact, current efforts to promote better maternal outcomes must be guided by a more thorough perspective of the link between women's livelihoods and their health and wellbeing.The rich-poor gap in maternal outcomes has been examined largely by means of quantitative data and explained principally in terms of poorer women's reduced chances of receiving prenatal care [1]. During prenatal care, women undergo screening and receive treatment for conditions that could be life-threatening. Poverty hampers women's ability to use otherwise available maternal care services. For instance, lack of resources to pay for transportation could frustrate access to quality care at critical moments. Other accounts have emphasized poorer women's elevated odds for depression; to use alcohol, tobacco, and other harmful substances [2,3]; higher risk for food insufficiency and insecurity and poor feeding practices and habits, resulting in malnutrition and obesity; less access to vitamins and minerals; maternal thinness; decreased blood flow; infections; gestational diabetes; pre-eclampsia; large size for gestational age; fetal macrosomia; and cesarean delivery [4-6]; increased risk for STIs [7]; including HIV: and
The Secularization of Ethics. Questioning the Modern Virtues  [cached]
Stefan-Sebastian Maftei
Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies , 2003,
Abstract: The issue, which is at stake here, consists in analysing the modern view of ethics in the context of the social and cultural transformation of the status of the individual. The role of ethics in the history of the modern mind is strictly related to the struggle between liberal individualism and the ge- neric idea of “man,” presented as a social actor in a large political and ideological arena. As a matter of fact, beginning with Illuminism, the radical as- sumption concerning the “human rights” has sev- ered two different directions of thought: 1) The theory of human rights, which are immediately and unconditionally related to the preservation of both negative and positive rights of the individual; 2) the Hegelian and Post-Hegelian view (especially Marxism) – the social and political liberty of the indi- vidual is protected only by the direct intervention of the State. Thus, introducing the traditional concept of “virtue” – following Alasdair MacIntyre’s theory on traditional virtues – into the arena of the modern ethics debate is seen at first as an adven- turous task, but finally, as a possible solution – the neo-Aristotelian view of virtues could be considered as a positive response to the more increasing crisis of traditional values in our society.
The Secularization of Ethics. Questioning the Modern Virtues  [cached]
Maftei Stefan
Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies , 2003,
Abstract: The issue, which is at stake here, consists in analysing the modern view of ethics in the context of the social and cultural transformation of the status of the individual. The role of ethics in the history of the modern mind is strictly related to the struggle between liberal individualism and the generic idea of “man,” presented as a social actor in a large political and ideological arena. As a matter of fact, beginning with Illuminism, the radical assumption concerning the “human rights” has severed two different directions of thought: 1) The theory of human rights, which are immediately and unconditionally related to the preservation of both negative and positive rights of the individual; 2) the Hegelian and Post-Hegelian view (especially Marxism) – the social and political liberty of the individual is protected only by the direct intervention of the State. Thus, introducing the traditional concept of “virtue” – following Alasdair MacIntyre’s theory on traditional virtues – into the arena of the modern ethics debate is seen at first as an adventurous task, but finally, as a possible solution – the neo-Aristotelian view of virtues could be considered as a positive response to the more increasing crisis of traditional values in our society.
Rural tourism development: a viable formula for poverty alleviation in Bergville
MBJ Mthembu
Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The case of rural tourism and community development has been made in general terms with less focus on poverty alleviation and more emphasis on economic modernisation. Recently, a link between rural tourism and poverty alleviation has been emphasised in the contemporary tourism and poverty alleviation literature. The aim of the study was to analyse the direct and indirect livelihood impacts of tourism development and their implications on poverty alleviation in Bergville. Since tourism is one of the largest sectors in the economy of South Africa, the researcher was keen to know more about its benefits to rural society like Bergville at large and in particular the rural poor in Bergville. This paper addresses the following three research questions. What is the level to which rural tourism development can contribute to economic development, which can result in poverty alleviation in the Bergville area? Can rural tourism development in Bergville bring a halt to the continuous rural-urban migration which is triggered by poverty in the area? What are the perceptions of the Bergville residents towards rural tourism development as a mechanism for poverty alleviation? This study was carried out on the basis of a combination of two types of research data. The first is secondary data which aimed at defining the terms related to the research and focus on literature review. From literature review we discuss the different viewpoints about rural tourism, poverty alleviation and community development. The second type of research data is primary data obtained through field research. Results show that while the people are pessimistic that the resourcefulness and accessibility of Bergville can support tourism development, they are also of the view that rural tourism is a very important, probably the most important, factor for economic development. The research also recommends that local tourism planners adopt both the advocacy paradigm and the cautionary paradigm by taking advantage of the benefits of rural tourism development and managing the negative impacts thereof.
