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Congenital long QT syndrome
Lia Crotti, Giuseppe Celano, Federica Dagradi, Peter J Schwartz
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1750-1172-3-18
Abstract: The two cardinal manifestations of LQTS are syncopal episodes, that may lead to cardiac arrest and sudden cardiac death, and electrocardiographic abnormalities, including prolongation of the QT interval and T wave abnormalities. The genetic basis of the disease was identified in the mid-nineties and all the LQTS genes identified so far encode cardiac ion channel subunits or proteins involved in modulating ionic currents. Mutations in these genes (KCNQ1, KCNH2, KCNE1, KCNE2, CACNA1c, CAV3, SCN5A, SCN4B) cause the disease by prolonging the duration of the action potential. The most prevalent LQTS variant (LQT1) is caused by mutations in the KCNQ1 gene, with approximately half of the genotyped patients carrying KCNQ1 mutations.Given the characteristic features of LQTS, the typical cases present no diagnostic difficulties for physicians aware of the disease. However, borderline cases are more complex and require the evaluation of various electrocardiographic, clinical, and familial findings, as proposed in specific diagnostic criteria. Additionally, molecular screening is now part of the diagnostic process.Treatment should always begin with β-blockers, unless there are valid contraindications. If the patient has one more syncope despite a full dose β-blockade, left cardiac sympathetic denervation (LCSD) should be performed without hesitation and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy should be considered with the final decision being based on the individual patient characteristics (age, sex, clinical history, genetic subgroup including mutation-specific features in some cases, presence of ECG signs – including 24-hour Holter recordings – indicating high electrical instability).The prognosis of the disease is usually good in patients that are correctly diagnosed and treated. However, there are a few exceptions: patients with Timothy syndrome, patients with Jervell Lange-Nielsen syndrome carrying KCNQ1 mutations and LQT3 patients with 2:1 atrio-ventricular b
Current perspectives on congenital long QT syndrome  [cached]
Jessica Delaney,Suneet Mittal,Mark V. Sherrid
Anadolu Kardiyoloji Dergisi , 2009,
Abstract: Congenital long QT syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by prolonged QT interval on electrocardiogram and increased risk of sudden cardiac death from ventricular arrhythmias. In long QT syndrome, genes that encode for the various cardiac ion channels or regulatory proteins of these channels are mutated. The various mutations individually lead to a disruption of the normal cardiac myocyte action potential, and thus leading to a propensity for ventricular arrhythmias. Diagnosis can be difficult with patient presentations ranging from palpitations to syncope to sudden cardiac death. The QT interval can also vary over time, often requiring further testing to support the diagnosis. Recently developed genetic testing can be used to identify the responsible genes in patients with known disease. It can also be used to genotype the affected patient’s family members. The current test panel only recognizes common mutations resulting in a falsely negative test for those with a rare or unidentified variant. For treatment, beta-blocker therapy is recommended for all patients, and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) placement is recommended for those who are at high risk for a cardiac event. Future investigations will concentrate genotype-guided risk stratification for ICD placement and on genotype-specific pharmacological therapy.
Actualización sobre el síndrome de QT largo congénito Update on the congenital long QT syndrome
Roberto Zayas Molina
Revista Cubana de Investigaciones Biom??dicas , 2012,
Abstract: El síndrome de QT largo congénito se caracteriza por la prolongación del intervalo QT y anomalías de la onda T del electrocardiograma, asociados con una predisposición para la aparición de arritmias ventriculares malignas (torsión de puntas), síncope, fibrilación ventricular y muerte súbita (MS) cardíaca. El entrenamiento para realizar las mediciones, la variabilidad de la penetración y de las mutaciones, los solapamientos, las formas mixtas y los síndromes de superposición, pueden dificultar el diagnóstico y con ello, la conducta terapéutica. Esta revisión pretende actualizar aspectos esenciales relacionados con el diagnóstico, bases genéticas, mecanismos fisiopatológicos y moleculares, así como conducta terapéutica, de esta compleja canalopatía. The congenital long QT syndrome is characterized by a prolongation of the QT interval and T wave abnormalities on the ECG, associated to a predisposition for the appearance of malignant ventricular arrhythmias (torsade de pointes), syncope, ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Training in taking the measurements, penetrance and mutation variability, overlaps, mixed forms and overlap syndrome may all hamper diagnostic and therapeutic management. The present review intends to update essential aspects related to the diagnosis, genetic bases, physiopathological and molecular mechanisms, and therapeutic management of this complex channelopathy.
