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A qualitative study of the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding by health professionals in Niamey, Niger
A?ssata Moussa Abba, Maria De Koninck, Anne-Marie Hamelin
International Breastfeeding Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-5-8
Abstract: The purpose of this exploratory study, of which some results are presented here, was to document health professionals' attitudes and practices with regard to exclusive breastfeeding promotion in hospital settings in the urban community of Niamey, Niger.Fieldwork was conducted in Niamey, Niger. A qualitative approach was employed. Health professionals' practices were observed in a sample of frontline public healthcare facilities.The field observation results presented here indicate that exclusive breastfeeding is not promoted in healthcare facilities because the health professionals do not encourage it and their practices are inappropriate. Some still have limited knowledge or are misinformed about this practice or do not believe in it. They do not systematically discuss exclusive breastfeeding with mothers, or they mention it only briefly and without giving any explanation. Worse still, some encourage the use of breast milk substitutes, which are frequently promoted in healthcare facilities. Thus mothers often receive contradictory messages.The results suggest the need to train or retrain health professionals with regard to exclusive breastfeeding, and regularly supervise their activities.The WHO and UNICEF jointly recommend that women exclusively breastfeed their infants for the first six months and continue to breastfeed into the second year of life or longer. This feeding method is the normative model [1]. The importance of breastfeeding, especially exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), is well established for the infant, the mother and the family [2-8] and there are risks of not breastfeeding infants, particularly in poorer environments where social, economic and unsafe hygienic conditions increase the risk of infections and undernourishment. In those settings when infant formula are used, they are introduced early and over-diluted. In Niger, nearly all mothers start breastfeeding and continue until 21 months on average, but only 1% of infants are exclusively breastfed
Educative practices and attitudes within the pre-school environment: evaluating the education professionals
Antunes, Leonardo dos Santos;Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Alves;Corvino, Marcos Paulo Fonseca;
Brazilian Oral Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-83242008000400010
Abstract: school and family together play an important role in the individual development of children. therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the practices and attitudes towards oral health care of 245 education professionals working in 24 public municipal pre-schools in niterói, state of rio de janeiro, brazil. the data were obtained from self-questionnaires consisting of both open and closed questions. the methodology was both quantitative and qualitative, and the quantitative analysis was based on frequency (%). regarding oral health practices, it was observed that the majority of the education professionals emphasized toothbrushing as a vital method of oral hygiene. in addition, 70.7% of the education professionals performed other types of oral hygiene activities with the schoolchildren, and 17.1% did so with the children's families. all the participants of the study considered that education professionals have a key role in promoting healthy oral habits amongst the schoolchildren and they believe that involving the dentist in educative programs is important. it was therefore concluded that the education professionals surveyed have positive practices and attitudes regarding the children's care, and they recognize their role in fostering healthy habits and developing integrated pedagogic oral health programs.
Health Professionals’ Alcohol-Related Professional Practices and the Relationship between Their Personal Alcohol Attitudes and Behavior and Professional Practices: A Systematic Review  [PDF]
Savita Bakhshi,Alison E. While
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2014, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph110100218
Abstract: Health professionals’ personal health behaviors have been found to be associated with their practices with patients in areas such as smoking, physical activity and weight management, but little is known in relation to alcohol use. This review has two related strands and aims to: (1) examine health professionals’ alcohol-related health promotion practices; and (2) explore the relationship between health professionals’ personal alcohol attitudes and behaviors, and their professional alcohol-related health promotion practices. A comprehensive literature search of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, Web of Science, Scopus and Science Direct (2007–2013) identified 26 studies that met the inclusion criteria for Strand 1, out of which six were analyzed for Strand 2. The findings indicate that health professionals use a range of methods to aid patients who are high-risk alcohol users. Positive associations were reported between health professionals’ alcohol-related health promotion activities and their personal attitudes towards alcohol ( n = 2), and their personal alcohol use ( n = 2). The findings have some important implications for professional education. Future research should focus on conducting well-designed studies with larger samples to enable us to draw firm conclusions and develop the evidence base.
Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Among Paraguayan Communities, Patients, and Health Professionals  [PDF]
Mónica Ruoti,Rolando Oddone,Nathalie Lampert,Elizabeth Orué,Michael A. Miles,Neal Alexander,Andrea M. Rehman,Rebecca Njord,Stephanie Shu,Susannah Brice,Bryony Sinclair,Alison Krentel
Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/538629
Abstract: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) due to Leishmania (V.) braziliensis are endemic in Paraguay. We performed a series of knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) surveys simultaneously with individuals in endemic communities in San Pedro department ( ), health professionals ( ), and patients ( ). Results showed that communities were exposed to high risk factors for transmission of L. braziliensis. In logistic regression analysis, age was the only factor independently associated with having seen a CL/MCL lesion ( ). The pervasive attitude in communities was that CL was not a problem. Treatment seeking was often delayed, partly due to secondary costs, and inappropriate remedies were applied. Several important cost-effective measures are indicated that may improve control of CL. Community awareness could be enhanced through existing community structures. Free supply of specific drugs should continue but ancillary support could be considered. Health professionals require routine and standardised provision of diagnosis and treatment algorithms for CL and MCL. During treatment, all patients could be given simple information to increase awareness in the community. 1. Introduction Leishmaniasis is an important cause of disability in 98 endemic countries and 3 territories with 350 million people living at risk of infection [1, 2]. It is estimated that there are between 0.7 to 1.2 million new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and between 0.2 to 0.4 million cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) per year [2]. The burden of CL and VL is estimated globally at a loss of just under 2.4 million DALYs [3]. With increasing deforestation, human migration, urbanization, and HIV/AIDS, leishmaniasis is a growing public health concern in many countries [4]. Leishmaniasis disproportionately affects the poor, particularly those with vulnerable housing and environmental conditions. Loss of income and health care costs exacerbate the economic situation of already disadvantaged households [5]. Leishmaniasis is increasingly seen in domestic and urban environments [6]. Surveys from Latin America (Guatemala [7], Ecuador [8], Colombia [9], Peru [10], and Brazil [11–13]) have looked at knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) and the use of traditional medicine by those with skin lesions. A pilot KAP study of patients and health professionals conducted in 2003 in Paraguay provided some insight and encouraged further research (S. Brice, unpublished data). CL is endemic in 22 Latin American countries. In Paraguay, CL has traditionally been endemic in
Breastfeeding in Bolivia – information and attitudes
Jonas F Ludvigsson
BMC Pediatrics , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-3-4
Abstract: Cross-sectional interviews with 420–502 Bolivian mothers with an infant less than or equal to 1 year of age. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding, use of prelacteal food and/or colostrum were the main outcome measures.The attitudes of the mother, her partner (the infant's father) and the infant's grandmother towards breastfeeding did not influence the infant feeding pattern. Women who had received breastfeeding information from health care personnel before birth or on the maternity ward breastfed exclusively for a longer duration (adjusted p = 0.0233) and avoided prelacteal food to a greater extent (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.42; 95% confidence interval for adjusted odds ratio (95% CI AOR) = 0.23–0.72). Information from a doctor before birth or on the maternity ward was associated with less use of prelacteal food (AOR = 0.53; 95% CI AOR = 0.31–0.93), an increased use of colostrum (AOR = 3.30; 95% CI AOR = 1.16–9.37), but was not linked to the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (p = 0.1767).The current study indicates that breastfeeding information delivered by health care personnel in a non-trial setting may affect the infant feeding pattern including the use of prelacteal foods and colostrum. There was no evidence that the attitudes of the mother, or the infant's father or grandmother influenced actual feeding behavior. The lack of a "negative or neutral attitude" towards breastfeeding in the participants of the current study does, however, diminish the chances to link attitude to feeding behavior.Hospital-based intervention programs, maternity ward practices, and the feeding preferences of health care providers (doctors, lactation counselors, nurses) may affect breastfeeding behavior [1-6]. Interventions to increase exclusive and any breastfeeding may also result in lower morbidity rates [5,7].Observational results concerning the effect of information from health care personnel in a non-trial setting are more ambiguous [8,9]. In an early meta-analysis by Bernar
Initial breastfeeding attitudes and practices of women born in Turkey, Vietnam and Australia after giving birth in Australia
Helen L McLachlan, Della A Forster
International Breastfeeding Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-1-7
