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Exploring general practitioners' experience of informing women about prenatal screening tests for foetal abnormalities: A qualitative focus group study
Cate Nagle, Sharon Lewis, Bettina Meiser, Jane Gunn, Jane Halliday, Robin Bell
BMC Health Services Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-8-114
Abstract: A qualitative study consisting of four focus groups was conducted in metropolitan and rural Victoria, Australia. A discussion guide was used and the audio-taped transcripts were independently coded by two researchers using thematic analysis. Multiple coders and analysts and informant feedback were employed to reduce the potential for researcher bias and increase the validity of the findings.Six themes were identified and classified as 'intrinsic' if they occurred within the context of the consultation or 'extrinsic' if they consisted of elements that impacted on the GP beyond the scope of the consultation. The three intrinsic themes were the way GPs explained the limitations of screening, the extent to which GPs provided information selectively and the time pressures at play. The three extrinsic factors were GPs' attitudes and values towards screening, the conflict they experienced in offering screening information and the sense of powerlessness within the screening test process and the health care system generally. Extrinsic themes reveal GPs' attitudes and values to screening and to disability, as well as raising questions about the fundamental premise of testing.The increasing availability and utilisation of screening tests, in particular first trimester tests, has expanded GPs' role in facilitating women's informed decision-making. Recognition of the importance of providing this complex information warrants longer consultations to respond to the time pressures that GPs experience. Understanding the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that impact on GPs may serve to shape educational resources to be more appropriate, relevant and supportive.Recent developments have made screening tests for foetal abnormalities available earlier in pregnancy and women have a range of testing options accessible to them. It is now recommended that all women, regardless of their age, are provided with information on prenatal screening tests [1,2]. The provision of information is an essen
Researchers and practitioners talk about users and each other: making user and audience studies matter
Brenda Dervin,CarrieLynn Reinhard
Information Research: an international electronic journal , 2006,
Abstract: Introduction. We report here on the research phase of a multi-stage dialogue examining convergences and divergences in how three fields (library and information science, human computer interaction and communication and media studies) looked at users and each other. Focus was on what researchers and practitioners saw as the big unanswered questions in user studies and what they saw as the convergences and divergences across disciplinary and practice-research divides. Method. Eighty-three international experts in the three fields were interviewed by phone; thirty-one local experts, public and academic librarians serving universities and colleges in central Ohio, were interviewed using self-journals and focus group reports. Analysis. A thematic analysis was completed. Purpose was not to fix substantive differences but to tap ways in which convergences and divergences showed relevance to the communicative aspects of the research enterprise. A theory of dialogue was applied that purposively positioned this analysis as only one of potentially many. Results. All informants showed strong commitment to improving user studies and making them matter more to design, practice and society. At the same time, regardless of field or perspective, they struggled with the incoherencies of avalanches of user research. They decried the general inability to communicate across fields and between research and practice. They decried the ways in which structural conditions seemed to constrain possibilities. Yet, they hoped for making things better. Conclusion. . The traditional modes used for communication in the social science research enterprise are not doing the job for user studies. We need to reclaim some procedures lost in the current emphases on quantity over quality and invent other options. This is the theme of our second paper, in this same issue.
Kensuke Baba,Masao Mori
International Journal of Digital Information and Wireless Communications , 2012,
Abstract: This paper introduces a system that realizes a simultaneous registration of scholarly papers for both a researcher database and a repository. An institutional repository is a method to realize free access to research outputs. However, the number of scholarly papers archived in institutional repositories is extremely small compared to the papers practically produced by researchers. The authors considered that an obstacle to increase the number is the efforts of researchers to register their papers to institutional repositories, and they developed a system that realizes a simultaneous registration of papers to the researcher database and the institutional repository in their university. This paper introduces the main idea and the details of the implementation of the system.
