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The Association between Nonalcoholic Fatty Pancreas Disease and Diabetes  [PDF]
Horng-Yih Ou, Chih-Yuan Wang, Yi-Ching Yang, Ming-Fong Chen, Chih-Jen Chang
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062561
Abstract: Background Fatty infiltration of the pancreas has been shown to interfere with insulin secretion. Both insulin sensitivity and secretion are important in the pathogenesis of diabetes and prediabetes. However, the relationship between diabetes, prediabetes, and fatty pancreas remains unknown. We aim to investigate the relationships that fatty pancreas and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have with prediabetes and diabetes in a Chinese population. Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 7,464 subjects were recruited. NAFLD and fatty pancreas were assessed by sonography. Clinico-metabolic parameters were compared among subjects with normoglycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes. Multinomial logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between fatty pancreas and NAFLD and diabetes or prediabetes with adjustment for cardiometabolic risk factors. Results With an increase in glycemia, a significantly greater proportion of subjects had NAFLD and fatty pancreas (test for trend p<0.05). Similar trends were also found for hypertension, general and central obesity, low-HDL cholesterol, and hypertriglyceridemia. In the logistic regression analysis, age, hypertension, male gender, hypertriglyceridemia, and central obesity were significantly associated with prediabetes and diabetes. Furthermore, the ORs of prediabetes and diabetes for NAFLD were 1.798 (95% CI 1.544–2.094) and 2.578 (95% CI 2.024–3.284), respectively. In addition, fatty pancreas was independently related to diabetes (OR, 1.379; 95% CI, 1.047–1.816) and prediabetes (OR, 1.222; 95% CI, 1.002–1.491) in male subjects. Conclusions Both NAFLD and fatty pancreas were associated with diabetes independent of age, gender, adiposity, and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Fatty pancreas was also related to prediabetes in males.
Synergistic effect of fatty liver and smoking on metabolic syndrome  [cached]
Po-Hsin Chiang, Tsui-Yen Chang, Jong-Dar Chen
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2009,
Abstract: AIM: To investigate the association of fatty liver and smoking on metabolic syndrome and its components.METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled participants who attended annual health screening at Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital from January to December 2005. A total of 3455 (1981 men and 1474 women) subjects were included in final analyses. Fatty liver was diagnosed using abdominal ultrasonography by trained gastroenterologists. The modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III was used to define metabolic syndrome. The associations between smoking, fatty liver and metabolic syndrome were analyzed using multiple logistic regression.RESULTS: Subjects with fatty liver, and who smoked tobacco, had the highest odds ratios (ORs) for high waist circumference [OR, 4.5 (95% CI: 3.3-6.1), P < 0.05], hypertriglyceridemia [OR, 8.1 (95% CI: 6.0-10.9), P < 0.05], low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) [OR, 8.3 (95% CI: 6.1-11.3), P < 0.05], and metabolic syndrome [OR, 9.5 (95% CI: 6.7-13.4), P < 0.05] compared to subjects without fatty liver who did not smoke tobacco. We also found that the ORs for hypertriglyceridemia, low serum HDL-C, and metabolic syndrome for subjects with fatty liver who smoked tobacco had greater than the sum of the ORs for subjects with fatty liver who did not smoke plus those who did not have fatty liver and who did smoke.CONCLUSION: Fatty liver and smoking had a synergistic effect on metabolic syndrome and its components, especially for hypertriglyceridemia and low serum HDL-C.
