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Anatomía de Commelinaceae presentes en un cultivo de papas (Solanum tuberosuml.) en Mérida, Venezuela Anatomy of Commelinaceae present in a culture of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Merida, Venezuela
Rebeca LUQUE ARIAS,Javier ESTRADA SáNCHEZ
Acta Botánica Venezuelica , 2005,
Abstract: Commelinaceae, después de Poaceae y Cyperaceae, es la familia de monocotiledóneas con mayor número de malezas de cultivo; entre ellas, algunas especies de Commelina y Tinantia son hospederas de ácaros, royas y virus, como Potato Y potyvirus que afecta a Solanum tuberosum. Se realizó un estudio de la anatomía de los órganos vegetativos de representantes de las especies Commelina obliquay Tinantia erecta que crecen en un cultivo de papas en los Andes de Mérida, para tratar de determinar la existencia de caracteres anatómicos comunes y diferenciales para las especies, así como cuales de estos favorecen su establecimiento en el cultivo y la existencia o no de caracteres que indiquen la presencia de posibles patógenos asociados a ellas. Se encontró que ambas especies poseen hojas anfiestomáticas, con epidermis de células altas, cutícula delgada, mesofilo compacto bien diferenciado, tallos con abundantes raíces adventicias, caracteres éstos que permiten el comportamiento de malezas. Además se notó un contenido aparentemente plasmodial en las células de la vaina vascular que podría estar asociado a la presencia de patógenos. Commelinaceae is, after Poaceae and Cyperaceae, the family of monocotiledons with the greatest number of weeds associated to cultures; among them, some species of Commelina and Tinantia are host for acarus, rust and virus, like the Potato Y potyvirus that affects Solanum tuberosum. In the Andes of Mérida, Commelina obliqua and Tinantia erecta grow like weeds in cultivation of potato. To try to determine the existence of common and differential anatomical characters among them, as well as which anatomical characters favor its establishment in the cultivation, and the existence or not of characters that indicate the presence of possible pathogenic agents associated to them, the anatomy of its vegetative organs was carried out. Both species have amphistomatic leaves, tall epidermical cells , thin cuticle; compact and well defined mesophyll; stem showing abundant adventitious roots; all of those being characters that permit the weed condition. In addition, the parenchyma cells of the leaves sheath seem to be filled with a plasmodium, suggesting infection by pathogens.
Evaluation of Direct Shoot Regeneration from Stem Explants of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Delaware by Thidiazuron (TDZ)  [cached]
A.A. Ehsanpour,M. Jones
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2000,
Abstract: Potato is a valuable plant as a source of nutrition and as an industrial product. The modification and breeding of potato plants are very difficult, or even impossible, via the conventional plant breeding programs. However, plant biotechnology and tissue culture are reliable methods which can produce plant material for gene transformation using Agrobacterium as a vector. In this study, one-, two-, and three-step methods of plant regeneration from stem culture of potato cv. Delaware were tested. Among these only the one-step procedure using TDZ, a synthetic cytokinin, was the best for rapid plant regeneration. In this culture medium, several shoot buds and shoots were regenerated from stem culture, while the other methods using a culture medium supplemented with BAP, NAA, zeatin, 2ip, IAA produced white and green callus. Morphology and chromosome number of all regenerated plants were similar to the original plants. The results showed that the regeneration system was suitable for cv. Delaware and that the culture conditions prevented genetic variation of the regenerated plants.
Anatomía de Commelinaceae presentes en un cultivo de papas (Solanum tuberosuml.) en Mérida, Venezuela
LUQUE ARIAS,Rebeca; ESTRADA SáNCHEZ,Javier;
Acta Botánica Venezuelica , 2005,
Abstract: commelinaceae is, after poaceae and cyperaceae, the family of monocotiledons with the greatest number of weeds associated to cultures; among them, some species of commelina and tinantia are host for acarus, rust and virus, like the potato y potyvirus that affects solanum tuberosum. in the andes of mérida, commelina obliqua and tinantia erecta grow like weeds in cultivation of potato. to try to determine the existence of common and differential anatomical characters among them, as well as which anatomical characters favor its establishment in the cultivation, and the existence or not of characters that indicate the presence of possible pathogenic agents associated to them, the anatomy of its vegetative organs was carried out. both species have amphistomatic leaves, tall epidermical cells , thin cuticle; compact and well defined mesophyll; stem showing abundant adventitious roots; all of those being characters that permit the weed condition. in addition, the parenchyma cells of the leaves sheath seem to be filled with a plasmodium, suggesting infection by pathogens.