Can computerized clinical decision support systems improve practitioners' diagnostic test ordering behavior? A decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review
Pavel S Roshanov, John J You, Jasmine Dhaliwal, David Koff, Jean A Mackay, Lorraine Weise-Kelly, Tamara Navarro, Nancy L Wilczynski, R Brian Haynes, the CCDSS Systematic Review Team
Implementation Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1748-5908-6-88
Abstract: We conducted a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid's EBM Reviews database, Inspec, and reference lists for eligible articles published up to January 2010. We included randomized controlled trials comparing the use of CCDSSs to usual practice or non-CCDSS controls in clinical care settings. Trials were eligible if at least one component of the CCDSS gave suggestions for ordering or performing a diagnostic procedure. We considered studies 'positive' if they showed a statistically significant improvement in at least 50% of test ordering outcomes.Thirty-five studies were identified, with significantly higher methodological quality in those published after the year 2000 (p = 0.002). Thirty-three trials reported evaluable data on diagnostic test ordering, and 55% (18/33) of CCDSSs improved testing behavior overall, including 83% (5/6) for diagnosis, 63% (5/8) for treatment monitoring, 35% (6/17) for disease monitoring, and 100% (3/3) for other purposes. Four of the systems explicitly attempted to reduce test ordering rates and all succeeded. Factors of particular interest to decision makers include costs, user satisfaction, and impact on workflow but were rarely investigated or reported.Some CCDSSs can modify practitioner test-ordering behavior. To better inform development and implementation efforts, studies should describe in more detail potentially important factors such as system design, user interface, local context, implementation strategy, and evaluate impact on user satisfaction and workflow, costs, and unintended consequences.Much of medical care hinges on performing the right test, on the right patient, at the right time. Apart from their financial cost, diagnostic tests have downstream implications on care and, ultimately, patient outcomes. Yet, studies suggest wide variation in diagnostic test ordering behavior for seemingly similar patients [1-4]. This variation may be due to overuse or underuse of tests
Informing Science Special Issue on Information Science Research  [PDF]
Amanda Spink
Informing Science The International Journal of an Emerging Transdiscipline , 2000,
Abstract: The papers in this Special Issue of Informing Science highlight research areas in the interdisciplinary field of Information Science. Key research problems for Information Science include: (1) how to model and effectively support human information behaviors, including information seeking and use behaviors, and interaction with information retrieval (IR) technologies, (2) how information should be organized intellectually in IR technologies for more effective human information retrieval, and (3) the organizational, social and policy implications for the information society of human information behaviors. Information Scientists are concerned with how people's information problems can be resolved. In this way, information science is an important part of the "informing sciences". Information Science has largely borrowed theories and approaches from other disciplines - but is now attracting attention from other disciplines as a generator of theory and models that delineate key areas of human information-related endeavors. As humans struggle to seek and use information within the plethora of information sources increasingly available via the Web, Information Science research is taking center stage. Each paper in this special issue is written by an expert in their area of Information Science research.
Psychiatric nurse practitioners’ experiences of working with mental health care users presenting with acute symptoms  [cached]
Kgalabi Jacobs Ngako,Elsie S.J. van Rensburg,Sanah M.L. Mataboge
Curationis , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/curationis.v35i1.44
Abstract: Psychiatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) working with mental health care users presenting with acute symptoms work in a complex environment. This environment is characterised by mental health care users who may present with a history of violence, sexual assault and substance misuse. The objectives of this study were twofold: firstly, to explore and describe the experiences of PNPs working with mental health care users (MHCUs) presenting with acute symptoms; and secondly, to make recommendations for the advanced PNPs to facilitate promotion of the mental health of PNPs with reference to nursing practice, research and education. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. The target population was PNPs working with MHCUs presenting with acute symptoms in a public mental health care institution in Gauteng. Data were collected by means of four focus group interviews involving 21 PNPs. The researcher made use of drawings, na ve sketches and field notes for the purpose of data triangulation. Data were analysed in accordance with Tesch’s method of open coding. The three themes that emerged were: PNPs experienced working with these MHCUs as entering an unsafe world where care became a burden; they experienced negative emotional reactions and attitudes towards these MHCUs that compromised quality nursing care; and they made a plea for a nurturing environment that would enhance quality nursing care. The PNPs suggest skills and competency development, organisational support, and a need for external resources. Creation of a positive environment and mobilisation of resources as well as the identification and bridging of obstacles are essential in the promotion of the overall wellbeing and mental health of PNPs. How to cite this article: Ngako, J.K., Van Rensburg, E.S.J. & Mataboge, S.M.L., 2012, ‘Psychiatric nurse practitioners’ experiences of working with mental health care users presenting with acute symptoms’, Curationis35(1), Art. #44, 9 pages.http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/ curationis.v35i1.44
Science informing Policy – a health warning for the environment
Andrew S Pullin, Teri M Knight
Environmental Evidence , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2047-2382-1-15
Abstract: The development of mutual understanding between scientist and policy maker of the role of scientific evidence in informing policy is critical to effective environmental management. A higher profile and greater media coverage such engagement might provide are potentially good things for environmental science and scientists. The value of original research needs greater appreciation by those who might pay for it (tax payers, donors). Truly novel and groundbreaking research should be widely and accurately reported using skilled journalism to explain often complex issues to a lay readership or viewing audience. But, along with these positives there are potential negatives when scientists or vested interest groups compete for attention to promote one piece of research as more important or interesting than another.Communicating science to a wider audience is already something of an industry. Many publishers now seek to gain media coverage for individual papers and summarize the findings of key papers in dedicated sections of their journals to broaden their impact. Of course, where there is commercial interest there will always be selective relationships between scientists and those that might seek to exploit the results. Many organisations provide a service for those who wish to translate their outputs and increase their impact in a commercial setting (e.g. healthcare [5]). Putting commercial interests to one side, there are many situations in which collective (rather than selective) scientific evidence should be used for the collective good of society; public health and environmental management are perhaps two examples. Unfortunately, in contrast to public health, there is no widely adopted mechanism in environmental management to facilitate this process.Whilst we recognise that the translation of environmental science into policy is not a simple linear process [6] and that there are many other factors that influence policy decisions, there are also cases where science ha
A Researcher’s Perspective  [cached]
Thomas K J
Journal of Scientific Review , 2009,
Abstract: This article is based on a seminar I gave in the Sungkyunkwan University to graduate students who are venturing into a research career. I do not claim this is complete or indisputable. The contents are based on my own experience as a researcher as well as by watching other researchers around me. Some of them were quite successful and some ran into difficult situations due to one reason or another. I hope this will be just a readable article to anyone who wishes to do a Ph. D.
