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Information, communication and anthropology of knowledge - DOI: 10.3395/reciis.v3i3.279en
Annette Béguin-Verbrugge
RECIIS : Electronic Journal of Communication, Information & Innovation in Health , 2009,
Abstract: In Lille, ICS (Information and Communication Sciences) research revolves around the concept of anthropology of knowledge, and is strongly supported by textual sciences. Since the bond between communication and information was a core concern, the ideas of “text” or “enunciation” were used with a very broad meaning, according to a pragmatic approach that takes into consideration semiotic, social and technical contexts. At this moment of widespreadcomputerization, researchers become more centered on evolutionary rather than mediatic principles, always reaching new levels and acquiring new shapes. It is about studying the constitution, circulation and appropriation of knowledge under a perspective that is both systemic and phenomenologic.
Gender, Democracy, and Philosophy of Science - DOI: 10.3395/reciis.v1i1.39en
Sandra Harding
RECIIS : Electronic Journal of Communication, Information & Innovation in Health , 2007,
Abstract: Feminist epistemologies and philosophies of science have challenged conventional standards for objectivity, rationality, “good method” and “real science.” This paper looks at the stronger standards for maximizing objectivity which feminists have demanded, and the challenges to conventional philosophies and histories of science arising from non-Western science and technology traditions. Sciences and philosophies of science which want to advance social progress and social justice cannot do so if the ignore these challenges from groups located at “the peripheries of the Enlightenment.”
Knowledge production, interdisciplinarity, and structuralism - DOI: 10.3395/reciis.v3i3.271en
Maria de Fátima Gon?alves Moreira Tálamo
RECIIS : Electronic Journal of Communication, Information & Innovation in Health , 2009,
Abstract: This paper presents the organization of modern science, identifying knowledge production occurrences according to formal and informal contexts, and its paradigmatic transition to post-modernity, resorting to interdisciplinarity, the workings of which, following the principle of the economy of symbolic systems, allow repetition with different meaning and the consolidation of humanities. This phenomenon is exemplified by structuralism which, in contemporary times, continues to play an important role in the organization of new fields of investigation, such as the imprecise sciences and information science.
Entrevista con Geoffrey Lloyd.  [cached]
Fernando Colina Pérez,Mauricio Jalón
Revista de la Asociación Espa?ola de Neuropsiquiatría , 2008,
Abstract: Helenista y también sinólogo de relieve internacional, Geoffrey E. R. Lloyd nació en Londres (1933), de padres galeses. Es un gran historiador de la ciencia y del pensamiento griegos. En 1940 fue evacuado de Londres con su madre. Sus estudios significativos comenzaron, tras algún rodeo, en el King’s College donde estudiaba su hermano. éste sería, como su padre, médico, y él mismo dudó en estudiar esa profesión, que late en sus libros. Pero un profesor de clásicas como John Raven –que redactó, con Geoffrey Kirk, Los filósofos presocráticos–, le indujo a ocuparse de la filosofía antigua; y otro maestro, William Guthrie –a quien debemos la gran Historia de la filosofía griega–, le inició, además, en la medicina griega.
Abel Esterhuyse
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.5787/38-1-84
Abstract: With the publication of Seapower: A Guide for the Twenty-First Century Geoffrey Till has set the standard for publications on all things maritime. The updated and expanded new edition of the book is an essential guide for students of naval history and maritime strategy and provides essential reading for those interested in the role of seapower in the twenty-first century. Till notes in the preface to the second edition of the book (p. xv) that he specifically aimed at providing a broader international context for the discussion of the role of navies. The naval policies of China, Japan, India and the United States are used as case studies of general naval developments around the world. In addition, the analysis highlights the “… post-modern preoccupations of today’s navies” (p. xvii) including inter alia the maintenance of good order at sea, coalition operations, and multilateral terrorism. The central hypothesis of the book is rooted in the notion that the sea is central to the prosperity and security of all nations, and even more so since the emergence of an increasingly globalised world trading system. Till argues in Seapower that the fate of nations is closely link to the sea as a source of resources and as a means of transportation, information exchange and strategic domination in all human development.
Ethics in Social Research: challenges to the biomedical model - DOI: 10.3395/reciis.v2.Sup1.211en
Debora Diniz,Iara Guerreiro
RECIIS : Electronic Journal of Communication, Information & Innovation in Health , 2008,
Abstract: This article analyzes the main challenges involved in the ethical review of social research projects that use qualitative techniques for gathering data. The Brazilian ethical review system was constructed having biomedical sciences as the main reference. This article goes over some of the main points of ethical tension in social research by discussing five classic cases in human and social sciences. It supports the possibility of social research being included in the current ethical review system, as long as there is a sensitization of the ethics committees regarding the methodological particularities imposed by qualitative techniques. Finally, the need for specific ethical guidelines for social research is also considered.