Anatomía de estructuras vegetativas y origen de los estolones, microtubérculos y raíces adventicias en plantas in vitro de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) cv. Granola Anatomy of the vegetative structure and origin of stolons, microtubers and adventitious roots of in vitro potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants cv Granola
J. E. Salas R,N. J. Mogollón M,M. E. Sanabria
Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía , 2003,
Abstract: Con la finalidad de describir la anatomía de estructuras vegetativas y el origen de los estolones, microtubérculos y raíces adventicias de plantas in vitro de papa (S. tuberosum L.) cv. Granola, se muestrearon plantas cultivadas en las fases de crecimiento y desarrollo e inducción a la tuberización. En esta última, desde la iniciación hasta la formación de los microtubérculos. Las muestras se fijaron en F.A.A. al 90%, procesándose según las técnicas convencionales de estudios anatómicos para la obtención de láminas semipermanentes y permanentes de secciones transversales y longitudinales de los órganos en estudio. Paralelamente se realizaron preparaciones con aclarados de las porciones apicales, medias y basales de las láminas foliares, a fin de estudiar las características de la epidermis. En el tallo aéreo los tejidos vasculares estaban dispuestos en haces colaterales separados por zonas de tejido parenquimático, a partir del cual se originaron el cambium interfascicular, xilema, floema y raíces adventicias; mientras que los estolones en las zonas axilares de dicho tallo. Los microtubérculos se formaron en la zona sub-apical del estolón y en la zona axilar del tallo aéreo. En estas estructuras, el felógeno se originó a partir de las capas celulares subepidérmicas. En la hoja, ambas epidermis resultaron ser uniestratificadas, con tricomas simples, unicelulares o pluricelulares, y algunos glandulares. Los estomas, paracíticos y anomocíticos, se observaron en ambas superficies. Las raíces adventicias resultaron ser diarcas. Al comparar estos resultados con los obtenidos en otros cultivares de S. tuberosum y otros géneros de Solanaceae, se encontraron diferencias anatómicas marcadas. Potato plants (S. tuberosum L.) cv. Granola, produced under in vitro conditions were sampled during the phases of growth, development and induction of tuber development in order to describe the anatomy of vegetative structures and the origin of stolons, micro-tubers and adventitious roots. This last activity was studied from initiation up to the formation of micro-tubers. Samples were fixed in 90% F.A.A. following conventional techniques for anatomical studies. Both permanents and semi-permanent slides of transverse and longitudinal sections of the tissues being studied were prepared. Decolorized portions of apical, intermediate and basal parts of the foliar lamina were also processed for studying some of the epidermal characteristics. The vascular bundles of aerial stems were arranged in collateral axis and separated by zones of parenchymatous tissues from which the interfac
Bioinformatic identification of microRNAs and their target genes from Solanum tuberosum expressed sequence tags
Qiang Guo,AnLing Xiang,Qing Yang,ZhiMin Yang
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2007, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-007-0359-x
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that regulate gene post-transcriptional expression in plants and animals. Low levels of some miRNAs and time-and tissue-specific expression patterns lead to the difficulty for experimental identification of miRNAs. Here we present a bioinformatic approach for expressed sequence tags (ESTs) prediction of novel miRNAs as well as their targets in Solanum tuberosum. We blasted the databases of S. tuberosum ESTs to search for potential miRNAs, using previously known miRNA sequences from Arabidopsis, rice and other plant species. By analyzing parameters of plant precursors, including secondary structure, stem length and conservation of miRNAs, and following a variety of filtering criteria, a total of 22 potential miRNAs were detected. Using the newly identified miRNA sequences, we were able to further blast the S. tuberosum mRNA database and detected 75 potential targets of miRNAs in S. tuberosum. According to the mRNA annotations provided by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/), most of the miRNA target genes were predicted to encode transcription factors that regulate cell growth and development, signaling, and metabolism.
SolDB: A Database of Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum tuberosum Primers  [PDF]
Hassan Tariq,Shahid Nadeem,Muhammad Sohail Raza,Sobia Idrees
International Journal Bioautomation , 2010,
Abstract: SolDB is the Database of Solanaceae Family. It is an interactive, free online specialized database for Solanaceae family. Currently, it spans complete nucleotide sequences of expressed genes of Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum tuberosum along with their annotation. We have designed PCR oligonucleotide primer sequences for each gene, with their features and conditions given. This feature alone greatly facilitates researchers in PCR amplification of genes sequences, especially in cloning experiments. We also provided chloroplast genome section which gives access to fully sequenced plastid genomes and their annotations. Flexible database design, easy expandability, and easy retrieval of information are the main features of SolDB. The Database is publicly available at www.soldb.pakbiz.org.