Formalized Curiosity: Reflecting on the Librarian Practitioner-Researcher  [cached]
Virginia Wilson
Evidence Based Library and Information Practice , 2013,
Abstract: There’s a well-documented gap between research and practice. A Google search for scholarly articles using the term “research practice gap” yields 2,530 hits as of this writing, while a search using the discovery layer at the University Library, University of Saskatchewan, for the same search termsyields 1,038 hits. There are a large number of articles which explore bridging the research/practice gap. So what will fill that gap in librarianship? Partnerships between LIS scholars and librarians have been suggested,and this can certainly help to mitigate the research/practice gap. Each group has things that the other group needs. Practitioners often have funding barriers, a real or perceived lack of research skills, and uneven access to the research literature. Scholars have less access to certain data that can only be obtained from practice situations, and a partnership with library practitioners can provide greater access to real life locations, users, and situations. As well, a partnership can help ensure that what the scholars are researching is relevant to the practitioners. However, scholar/practitioner partnerships sometimes are not practical, even in our age of social networking. In Canada, forexample, there is a dearth of library schools to cover our vast physical space. Physical proximity can play a role in whether or not a partnership is successful. Timeliness also is a factor. Practitioners sometimes need to “hit the ground running" and get their research done in order to inform practice. The logistics of a partnership can be time-consuming. As well, I am estimating that there are far more library and information professionals than there are university library scholars, so it’s really up to us to fill that gap ourselves in many cases.
Supporting the Teaching Researcher
Esat Alpay
REDU : Revista de Docencia Universitaria , 2012,
Abstract: ABSTRACT Tensions between the research and teaching roles in university are well recognised. Past teacher training practices have only partially considered such issues and indeed the motivations, bias and priorities of the teaching researcher. This paper provides an overview of teacher training (content and process) that is suited for the research-focused environment. Particular attention is given to a training approach that has been recently adopted at Imperial College London. The approach involves practice-based and experiential learning, support and input from a broad community (e.g. peers, senior peers and education experts), clear discipline contextualisation and ownership, and emphasis on the potential parallels between teaching and research and the value of teaching to research. Furthermore, teaching practices that capitalise on researcher and institutional strengths are encouraged, and exemplified through the notion of research-supporting teaching. RESUMEN Respaldo al investigador que es también docente Las tensiones entre los roles investigadores y docentes en la universidad son de sobras conocidas. Hasta la fecha, la formación del profesorado sólo ha tenido en cuenta de forma parcial esta problemática, así como las motivaciones, predisposición y prioridades del investigador que es a la vez profesor. Este artículo ofrece una descripción general de la formación del profesorado (en cuanto a contenido y a proceso) adecuada a un entorno enfocado a la investigación. Concretamente se da información sobre el planteamiento de la formación adoptado recientemente por la universidad Imperial College London. Este enfoque incluye aprendizaje experiencial basado en la práctica, apoyo e input de una amplia comunidad (por ejemplo pares, pares sénior y expertos en educación), clara contextualización respecto a la disciplina y propiedad/interiorización, y énfasis en los potenciales paralelismos entre docencia e investigación así como el valor de la docencia para la investigación. Además, se promueven aquellas prácticas docentes que aprovechan el rol investigador y el potencial institucional, y se ejemplifican mediante la noción de docencia que respalda la investigación.
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