The PDTIS bioinformatics platform: from sequence to function - DOI: 10.3395/reciis.v1i2.Sup.98en
Thomas Dan Otto,Marcos Catanho,Wim Degrave,Antonio Basílio de Miranda
RECIIS : Electronic Journal of Communication, Information & Innovation in Health , 2007,
Abstract: Since the eighties, Bioinformatics has acquired a growing importance in the biological sciences. Due to the complexity of hardware and software tools, and the need for a specialized management of network infrastructure, data processing and storage, many research institutions organized a bioinformatics core facility. In this work, we describe typical bioinformatics activities and the organization of a bioinformatics core with institutional support. Since the end of the 80s, FIOCRUZ has contributed for the development and establishment of Bioinformatics in Rio de Janeiro, through different initiatives. Starting with sequence analysis courses, today our institution has a permanent Bioinformatics service, integrated with other strategic activities through a thematic network of technological platforms imbedded in the Program for Technological Development of Health Products (PDTIS), where the main attributions of such platforms are concentrated in support, establishment of new methodologies and active participation in research projects and technological development. In this paper we present the PDTIS Bioinformatics Platform, its scope, resources and its support, teaching and research activities. Bioinformatics has emerged as a new scientific area and a short history of its development at FIOCRUZ is also summarized.
The relation between mediation and use in the research field of information and communication in France - DOI: 10.3395/reciis.v3i3.276en
Yves Jeanneret
RECIIS : Electronic Journal of Communication, Information & Innovation in Health , 2009,
Abstract: The “mediation” and “use” notions are frequently employed in researches in the field of information science and communication in France. The main purpose of this article is to reflect on these two notions, so as to reveal, in the absence of its “natural” evidence, some problems, resources and risks. The idea of mediation is originated in anthropo-social sciences and provides means to describe with a certain precision, information-communication processes; it allows socially requalifying the dynamics and regimes of culture and leads the researcher to question one’s own place in the circulation of social knowledge. The idea of use keeps a historical link with the media reception studies carried out by the North-American “administrative” sociology and relates to functionality, even if not reducing it to technology. The mediation (mediations) and the use do not differ because of their respective objects, but because of the perspective effect they produce and the very different ways they glimpse at the place of communication in informational practices. It can therefore be asserted that in a communicational perspective, the notions of mediation, practice and use operate together. However, this does not take place without tensions and paradoxes.
Strengths and limitations of formal ontologies in the biomedical domain - DOI: 10.3395/reciis.v3i1.241en
Stefan Schulz,Holger Stenzhorn,Martin Boeker,Barry Smith
RECIIS : Electronic Journal of Communication, Information & Innovation in Health , 2009,
Abstract: We propose a typology of representational artifacts for health care and life sciences domains and associate this typology with different kinds of formal ontology and logic, drawing conclusions as to the strengths and limitations for ontology of different kinds of logical resources, with a focus on description logics. The four types of domain representation we consider are: (i) lexico-semantic representation, (ii) representation of types of entities, (iii) representations of background knowledge, and (iv) representation of individuals. We advocate a clear distinction of the four kinds of representation in order to provide a more rational basis for using of ontologies and related artifacts to advance integration of data and interoperability of associated reasoning systems. We highlight the fact that only a minor portion of scientifically relevant facts in a domain such as biomedicine can be adequately represented by formal ontologies when the latter are conceived as representations of entity types. In particular, the attempt to encode default or probabilistic knowledge using ontologies so conceived is prone to produce unintended, erroneous models.
Fostering Variety in Economics. Interview with Geoffrey Hodgson
Agnès Labrousse,Julien Vercueil,Geoffrey Hodgson
Revue de la Régulation : Capitalisme, Institutions, Pouvoirs , 2008,
Abstract: After being a university lecturer in economics at the University of Cambridge, Geoffrey Hodgson is currently a research professor in business studies at the University of Hertfordshire in England. He is director of the Centre for Research in Institutional Economics and editor-in-chief of The Journal of Institutional Economics. He is interested in the big questions of how socio-economic systems work, and how individuals relate to economic institutions . His books include Economics and Insti...
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