Iatrogenic equine metabolic syndrome in thoroughbred horses
Abelardo Morales,Francisco García,Víctor Bermúdez,María Morales
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica , 2009,
Abstract: Reasons for performing study: Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) is a cluster of problem that includes obesity, insulin resistance and laminitis. In EMS peripheral adipocytes synthesize adipokines which are analogous to cortisol, resulting in Cushing syndrome like-signs and insulin resistance. The used of dexamethasone and triancinolone is very common and not permitted. Hypothesis or Objectives: The objective of this study was to describe metabolic syndrome iatrogenic in Thoroughbred horses. Methods: Were studied 22 Thoroughbred horses (12 female and 10 male), between 2-5 years old, in the national race Track “La Rinconada” Caracas-Venezuela. All equine were euthanized and study by necropsy. Samples were collected from the adrenal glands, gastric mucosa, pancreas, kidneys, liver, spleen, lungs, heart and adenohypofisys. Tissue sections were prepared and stained with Hematoxilin & Eosin (H&E) for light microscopy. Results: Clinical signs were polyury, polydipsy and secondary diabetes mellitus, recurrent infection, lethargie, laminitis and weight loss syndrome. Were isolates of recurrent infection: Salmonella sp., E. coli, Streptococcus sp, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterobacter cloacae. Necropsy revealed: weight loss, loss fatty subcutaneous, xantomathosis of subcutaneous tissue. Abscess in coxal tuberous, facial and shoulder region. Liver was swollen, friable and icteric. Renal cortical and papillary necrosis. Equine gastric ulcer syndrome severed. Liver with periacinar necrosis with a prominent acinar pattern and fatty degeneration severed. Necrosis and vacuolar (glycogen) degeneration islets of langerhans, fibrosis and chronic. Renal cortical and medullary necrosis, acute tubular necrosis and glycogen nephrosis, glomerulonephritis membranous. Hemorrhages in adrenal cortex and atrophy cortical. Conclusions: These results suggest a iatrogenic EMS in Thoroughbred associated with overdose and chronic dexamethasone and triancinolona. Potential relevance: This article is a clinical study, laboratory, bacterial, macroscopic and histopathological describing the clinical pathologic presentation of metabolic syndrome pathological in Thoroughbreds horses associated with overdose and chronic dexamethasone and triancinolona.
Long-Term Risperidone Treatment Induces Visceral Adiposity Associated with Hepatic Steatosis in Mice: A Magnetic Resonance Approach  [PDF]
Florent Auger,Patrick Duriez,Fran?oise Martin-Nizard,Nicolas Durieux,Régis Bordet,Olivier Pétrault
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/429291
Abstract: Although atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) have led to significant advances in the treatment of psychotic disorders, they still induce metabolic disturbances. We aimed at characterizing the metabolic consequences of a risperidone treatment and at establishing a link with noninvasive MR markers, in order to develop a tool for predicting symptoms of the metabolic syndrome. Fat deposition and liver morphometry were assessed by T1-weighted imaging. Fatty acid composition and fat accumulations in tissues were determined using MR spectroscopy with and without water suppression, respectively. Risperidone treatment induced a weight gain accompanied with metabolic disturbances such as hyperglycemic status, an increase in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and liver fat depositions. Correlations using Methylene-Water Ratio (MWR) and Polyunsaturated Index (PUI) demonstrated a concomitant increase in the weight gain, VAT and liver fat depositions, and a decrease in the quantity of polyunsaturated fatty acids. These results were consistent with a hepatic steatosis state. We evaluated the ability of MR techniques to detect subtle metabolic disorders induced by APDs. Thus, our model and methodology offer the possibility to investigate APDs side effects in order to improve the health conditions of schizophrenic patients. 