Abstract: The study included 300 women: 100 hundred Turkish-born, 100 Vietnamese-born and 100 Australian-born women who had given birth in a large public, tertiary referral maternity hospital between January 1998 and May 1999 in Melbourne, Australia. Women were interviewed in hospital, between 24 hours after the birth and discharge from hospital. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire with some open-ended questions. Only women who had a normal vaginal birth and who gave birth to a healthy baby were included in the study.Almost all Turkish women initiated breastfeeding (98%) compared with 84% of Australian women. Vietnamese women had the lowest rate of breastfeeding initiation (75%), perceived their partners to be more negative about breastfeeding and did not value the health benefits of colostrum to the same extent as the other two groups. Forty percent of Vietnamese women gave their baby formula in hospital. The results of this study add to the previously reported finding that immigrant Vietnamese women have low breastfeeding rates compared with other groups.Despite the Baby Friendly status of the hospital where the study was conducted, major differences were found in breastfeeding initiation. Future research should develop and test interventions aimed at increasing breastfeeding initiation in Vietnamese women where initiation is low.The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that all infants should be exclusively breastfed from birth to six months of age followed by continued breastfeeding and the gradual introduction of solids [1]. In Australia, health policy makers support these recommendations [2]. Although breastfeeding initiation in Australia is around 83% [3,4] there are marked variations between subgroups. Australian studies have found, similar to others, that women are more likely to breastfeed if they are older [5], have more education [6], have higher income [4,7], and if they have social support [5,8]. Variations in breastfeeding rates among wom
Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Health Care Professionals on Ebola Virus Disease in Democratic Republic of the Congo
Kabemba Bukasa Héman
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105504
Abstract:
Background: Ebola virus disease (EVD) remains a public health problem. Health workers are constantly at risk of contracting the disease because of the high risk of infection. The Democratic Republic of Congo is in its tenth epi-demic. Objective: This study aimed to determine the level of knowledge, atti-tudes and practices of care professionals about the occurrence of a possible outbreak of EVD. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional and de-scriptive survey of the care staff of the Moba administrative unit. The period from June to August 2018 was chosen. We administered an adapted CDC-2014 questionnaire to the health care providers in the targeted hospitals. Results: A total of 66 care professionals had participated in our survey. The means age of the respondents was 32 ± 2.1 years, with a male predominance (57.6%) and a nurse (75.8%). The majority of care professionals had good knowledge of the name and reservoir of the causal agent, the severity of the disease, the modes of prevention and the attitude to adopt in case of suspicion of Ebola virus disease, and the year of the last epidemic. On the other hand, the level of knowledge on the definition of the disease, the transmission routes, the virological and clinical aspects and even the number of epidemics that have already affected the Democratic Republic of Congo and the year of the first epidemic was insufficient. The majority of respondents (78.8%; p < 0.01) had never attended Ebola training. Conclusion: The level of knowledge of the care professionals was below expectations. Strengthening care professionals capacity on Ebola virus disease is imperatively required in a short time, given epidemic episodes
Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Health Professionals in Front of the Exposure Accidents to Blood in Two Hospital Structures of Lubumbashi
Bakamona Lyna Babidi, Bianza Moise Bakadia, Mulongo Pauline Kalenga, Kamona Charles Kimuni, Kabengele Arlette Ndaya, Pembi Christian Kasongo, Tshibangu Victor Tshibanda, Kibi Ivonne Mwewa, H. E. Matala, A. R. Kamb, Mwema Gui Numbi, W. G. Sande, Katolo Patrick Banza, Koke Joelle Kibuluk, Kwete Mathieu Ngolo, Ilunga Eric Kasamba, Balaka Michel Ekwalanga
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103823
Abstract:
The accidents of blood exposure are a real threat to the health personnel. According to our knowledge, in both hospitals, some actions in the prevention of accidents of blood exposure have been implemented. We have therefore conducted a survey about knowledge, attitudes and practices during the month of May 2013 in order to assess the current situation, to measure the overall level of knowledge and practices of personnel exposed. A survey was sent to 384 people using the interview technique directly. The salient results indicate that 81.3% of them admitted to having suffered from an accident of blood exposure and the results showed a good knowledge of the risk of contamination three HBV, HCV and HIV. The rate of vaccination against hepatitis B is 21.6%. 61.2% of accidents of blood exposure were occurred during recapping of needles, a gesture considered at risk. What to do in case of accidents of blood exposure appears to be insufficiently known by our sample. Accidents of blood exposure are still a concern in our community. Regular information and education office to best practice campaigns are needed to reduce the impact of these preventable incidents by simple measures.
