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Inteligencia de enjambres: sociedades para la solución de problemas (una revisión)
Mu?oz,Mario A.; López,Jesús A.; Caicedo,Eduardo F.;
Ingeniería e Investigación , 2008,
Abstract: this paper presents a review of the basic concepts of swarm intelligence and some views regarding the future of research in this area aimed at establishing a starting point for future work in different engineering fields. a bibliographic search of the most updated databases regarding classic articles on the subject and the most recent applications and results was used for constructing this review, especially in the areas of automatic control, signal and image processing and robotics. the main concepts were selected and organised in chronological order. a taxonomy was obtained for evolutionary computing techniques, a clear differentiation between swarm intelligence and other evolutionary algorithms and an overview of the different techniques and applications.
Las sociedades de ayuda mutua en Colombia Mutual benefit societies in Colombia
Castro C. Beatriz
Anuario Colombiano de Historia Social y de la Cultura , 2002,
Abstract: El articulo describe el proceso de creación y difusión de distintas congregaciones cuyo propósito principal era conseguir la solidaridad entre sus miembros. Denominadas muchas veces sociedades de ayuda mutua, entre mediados del siglo XIX y un poco más allá de la mitad del siglo XX, éstas reunieron grupos de artesanos y peque os comerciantes, identificados en torno a valores de la tradición religiosa cristiana. En ellos se perciben fácilmente legados de las cofradías coloniales, gremios artesanales y sociedades democráticas que, en cierta forma, eran la evolución de las confraternidades espirituales europeas de la edad media. The article describes the creation and spreading of the diverse congregations whose main purpose was to maintain solidarity among their members. Often these were called mutual benefit companies, during the middle of the XIX century and half of the XX century. These societies embraced handicrafters and small merchants who identified themselves with Christian tradition values. It is easy to observe in them the legate of the colonial confraternity, artisan associations and democratic societies which somehow were an evolution of the European spiritual confraternities of the middle ages.
A finan a islamica nas sociedades ocidentais The Islamic finance in the Western societies  [cached]
José Pedro Teixeira Fernandes
Rela??es Internacionais (R:I) , 2010,
Abstract: Nos últimos anos, diversas empresas ocidentais ligadas à actividade bancária e ao sector segurador passaram a oferecer no mercado produtos financeiros de acordo com as prescri es da sharia islamica. Inicialmente, o mercado-alvo eram apenas os países árabes e islamicos sobretudo do Médio Oriente. Recentemente, a tendência estendeu-se também aos mercados ocidentais tendo como finalidade atrair a liquidez de investidores árabes e configurar produtos éticos para os mu ulmanos residentes na Europa e América do Norte. Face a esta expans o, o objectivo principal deste artigo é discutir as quest es levantadas pela finan a islamica de uma maneira abrangente. A análise será feita ligando esta tendência empresarial aos desenvolvimentos mais gerais do islamismo (isl o político) e ao relativismo-multiculturalista ocidental, procurando avaliar as consequências que daí podem resultar para as sociedades democráticas e seculares do Ocidente. In the last years several Western corporations from the financial sector, including banks, insurance companies, and rating agencies, begun to offer on the market financial products in conformity with the prescriptions of Islamic Shari’a. At the beginning, the targets were only the Arab and the Islamic markets mainly in the Middle East. More recently, this trend also extended to the Western market, targeting both the liquidity of Arab investors and the Muslim populations of Europe and North America with ethical products. Thus, the main objective of this paper is discussing, in a broad way, what is at stake with the expansion of the Islamic finance to the Western societies. The analysis will connect this business trend with other general developments, particularly with Islamism (political Islam), and the Western relativism and multiculturalism. The final purpose is to make an assessment of the possible consequences for the democratic and secular societies of the West.