Feto-maternal biology and ethics of human society
Luana Paulesu, Francesca Ietta, Felice Petraglia
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7827-3-55
Abstract: The embryo is a semi-allograft in the maternal organism because half of its genetic material comes from the father. However, instead of being rejected by the maternal immune system, it is tolerated and develops in the uterus [1].During early embryogenesis, the trophoblast of the external layer of the morula-blastocyst makes direct contact with the uterine wall (blastocyst implantation). In human pregnancy, the trophoblast invades the uterine mucosa and vessels, establishing very intimate contact with the mother (hemochorial placenta). Therefore, the trophoblast and maternal uterus, including immune and non-immune cells of the mucosa and vessels, form the feto-maternal interface, in which tolerance mechanisms are active [2].Ever since Sir Peter Medawar brought the topic of survival of the semi-allogenic fetus in the maternal uterus to the attention of scientists, various studies have sought to throw light on the biochemical and molecular mechanisms that permit this apparent immunological paradox [3,4]. A key role has been attributed to the secretion of a broad array of soluble molecules with autocrine/paracrine action, including growth factors, cytokines and hormones [5]. These substances are produced at the feto-maternal interface by both embryonic and maternal tissues, and they act on specific membrane receptors expressed by complementary tissues [6]. Thus, mother and embryo interact via specific tissues (trophoblast and uterus) in a reciprocal exchange of molecules that act as communication signals. This interactive relationship between the embryo and the mother has the characteristics of a true dialogue: a dialogue that uses molecules instead of words and that takes place in a common language, comprehensible to both mother and embryo.The feto-maternal dialogue begins very early in embryonic development, initiated by the trophoblast via secretion of molecules such as hCG which act on the mother to create a uterine environment favorable to implantation [7]. The ute
Poverty and Sustainable Socio-Economic Development in Africa: The Nigerian Experience  [cached]
Igbokwe-Ibeto Chinyeaka Justine,Akhakpe Ighodalo,Oteh Chukwuemeka Okpo
Asian Economic and Financial Review , 2012,
Abstract: There has been a growing incidence of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa over the last two decades. Poverty is a multidimensional social phenomenon that can be analytically divided into two main perspectives: human poverty which is the lack of human capabilities and income poverty, which is the lack of income necessary to satisfy basic need e.g. poor life expectancy, poor maternal health, illiteracy, poor nutritional levels, poor access to safe drinking water and perceptions of well-being. The paper examines several initiatives focused on poverty eradication that Nigeria have adopted through national actions to fight both human and income poverty. In analysizing the issues raised, we anchored the paper on an eclectic approach of radical, Marxist model of political economy and the social exclusion theories. The study established among others, that a lot of effort has been made in poverty reduction through poverty alleviation programs in Nigeria. However, it is of knowledge that in spite of the previous efforts of various governments to alleviate poverty in Nigeria and the efforts of the current government to effect same, nothing much had changed in the living conditions and standards of the people. Poverty is still growing at an alarming rate. The challenges of poverty alleviation strategies in the Nigerian situation were articulated in the context of sustainable socio-economic development and the paper concludes that poverty alleviation in contemporary Nigeria require both socio-economic policies geared towards sustainable development. However, to enhance the human capital of the poor in particular, priorities for educational reforms should be in the areas of basic education, vocational training, water and sanitation, health care delivery, agriculture and housing for all. It is the position of this paper that until African leaders in general and Nigeria in particular begin to think We and not I , the fight against poverty that could engender sustainable socio-economic development will for long remain a mirage.
Concept, Measurement and Causes of Poverty: Nigeria in Perspective
American Journal of Economics , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.economics.20120201.04
Abstract: The paper discusses the concept of poverty and elucidates the various methods of measurement used in evaluating poverty. Causes of poverty in Nigeria were also brought into perspective. It was concluded that inadequate economic growth is the main cause of poverty in Nigeria.
MODERN DIMENSIONS OF THE CHALLENGES OF RESPONSIBILITY IN ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS IN THE CONTEXT OF MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT  [PDF]
H. Ilina
Economics of Development , 2012,
Abstract: The paper reveals modern dimensions of the problem of responsibility in the conditions of globalization of environmental problems and their inclusion into economic activities. The purpose of the paper is to identify new dimensions of responsibility in modern ethical discourse in the context of its actualization in the socioeconomic activities of citizens, organizations and countries. Transformation of worldview orientations and social role is considered after the analysis of the basic principles of modern environmental ethics. The transition from anthropocentrism which proclaimed a human being as a highest value to biocentrism, the main thesis of which extends the respect to life and ecocentrism as the idea to maintain the stability of ecosystems with humanity in socioeconomic activities as its part is established. The consequence of this transformation is a change of ecocentrism that has made it a basic ethical concept of sustainable development and a main principle of conservation of nature's ability to self-recovery according to which human activities should not lead to irreversible effects. Ecocentric ethics of sustainable development is declared in principles of international organizations, that indicates the normative level of ethical reflections. An expression of this transition is a formulation of the responsibility problem not only in traditional individual context but also from the point of view of the "ethics of the future." A globalization of environmental challenges makes it possible to address the ethics of sustainability principles to citizens, governments, organizations, sectors of industry and business. So the principle of responsibility for the future is fundamental in the context of management for sustainable development.
Maternal mortality at the Central Hospital, Benin City Nigeria: A ten year review
E Abe, LO Omo-Aghoja
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2008,
Abstract: Maternal mortality remains a major challenge in Nigeria. This retrospective study was conceptualized to document the number and pattern of obstetric deaths at the Central Hospital, Benin City, over a ten year period, to identify common causes of maternal deaths and proffer relevant interventions. The overall maternal mortality ratio (MMR) was 518/100,000. MMR was 30 times higher in unbooked as compared to the booked patients, while 60% of maternal deaths occurred within 24 hours of admission. The leading direct causes of maternal deaths were sepsis, hemorrhage, obstructed labor and preeclampsia/ eclampsia, while the major indirect causes are institutional difficulties and anaemia. Low literacy, high poverty levels, extremes of parity and non-utilization of maternity services were associated with maternal mortality. Recommendations are made for public enlightenment campaign and advocacy activities aimed at mobilizing resources for reducing maternal mortality. Also, female education and poverty alleviation programmes will contribute to the reduction of the burden of maternal mortality (Afr J Reprod Health 2008; 12[3]:17-26).
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