Congenital Long QT Syndrome: An Update and Present Perspective in Saudi Arabia  [PDF]
Zahurul A. Bhuiyan,Jumana Al-Aama
Frontiers in Pediatrics , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fped.2013.00039
Abstract: Primary cardiac arrhythmias are often caused by defects, predominantly in the genes responsible for generation of cardiac electrical potential, i.e., cardiac rhythm generation. Due to the variability in underlying genetic defects, type, and location of the mutations and putative modifiers, clinical phenotypes could be moderate to severe, even absent in many individuals. Clinical presentation and severity could be quite variable, syncope, or sudden cardiac death could also be the first and the only manifestation in a patient who had previously no symptoms at all. Despite usual familial occurrence of such cardiac arrhythmias, disease causal genetic defects could also be de novo in significant number of patients. Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is the most eloquently investigated primary cardiac rhythm disorder. A genetic defect can be identified in ~70% of definitive LQTS patients, followed by Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia (CPVT) and Brugada syndrome (BrS), where a genetic defect is found in <40% cases. In addition to these widely investigated hereditary arrhythmia syndromes, there remain many other relatively less common arrhythmia syndromes, where researchers also have unraveled the genetic etiology, e.g., short QT syndrome (SQTS), sick sinus syndrome (SSS), cardiac conduction defect (CCD), idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF), early repolarization syndrome (ERS). There exist also various other ill-defined primary cardiac rhythm disorders with strong genetic and familial predisposition. In the present review we will focus on the genetic basis of LQTS and its clinical management. We will also discuss the presently available genetic insight in this context from Saudi Arabia.
Role of left cardiac sympathetic denervation in the management of congenital long QT syndrome.  [cached]
Wang L
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 2003,
Abstract: Congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a rare but life-threatening disorder affecting cardiac electrophysiology. It occurs due to mutation in genes encoding for the ion channels in ventricular cell membrane. Syncopal attacks and cardiac arrest are the main symptoms of the disease. Anti-adrenergic therapy with oral beta-blockers has been the mainstay of treatment for LQTS. However, up to 30% of patients fail to respond to medical therapy and remain symptomatic. An alarming 10% of patients still experience cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death during the course of therapy. Left cardiac sympathetic denervation (LCSD) has been used as an alternative therapy in patients who are resistant to beta-blockers. Although LCSD appears effective in reducing the frequency of syncopal attacks and improving the survival rate in both the short and long-term, its use has not gained popularity. The recent advent of minimally invasive thoracoscopic sympathectomy may improve the acceptance of LCSD by physicians and patients in the future. The primary objective of this article was to review the current evidence of the clinical efficacy and safety of LCSD in the management of LQTS. The review was based on Medline search of articles published between 1966 and 2002.
Placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator in an infant with congenital long QT syndrome: Anesthetic considerations  [cached]
Kansara Bhuvnesh,Singh Ajmer,Kaushal Sunil,Saxena Anil
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia , 2011,
Abstract: Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in children is a rare, but catastrophic event. Children with cardiac pathology at particular risk include those with congenital long QT syndrome (CLQTS) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. CLQTS is a genetic disorder of the cardiac ion channels and is associated with significant risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmias and SCA. For symptomatic, untreated patients, the mortality rate is approximately 20% for the first year and 50% at ten years. Use of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is recommended for the prevention of SCA in this patient population. We report a case of CLQTS, who after successful resuscitation from SCA, underwent ICD placement at our center.
The Application of Root Mean Square Electrocardiography (RMS ECG) for the Detection of Acquired and Congenital Long QT Syndrome  [PDF]
Robert L. Lux, Christopher Todd Sower, Nancy Allen, Susan P. Etheridge, Martin Tristani-Firouzi, Elizabeth V. Saarel
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085689
Abstract: Background Precise measurement of the QT interval is often hampered by difficulty determining the end of the low amplitude T wave. Root mean square electrocardiography (RMS ECG) provides a novel alternative measure of ventricular repolarization. Experimental data have shown that the interval between the RMS ECG QRS and T wave peaks (RTPK) closely reflects the mean ventricular action potential duration while the RMS T wave width (TW) tracks the dispersion of repolarization timing. Here, we tested the precision of RMS ECG to assess ventricular repolarization in humans in the setting of drug-induced and congenital Long QT Syndrome (LQTS). Methods RMS ECG signals were derived from high-resolution 24 hour Holter monitor recordings from 68 subjects after receiving placebo and moxifloxacin and from standard 12 lead ECGs obtained in 97 subjects with LQTS and 97 age- and sex-matched controls. RTPK, QTRMS and RMS TW intervals were automatically measured using custom software and compared to traditional QT measures using lead II. Results All measures of repolarization were prolonged during moxifloxacin administration and in LQTS subjects, but the variance of RMS intervals was significantly smaller than traditional lead II measurements. TW was prolonged during moxifloxacin and in subjects with LQT-2, but not LQT-1 or LQT-3. Conclusion These data validate the application of RMS ECG for the detection of drug-induced and congenital LQTS. RMS ECG measurements are more precise than the current standard of care lead II measurements.