CONTRIBUCIóN DE LAS SOCIEDADES COOPERATIVAS AL DESARROLLO TERRITORIAL/CONTRIBUTION OF THE COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES TO THE TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT
Paloma BEL DURáN,José Manuel AUSíN GóMEZ
Revista de Estudios Cooperativos , 2007,
Abstract: Con el Tratado de ámsterdam se dio el paso para empezar una política de cohesion con todas las regiones europeas. El primer bloque de medidas a adoptar se daría en el periodo 2000- 2006 (a adiendo la reforma de la política de estructuras), centrándose en ajustes estructurales, reconversiones y educación y, a partir de ahí, se planificaba un segundo periodo (2007- 2013) en el que se profundizará en los procesos de desarrollo. Es aquí donde las sociedades cooperativas juegan un papel decisivo, entre otras razones por su contribución a la mejor integración y cohesión social para alcanzar un buen desarrollo territorial./The Amsterdam Treaty was followed by the begining a policy of cohesion with all European regions. The first set of steps took place within the time period 2000- 2006 (including the structure policy reform), focusing on structural adjustments, modernization and education. At this point, a second period (2007- 2013) has been planified by the EU where development processes will be dealt with. Cooperative societies play a key role in this issue thanks to their contribution to a better integration and social cohesion, among other reasons, in order to reach an appropriate territorial development.
SOBRE EL RéGIMEN ECONóMICO Y FINANCIERO PARTICULAR DE LAS SOCIEDADES COOPERATIVAS/ON THE ECONOMIC REGIME AND FINANCIAL INDIVIDUAL OF THE COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES
Pilar GóMEZ APARICIO,Marta MIRANDA GARCíA
Revista de Estudios Cooperativos , 2006,
Abstract: Por régimen económico en las sociedades cooperativas normalmente nos referimos a la regulación de los aspectos económicos y financieros que establecen las leyes cooperativas. Hay aspectos económicos que quedan afectados por los principios cooperativos: estructurales (afectan a la estructura financiera) y funcionales (afectan al funcionamiento económico en sentido amplio). Esas particularidades no afectan a los objetivos económicos y empresariales que fijan sus socios ni a los principios económicos que deben guiar la gestión empresarial. Como resumen, las particularidades económicas inciden en la obtención y distribución de resultados y en la estructura financiera (en las características diferenciadas de algunas fuentes financieras). /The economic structure in the cooperative societies they are the economic aspects and financiers regulated by the cooperative laws. There are economic aspects that remain affected by the cooperative principles: structural (they concern the financial structure) and functional (they concern the economic functioning in wide sense). As summary, the economic particularities affect in the obtaining and distribution of results and in the financial structure (in the characteristics separated from some financial sources).
Constitucional limits in the treatment of limited societies in the new civil code Limites constitucionais no tratamento das sociedades limitadas no novo código civil  [cached]
Carla Marshall
Scientia Iuris , 2006,
Abstract: The present work has as purpose a study on the treatment dice to the companies of small load and, especially, the limited societies. For so much, it was demonstrated the historical development of manager’s concept and the evolution of the institutes in the compared right and in the brasilian right concerning to those companies. Facilitating to identify, now, the gaps in the legislation ordinary, including the innovations of the New Civil Code, thwarting the constitutional economic order. O presente trabalho tem como finalidade um estudo sobre otratamento dado às empresas de pequeno porte e, em especial, as sociedades limitadas. Para tanto, demonstrou-se o desenvolvimento histórico do conceito de empresário e a evolu o dos institutos no direito comparado e no ordenamento pátrio concernentes a essas empresas. Possibilitando identificar, atualmente, as lacunas na legisla o infraconstitucional, incluindo as inova es do Novo Código Civil, contrariando a ordem econ mica constitucional.