Propuesta de un sistema de transformación de plantas de papa (Solanum tuberosum sp. andigena var. Pastusa suprema) mediado por Agrobacterium tumefaciens
López,Alfredo; Chaparro,Alejandro;
Agronomía Colombiana , 2007,
Abstract: it has been demonstrated that agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated-transformation of potato (solanum tuberosum) was depended upon the genotype. in addition, most of the proposed protocols were inefficient to transform the andigena subspecies. in this proposal, the initial processes of genetic improvement of the new colombian variety pastusa suprema, which highly andro-sterile characteristic is of great importance for genetically modified organisms, were handled. this variety was produced across the inter-specific hybridization of three different species of potato (solanum stoloniferum, solanum phureja var. yema de huevo y solanum tuberosum sp. andigena var. parda pastusa). stem explants was transformed using the vector pcambia 2301, which has the gene reporter of β-glucoronidase and the gene of resistance to kanamycin. percentage initial transformation was expressed as formation of callus on a selection medium of 31 ± 2.5% with a final 30% frequency using gus assay. it is the first report of a transformation process of an inter-specific hybrid derived from three different species.
Evaluation of genetic stability in cryopreserved Solanum tuberosum
R Zarghami, M Pirseyedi, S Hasrak, BP Sardrood
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Cryopreservation is a technology of high importance in the storage of plant germplasm for long periods; however, the practical application of this technology for the preservation of plant materials is useful only if it does not lead to the genetic changes in the plant of interest. In the present investigation, the genetic stability of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlets of the cultivars Agria and Marphona stored under cryopreservation and non-cryopreservation conditions was studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique. Also, flow cytometric studies were performed to detect if there were probably any changes in the level of polyploidy. Seven primer combinations were used in the AFLP studies. Agria plantlets kept under non-cryopreserved conditions were approximately of average 97% genetic similarity to those of the same cultivar stored under cryopreservation conditions. With the cultivar of Marphona, full (100%) homology was found between plantlets stored under cryopreservation and non-cryopreservation conditions. Comparative studies on the polyploidy levels of the plantlets of both cultivars conserved under two above-mentioned storage conditions indicated that cryopreservation technique did not cause any changes in polyploidy levels.
Effect of Heat on Nutrition of Solanum tuberosum
M. A. Rashid, Md. Iqbal Hussain, M. Saifullah, M. A. Habib, M. A. Sattar
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102490
Abstract:
Various nutritional values are more influenced by cooking than others. This study compared the effects of microwave heating with conventional cooking method of fresh Potato (Solanum tuberosum). The moisture and ash content in raw potato were 76.60% and 0.40%, respectively. After conventional cooking moisture and ash content were 78.00% and 0.50%, respectively and after microwave heating it saw the values were 77.20% and 0.60%, respectively. The fat and carbohydrate content in raw potato were 0.70% and 20.46%, respectively. After conventional cooking those values were 0.80% and 19.40%, respectively and in microwave heating it showed the values were 0.50% and 20.08%, respectively. Total protein content was also changed by those cooking methods. In microwave heating it reduced the vitamin-C content to some extent but the conventional cooking completely destroyed the vitamin-C contents.
The answer of some old varieties of Solanum tuberosum L. for in vitro cultivation  [PDF]
Anca BACIU
Analele Universitatii din Oradea, Fascicula Biologie , 2009,
Abstract: The genus Solanum is of great importance for the molecular and cell biology researches in general, and for the vegetal genetic engineering in particular.Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum L. is one of the most important culture plants of the temperate zone, being the fifth in rank among the cultivated species around the world and the fourth in rank as world crop [12] and as proteins production among the culture plants.In the scientific activity of the Department of Genetics the magneto fluids nanocomposites have been used since from 1985. From the historical point of view the magneto fluids nanocomposites were use in technology, medicine and in the plant kingdom. The most spectacular results were obtained in medicine in the carcigenesis treatment. The magneto fluids nanocomposites were used in biotechnology, especially for improving the regenerative processes.In our experiments we wanted to understand the magneto fluids nanocomposites effect upon in vitro regeneration processes in Solanum tuberosum L. old varieties.These studies are good opportunities for further potato genetic resources conservation researches and for political and ethical decisions.
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