1. Introduction Antipsychotic drugs (APDs) are widely used in current psychiatric practice and are commonly classified as typical (conventional) or atypical (second generation). Atypical APDs have been introduced in clinical practice after 1990, including clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone. Atypical APDs cause less extrapyramidal symptoms (tremors) than typical APDs. However, both of them produce a weight gain [1–3], which increases the risk to develop a metabolic syndrome [4] associating several disorders such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and abdominal fat deposition [4, 5]. The excess of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass is particularly correlated to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance [6]. Indeed, abnormal VAT depositions lead to the storage of lipids in undesired organs such as pancreas, skeletal muscle, heart, and liver. This so-called “ectopic fat deposition” contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome [6–12]. VAT accumulation could thus represent a biomarker of metabolic disturbances, as used in clinic through the measurement of waist circumference in replacement of the body mass index [5]. Nevertheless, the susceptibility to develop a metabolic syndrome is not
Plasma fatty acids and the risk of metabolic syndrome in ethnic Chinese adults in Taiwan
Kuo-Liong Chien, Chia-Lun Chao, Chen-Hong Kuo, Hung-Ju Lin, Pi-Hua Liu, Pei-Rony Chen, Hsiu-Ching Hsu, Bai-Chin Lee, Yuan-Teh Lee, Ming-Fong Chen
Lipids in Health and Disease , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1476-511x-10-33
Abstract: A nested case-control study based on 1000 cases of metabolic syndrome and 1:1 matched control subjects. For saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and transfat, the higher the concentration the higher the risk for metabolic syndrome: participants in the highest quintile had a 2.22-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66 to 2.97) higher risk of metabolic syndrome. In addition, the participants in higher EPA quintiles were less likely to have the risk of metabolic syndrome (adjusted risk, 0.46 [0.34 to 0.61] for the fifth quintile). Participants in the highest risk group (low EPA and high transfat) had a 2.36-fold higher risk of metabolic syndrome (95% CI, 1.38 to 4.03), compared with those in the lowest risk group (high EPA and low transfat). For prediction power, the area under ROC curves increased from 0.926 in the baseline model to 0.928 after adding fatty acids. The net reclassification improvement for metabolic syndrome risk was substantial for saturated fat (2.1%, P = 0.05).Plasma fatty acid components improved the prediction of the metabolic syndrome risk in Taiwan.Identifying dietary factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome is essential for primary prevention [1,2]. Dietary intake habits of fatty acids, including consumption of foods with high saturated fat and high transfat contents, are associated with insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia [3]. In addition, transfat has frequently been reported to be risk factors for cardiovascular diseases [4,5], and the evidence for monounsaturated fats was inconclusive[6]. In contrast, marine-derived fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are inversely related to type 2 diabetes due to reduced inflammation and increased insulin sensitivity [7]. However, although there have been many studies about the association of specific fatty acids and the risk of cardiovascular diseases, there have only been a limited number of integrated comparison studies. Previous
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and the metabolic syndrome: An update  [cached]
R Scott Rector, John P Thyfault, Yongzhong Wei, Jamal A Ibdah
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: Sedentary lifestyle and poor dietary choices are leading to a weight gain epidemic in westernized countries, subsequently increasing the risk for developing the metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is estimated to affect approximate 30% of the general US population and is considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. Recent findings linking the components of the metabolic syndrome with NAFLD and the progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) will be reviewed; in particular, the role of visceral adipose tissue, insulin resistance, and adipocytokines in the exacerbation of these conditions. While no therapy has been proven effective for treating NAFLD/NASH, common recommendations will be discussed.
