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The milk of human kindness: the story of the Mothers Milk Bank at Austin
Barbara Wilson-Clay
International Breastfeeding Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-1-6
Abstract: The nutritional superiority and immunological benefits provided by human milk are widely accepted [1,2]. Certain populations of high-risk infants may profit even more from these protections [3-7]. Ideally, own-mother's milk is provided. There is debate about whether banked human donor milk confers similar advantages. A systematic review examined outcomes of preterm infants fed donor human milk versus infant formula [8]. Meta-analysis indicated that the use of donor human milk was associated with a significant reduction in the relative risk of development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) [8].Recently, Schanler and colleagues questioned the benefit of banked human donor milk [9]. However, tables included in the Schanler study describe a significant decrease in chronic lung disease in the both own-mothers' milk and donor milk groups compared to the group receiving preterm infant formula [10]. Further, although the small sample size was inadequate to detect statistical significance, additional data included in the tables indicate that the rate of NEC was six per cent in the mothers milk and donor milk groups compared to 11 percent in the preterm infant formula group [10].While un-pasteurized, own mothers' milk remains the gold standard, many mothers, particularly those who have given birth to preterm babies, have difficulty producing adequate volumes of milk [9,11-13]. In Austin, the capital of Texas, neonatologists George Sharpe, MD and Audelio Rivera, MD, observed in their neonatal intensive care units that human milk-fed infants experienced better outcomes and shorter hospitalizations. They became interested in establishing a human donor milk bank in order to provide human milk to infants whose own mothers were unable to fully nourish them.Dr. Sharpe recalls, "I became enamored of the prospect of not having to treat NEC, one of the worst complications of the growing premature. A milk bank seemed an essential thing to do for our babies." Dr. Rivera agrees. "We start
Violence against Women: An Issue of Health and Human Rights.  [PDF]
Chineze J. Onyejekwe
Nebula , 2004,
Abstract: Failure to protect women against gender-based violence is a violation of their human rights. This paper links this problem to the spread of HIV/AIDS. The role of the media in perpetuating this problem is briefly analyzed. The role that states should play in the fight against this problem is also, discussed.
The Issue of Coherence in Human Rights and Democracy Education Work in Turkey
Rustu Yesil
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: A host of institutions in Turkey have devised human rights and democracy educational programs and initiatives. Studies and observations show that these efforts have not sufficed in establishing a culture of human rights and democracy at different levels of the Turkish society. In this context, the purpose of this study was to examine Human Rights and Democracy Education (HRDE) work in Turkey from holistic point of view. It is hypothesized that the desired level of efficacy in HRDE efforts in Turkey has not been achieved due to a lack of coherence among the many aspects of these efforts.
Modelling Improvements in Cell Yield of Banked Umbilical Cord Blood and the Impact on Availability of Donor Units for Transplantation into Adults  [PDF]
Natasha Kekre,Jennifer Philippe,Ranjeeta Mallick,Susan Smith,David Allan
Stem Cells International , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/124834
Abstract: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is used increasingly in allogeneic transplantation. The size of units remains limiting, especially for adult recipients. Whether modest improvements in the yield of cells surviving storage and thawing allow more patients to proceed to transplant was examined. The impact of improved cell yield on the number of available UCB units was simulated using 21 consecutive anonymous searches. The number of suitable UCB units was calculated based on hypothetical recipient weight of 50?kg, 70?kg, and 90?kg and was repeated for a 10%, 20%, and 30% increase in the fraction of cells surviving storage. Increasing the percentage of cells that survive storage by 30% lowered the threshold of cells needed to achieve similar engraftment rates and increased numbers of UCB units available for patients weighing 50 ( ), 70 ( ), and 90?kg ( ), controlling for differences in HLA compatibility. Moreover, if recipients were 90?kg, 12 out of 21 patients had access to at least one UCB unit that met standard criteria, which increased to 19 out of 21 patients ( ) when the fraction of cells surviving storage and thawing increased by 30%. Modest increases in the yield of cells in banked UCB units can significantly increase donor options for adult patients undergoing HSCT. 1. Introduction Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is used increasingly as an alternative source of hematopoietic stem cells for allogeneic transplantation into pediatric and adult patients. The National Marrow Donor Program recently reported that 10% of adult hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) and 41% of pediatric transplants utilized UCB as the graft source [1]. There are many reasons for the increased utility of UCB. Firstly, less than 30 percent of potential HSCT recipients will have a matched related donor available [2] and the trend towards increased reliance on alternative donor sources will continue well into the future based on reduced fertility rates observed in recent decades [3]. This has led to increased utilization of unrelated sources of stem cell grafts, including widespread public cord blood banking. UCB transplantation requires less stringent HLA matching compared with bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell grafts [4] and thereby helps to overcome barriers to donor availability for many patients, and especially patients from ethnic minorities [5]. The size of many adult patients often limits the availability of cord blood units due to the reduced number of cells per kilogram of recipient body weight, or the effective stem cell dose. Low cell doses may preclude
In defence of Helsinki and human rights
A Plomer
South African Journal of Bioethics and Law , 2012,
Abstract: The Declaration of Helsinki (DoH) is widely recognised as the leading authoritative source on ethical standards of medical research worldwide. Yet, in the past decade, different sources have questioned the authority of the DoH and its compliance with human rights, and argued for its replacement with UNESCO’s Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights . This paper argues that the tensions and alleged conflicts between Helsinki and human rights instruments are overstated, and that the latest version of the DoH is an important complement to human rights instruments in protecting the rights of disadvantaged populations and participants in biomedical research.