LA RESPONSABILIDAD SOCIAL CORPORATIVA Y SU PARALELISMO CON LAS SOCIEDADES COOPERATIVAS / CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND ITS PARALLELISM WITH THE COOPERATIVES SOCIETIES
ADORACIóN MOZAS MORAL,RAQUEL PUENTES POYATOS
Revista de Estudios Cooperativos , 2010,
Abstract: El concepto de responsabilidad social corporativa no es nuevo. Es un enfoque que, según la literatura científica, está muy presente en las sociedades cooperativas y es fuente de singularidades de éstas. En este sentido la Comisión Europea (2002) indicó que “Las cooperativas tienen una larga tradición en combinar viabilidad económica y responsabilidad social gracias al diálogo entre las partes interesadas y a la gestión participativa, y pueden servir de referencia a otras organizaciones”. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo poner de manifiesto que la responsabilidad social corporativa está entroncada en los valores y principios cooperativos y que, por tanto, constituye una ideología innata al cooperativismo. En consecuencia podemos decir que las sociedades cooperativas se sitúan como las máximas exponentes de la RSC. /Corporate social responsibility is not a new concept. According to the scientific literature it is a very present concept in cooperatives societies and it is a source of singularities of these ones. In this context the European Commission (2002) reported that “Cooperatives have a long tradition in combining economic viability and social responsibility through dialogue between stakeholders and participatory management, so they can serve as reference for other organizations”. This work aims to show that corporate social responsibility is rooted in the cooperative values and principles and, therefore, constitutes an inherent ideology of cooperatives. Therefore we can say that cooperatives are positioned as the greatest exponents of CSR
Migración calificada e integración en las sociedades de destino: Skilled migration and integration in host societies
Bermúdez Rico,Rosa Emilia;
Sociedad y Economía , 2010,
Abstract: the main purpose of this is the discuss some of the features that characterize the integration of the migrants qualified in host societies. in particular, interested in examining conditions that foster or hinder the employment and social integration of skilled migrant's south-north flow. to this end, we present theoretical and analytical elements of the approach to integration of skilled and discuss the explanatory reach for the specific case of the integration of skilled migration and provide an classification scenario building in skilled migration regional contexts.
Arte y resistencia política en (y a) las sociedades de control: Una fuga a través de Deleuze Art and Political Resistance in (and to) the Societies of Control: A Flight through Deleuze  [cached]
Marilé di Filippo
Aisthesis , 2012,
Abstract: Este artículo se propone analizar, a través de un estudio teórico sobre el pensamiento de Gilles Deleuze, las potencialidades del arte para convertirse en una forma de resistencia a las dinámicas de las sociedades de control. Con este propósito, en primer lugar, este escrito trabajará sobre las características de tales sociedades; en segundo lugar, abordará las peculiaridades del arte según la concepción deleuziana; y, finalmente, repensará el carácter político de este funcionamiento del arte, lo que conducirá a una reflexión en torno a las vinculaciones entre arte y política. This article aims to analyze, through a theoretical study on Gilles Deleuze, the potentials of art to become a form of resistance to the dynamics of societies of control. First, this paper will focus on the characteristics of these societies, and then, it will tackle the peculiarities Deleuze's conception on art. At last, it will rethink the political character of the functioning of art by analyzing links between art and politics.
LAS SOCIEDADES COOPERATIVAS DE SEGUNDO GRADO Y SU RELACIóN JURíDICA CON SOCIOS/SECOND DEGREE COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES OF AND THEIR LEGAL RELATIONSHIP WITH MEMBERS
Raquel PUENTES POYATOS,María del Mar VELASCO GáMEZ,José Miguel ANTEQUERA SOLIS
Revista de Estudios Cooperativos , 2007,
Abstract: La importancia de las sociedades cooperativas de segundo grado (SCSG) es algo constatado a nivel cooperativo. La globalización de los mercados y el mayor incremento de la competencia hacen precisa una rápida y eficiente respuesta en el mundo cooperativo. Las decisiones adoptadas por las sociedades cooperativas han ido encaminadas a la realización de procesos de integración o concentración, siendo la constitución de SCSG una de las vías más utilizadas. En ese proceso de integración juegan un papel fundamental y de gran relevancia los futuros socios de la SCSG, las sociedades cooperativas de primer grado. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar las particularidades de la relación jurídica entre la SCSG y sus socios, sociedades cooperativas de primer grado. Nos centraremos en describir estar relación desde su implicación en la decisión de adherirse o constituir una SCSG, hasta su decisión de separación de ésta. Centraremos la exposición en la regulación que al respecto se hace a nivel estatal y andaluz./The importance of the second degree cooperative societies (SDCS) is something stated to cooperative level. The globalization of markets and the largest increase in competition does requires a rapid and efficient response in the cooperative world. Decisions taken by the cooperative societies have been aimed at the realization of integration processes or concentration, being SDCS’s constitution one of the most heavily used routes. In this integration process takes and important and relevant key the future members of the SDCS: first degree cooperative societies. The aim of this article is to analyze the special juridical relation between the SDCS and its members. Our focus will be on describing relationship since his involvement in the decision to join or form a SDCS until his decision for removing it. The exposure is focused both on the national and Andalusian regulation
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