KNOWLEDGE, BELIEFS AND PRACTICES OF MOTHERS ABOUT BREASTFEEDING AND INFANT NUTRITION: A QUALITATIVE STUDY
Gizem Saml?,Bülent Kara,Pemra C?bek ünalan,Bülent Saml?
Marmara Medical Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Objective:This is a qualitative research that aims to explore the mothers’ knowledge and practices regarding infant nutrition and breastfeeding. Forty mothers with infants aged 9-15 months- and with varing different backgrounds in education, social and economic structure, formed the study groups.Method:The data was collected by means of depth interviews useing of a semi-structured questionnaire.Results:After the analysis the mothers’ words during the interviews were classified under these main themes: 1-Procedures affecting mothers’ breastfeeding decision 2-Knowledge and beliefs regarding breast-milk, 3-Breastfeeding practices, 4-Factors influencing the decisions of feeding with non-breast milk products 5-Mothers’ knowledge and attitudes to complementary nutritients/foods. Breastfeeding is a common habit in Turkey. In our study all of the infants were breastfed. But the mother’sanxiety about the sufficiency of breast-milk and social pressure leads to starting with complementary nutritients/foods early. Education must emphasize exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months and following the weight gain of the infant as the major indicator for assessment of its sufficiency. Although the economic level of the family affects the selection of the complementary foods, supervision is necessary for mothers who do not know enough about the quality of the foods and time of addition to the diet. i Mothers prefer one to one interviews with health professionals and using printed materials about infant nutrition.Conclusion:Before preparing community-based programs to improve infant nutrition, the mothers’ opinions, beliefs and needs, should be taken into account.
Attitudes towards 12-step groups and referral practices in a 12-step naive treatment culture; a survey of addiction professionals in Norway
John-K?re Vederhus, ?istein Kristensen, Alexandre Laudet, Thomas Clausen
BMC Health Services Research , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-9-147
Abstract: Data collected by a self-administered questionnaire, adapted from established US and UK instruments. Information covered the attitudes, knowledge and referral practices towards TSGs among addiction treatment professionals in Norway in mid 2008.The return rate was 79.7% (n = 291). Participants had moderately positive attitude scores towards TSGs, but referral to these groups among Norwegian addiction professionals was low, as was the level of knowledge about TSGs. More than six out of ten did not refer any patients to TSGs in the previous week. Local variation with more referrals to TSGs in the county with the one established 12-step treatment facility was observed. Respondents' integration of the 12-steps in their own treatment work, higher self-efficacy for making a successful referral, and greater TSG knowledge were associated with referring patients.Low referral rates to TSGs point to the need for education and training to raise the awareness and knowledge about it among addiction professionals unfamiliar with these 12-step fellowships. Training should focus on the usefulness of these groups for all types of treatment models regardless of therapeutic orientation. Increased knowledge is expected to lead to higher referral rates, which in turn would maximize the likelihood of positive long-term patient outcomes.Substance use disorders are, for many, a chronic condition and recovery requires ongoing support [1]. Public treatment systems are typically limited in resources and often cannot provide services of sufficient duration to address effectively the needs of severely dependent individuals. Self-help groups including Twelve Step groups (TSGs) such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) represent a useful complement to formal treatment services that contribute to sustaining treatment gains [2,3]. These organisations offer recovery support that is continuously available and free of charge to those who wish to attend, though small donations are ty
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