Human Rights and American Traditions  [PDF]
Alexandru Boboc-Cojocaru
International Journal of Social Science and Humanity , 2013, DOI: 10.7763/ijssh.2013.v3.226
Abstract: Since the beginning, the United States has recognized and respected the rights of individuals. Besides serving as custodian of a rich historical and political tradition on human rights, the United States has contributed greatly to the crystallization of International human rights legislation through the establishment of the United Nations Organization and the development of the United Nations Charter. From my perspective, the real dilemma faced by the United States has included so far the issue of solving specific problems related to human rights, the way in which human rights considerations combine with other factors of foreign policy and the way of creating a sustainable public consensus in support of their policy on the realm of human rights. In my opinion it is unlikely that these efforts should ever be entirely solved successfully. That’s why, in this paper, I try to analyze the correlation between moral and pragmatic components of the U.S. policy on human rights in the last 40 years.
Businesses’ human rights responsibilities
Corinne Lewis
Forced Migration Review , 2012,
Abstract: There is no international human rights law standard that expresslyprohibits businesses’ arbitrary displacement of persons. Businessesdo, however, have the responsibility to avoid infringements of humanrights that could lead to displacement and also to take actions toremedy their human rights violations that might lead to displacement.
IMPACT OF PATENT SYSTEM ON HUMAN RIGHTS  [PDF]
MALLIKARJUN ARALAPPA
Golden Research Thoughts , 2012, DOI: 10.9780/22315063
Abstract: Human rights and patent rights are, to a large extent, fields of law that have evolved independently. On the one hand, patent rights consist of statutorily recognized rights, which provide incentives for the participation of the private sector in certain fields and seek to contribute to technological development. Patents are near monopoly rights. This monopoly is offered by society in return for certain concessions such as information disclosure and a limited duration of the rights granted. On the other hand, human rights are fundamental rights, which are recognized by the state but are inherent rights linked to human dignity. Different kinds of links between patent rights and human rights can be identified.
Growth in VLBW infants fed predominantly fortified maternal and donor human milk diets: a retrospective cohort study
Tarah T Colaizy, Susan Carlson, Audrey F Saftlas, Frank H Morriss Jr
BMC Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-124
Abstract: Retrospective cohort study.171 infants with median gestational age 27 weeks (IQR 25.4, 28.9) and median birthweight 899 g (IQR 724, 1064) were included. 97% of infants received human milk, 51% received > 75% of all enteral intake as human milk. 16% of infants were small-for-gestational age (SGA, < 10th percentile) at birth, and 34% of infants were SGA at discharge. Infants fed >75% human milk had a greater negative change in weight z-score from birth to discharge compared to infants receiving < 75% (?0.6 vs, -0.4, p = 0.03). Protein and caloric supplementation beyond standard human milk fortifier was related to human milk intake (p = 0.04). Among infants receiving > 75% human milk, there was no significant difference in change in weight z-score by milk type (donor ?0.84, maternal ?0.56, mixed ?0.45, p = 0.54). Infants receiving >75% donor milk had higher rates of SGA status at discharge than those fed maternal or mixed milk (56% vs. 35% (maternal), 21% (mixed), p = 0.08).VLBW infants can grow appropriately when fed predominantly fortified human milk. However, VLBW infants fed >75% human milk are at greater risk of poor growth than those fed less human milk. This risk may be highest in those fed predominantly donor human milk.Maternal milk diets have been associated with advantages for extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants. ELBW infants fed maternal milk have lower rates of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) [1-3], the combined outcome of NEC or death [4], late onset sepsis [2,5,6], and have superior neurodevelopmental outcomes compared with those fed preterm formulas [7,8].However, maternal milk diets have also been associated with inferior in-hospital growth when compared with preterm formula. Studies performed prior to the current practice of human milk fortification demonstrated poorer growth in maternal–milk-fed infants compared with those fed formula [9], although neurodevelopmental advantages were associated with human milk intake [7,10]. Results of subsequent
Dignity, Human Rights, and Democracy  [PDF]
Ernesto Garzon Valdes
Rationality, Markets and Morals , 2009,
Abstract: In order to analyze what can plausibly be said about the relationship between dignity, human rights, and democracy, I will propose a basic assumption about human dignity (I) and then formulate five theses concerning the justification of democracy (II) which will allow me to conclude (III) that only when human rights are constitutionally established and effectively implemented democracy can be theoretically and practically justified as a political means to guarantee human dignity.
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