Congenital Short QT Syndrome  [cached]
Charles Antzelevitch,Johnson Francis
Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal , 2004,
Abstract: Long QT intervals in the ECG have long been associated with sudden cardiac death. The congenital long QT syndrome was first described in individuals with structurally normal hearts in 1957.1 Little was known about the significance of a short QT interval. In 1993, after analyzing 6693 consecutive Holter recordings Algra et al concluded that an increased risk of sudden death was present not only in patients with long QT interval, but also in patients with short QT interval (<400 ms).2 Because this was a retrospective analysis, further evaluation of the data was not possible. It was not until 2000 that a short-QT syndrome (SQTS) was proposed as a new inherited clinical syndrome by Gussak et al.3 The initial report was of two siblings and their mother all of whom displayed persistently short QT interval. The youngest was a 17 year old female presenting with several episodes of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation requiring electrical cardioversion.3 Her QT interval measured 280 msec at a heart rate of 69. Her 21 year old brother displayed a QT interval of 272 msec at a heart rate of 58, whereas the 51 year old mother showed a QT of 260 msec at a heart rate of 74. The authors also noted similar ECG findings in another unrelated 37 year old patient associated with sudden cardiac death.
Síndrome de QT prolongado congénito y embarazo: reporte de dos casos Congenital long QT syndrome and pregnancy: report of two cases
Julián M Aristizábal,Mauricio Duque R,Jorge E Marín V,Jorge E Velásquez V
Revista Colombiana de Cardiología , 2010,
Abstract: El síndrome de QT prolongado congénito, es una entidad clínica que se caracteriza por la alteración en la repolarización miocárdica dada por una prolongación significativa del intervalo QT con riesgo aumentado de síncope, taquicardia ventricular polimórfica y muerte súbita. Se produce por la alteración en la función de canales iónicos responsables del potencial de acción de las células cardíacas, como consecuencia de múltiples mutaciones, de las cuales las más frecuentes se dan en los canales de sodio y potasio. La relación con el embarazo y principalmente la presencia de eventos en el posparto, está determinada por arritmias ventriculares o episodios de muerte súbita, lo cual debe llevar a una evaluación exhaustiva de QTc prolongado y sus factores desencadenantes o enfermedades concomitantes. Se muestran los casos clínicos de dos pacientes que presentaron muerte súbita en el posparto en las cuales se diagnosticó síndrome de QT largo congénito. Congenital long QT syndrome is a clinical entity characterized by impairment of myocardial repolarization given by significant prolongation of the corrected QT interval with an increased risk of syncope, polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and sudden death. This is produced by an alteration in the function of ion channels responsible for the action potential of cardiac cells as a consequence of multiple mutations, the most common of which are in the sodium and potassium channels. The relationship with pregnancy and especially the presence of events in the postpartum period is clearly determined by the presence of ventricular arrhythmias or episodes of sudden death, that should lead to a thorough evaluation of prolonged QTc and its triggers or concomitant diseases. We present the clinical records of two patients who had sudden death during the postpartum and were diagnosed as congenital long QT Syndrome.
Congenital Short QT Syndrome  [cached]
Lia Crotti,Erika Taravelli,Giulia Girardengo,Peter J. Schwartz
Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal , 2010,
Abstract: The Short QT Syndrome is a recently described new genetic disorder, characterized by abnormally short QT interval, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and life threatening ventricular arrhythmias. This autosomal dominant syndrome can afflict infants, children, or young adults; often a remarkable family background of cardiac sudden death is elucidated. At electrophysiological study, short atrial and ventricular refractory periods are found, with atrial fibrillation and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia easily induced by programmed electrical stimulation. Gain of function mutations in three genes encoding K+ channels have been identified, explaining the abbreviated repolarization seen in this condition: KCNH2 for Ikr (SQT1), KCNQ1 for Iks (SQT2) and KCNJ2 for Ik1 (SQT3). The currently suggested therapeutic strategy is an ICD implantation, although many concerns exist for asymptomatic patients, especially in pediatric age. Pharmacological treatment is still under evaluation; quinidine has shown to prolong QT and reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, but awaits additional confirmatory clinical data.
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