Iatrogenic equine metabolic syndrome in thoroughbred horses
Morales,Abelardo; García,Francisco; Bermúdez,Víctor; Morales,María; Leal,Luís; López,Pedro; Planas,Gilberto; Rodríguez,Carlos;
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica , 2009,
Abstract: reasons for performing study: equine metabolic syndrome (ems) is a cluster of problem that includes obesity, insulin resistance and laminitis. in ems peripheral adipocytes synthesize adipokines which are analogous to cortisol, resulting in cushing syndrome like-signs and insulin resistance. the used of dexamethasone and triancinolone is very common and not permitted. hypothesis or objectives: the objective of this study was to describe metabolic syndrome iatrogenic in thoroughbred horses. methods: were studied 22 thoroughbred horses (12 female and 10 male), between 2-5 years old, in the national race track ?la rinconada? caracas-venezuela. all equine were euthanized and study by necropsy. samples were collected from the adrenal glands, gastric mucosa, pancreas, kidneys, liver, spleen, lungs, heart and adenohypofisys. tissue sections were prepared and stained with hematoxilin & eosin (h&e) for light microscopy. results: clinical signs were polyury, polydipsy and secondary diabetes mellitus, recurrent infection, lethargie, laminitis and weight loss syndrome. were isolates of recurrent infection: salmonella sp., e. coli, streptococcus sp, staphylococcus, enterococcus faecalis and enterobacter cloacae. necropsy revealed: weight loss, loss fatty subcutaneous, xantomathosis of subcutaneous tissue. abscess in coxal tuberous, facial and shoulder region. liver was swollen, friable and icteric. renal cortical and papillary necrosis. equine gastric ulcer syndrome severed. liver with periacinar necrosis with a prominent acinar pattern and fatty degeneration severed. necrosis and vacuolar (glycogen) degeneration islets of langerhans, fibrosis and chronic. renal cortical and medullary necrosis, acute tubular necrosis and glycogen nephrosis, glomerulonephritis membranous. hemorrhages in adrenal cortex and atrophy cortical. conclusions: these results suggest a iatrogenic ems in thoroughbred associated with overdose and chronic dexamethasone and triancinolona. potential relevance: t
Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose Intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome, Brain Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease  [PDF]
Artemis P. Simopoulos
Nutrients , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/nu5082901
Abstract: Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health.
Dietary trans-fatty acids and metabolic syndrome  [PDF]
Zdzis?aw Kochan,Joanna Karbowska,Ewa Babicz-Zielińska
Post?py Higieny i Medycyny Do?wiadczalnej , 2010,
Abstract: Trans-fatty acids (TFAs), products of partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, have become more prevalent in our diet since the 1960s, when they replaced animal fats. TFAs also occur naturally in meat and dairy products from ruminants. There is growing evidence that dietary trans-fatty acids may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Several studies have demonstrated adverse effects of TFAs on plasma lipids and lipoproteins. In dietary trials, trans-fatty acids have been shown to raise the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio and Lp(a) levels in blood. Moreover, a high intake of TFAs has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. Prospective cohort studies have shown that dietary trans-fatty acids promote abdominal obesity and weight gain. In addition, it appears that TFA consumption may be associated with the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The documented adverse health effects of TFAs emphasise the importance of efforts to reduce the content of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils in foods.
Metabolic syndrome and risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Souza, M?nica Rodrigues de Araújo;Diniz, Margareth de Fátima Formiga de Melo;Medeiros-Filho, José Eymard Moraes de;Araújo, Maria Salete Trigueiro de;
Arquivos de Gastroenterologia , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-28032012000100015
Abstract: context: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (nafld), hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, has been considered the most common liver disease nowadays, which is also the most frequent cause of elevated transaminases and cryptogenic cirrhosis. the greatest input of fatty acids into the liver and consequent increased beta-oxidation contribute to the formation of free radicals, release of inflammatory cytokines and varying degrees of hepatocytic aggression, whose histological expression may vary from steatosis (hs) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (nash). the differentiation of these forms is required by the potential risk of progression to cirrhosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. objective: to review the literature about the major risk factors for nafld in the context of metabolic syndrome, focusing on underlying mechanisms and prevention. method: pubmed, medline and scielo data basis analysis was performed to identify studies describing the link between risk factors for metabolic syndrome and nafld. a combination of descriptors was used, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, metabolic syndrome and risk factors. at the end, 96 clinical and experimental studies, cohorts, meta-analysis and systematic reviews of great impact and scientific relevance to the topic, were selected. results: the final analysis of all these data, pointed out the central obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension as the best risk factors related to nafld. however, other factors were highlighted, such as gender differences, ethnicity, genetic factors and the role of innate immunity system. how these additional factors may be involved in the installation, progression and disease prognosis is discussed. conclusion: risk factors for nafld in the context of metabolic syndrome expands the prospects to 1) recognize patients with metabolic syndrome at high risk for nafld, 2) elucidate pathways common to other co-morbidities, 3) determine risk
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