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A Discrete-Time Traffic and Topology Adaptive Routing Algorithm for LEO Satellite Networks  [PDF]
Wenjuan Jiang, Peng Zong
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2011.41005
Abstract: “Minimizing path delay” is one of the challenges in low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite network routing algo-rithms. Many authors focus on propagation delays with the distance vector but ignore the status information and processing delays of inter-satellite links. For this purpose, a new discrete-time traffic and topology adap-tive routing (DT-TTAR) algorithm is proposed in this paper. This routing algorithm incorporates both inher-ent dynamics of network topology and variations of traffic load in inter-satellite links. The next hop decision is made by the adaptive link cost metric, depending on arrival rates, time slots and locations of source-destination pairs. Through comprehensive analysis, we derive computation formulas of the main per-formance indexes. Meanwhile, the performances are evaluated through a set of simulations, and compared with other static and adaptive routing mechanisms as a reference. The results show that the proposed DT-TTAR algorithm has better performance of end-to-end delay than other algorithms, especially in high traffic areas.
A Light Weight On-Board Distributed Routing Protocol for LEO Satellite Networks

BAI Jian-Jun,LU Xi-Cheng,PENG Wei,

软件学报 , 2005,
Abstract: In LEO satellite networks with inter-satellite links, the highly dynamic topology and the limited on-board resources pose special challenges to routing protocol design. In this paper, a light weight on-board distributed routing protocol is proposed to cope with these challenges. For ODRP, the single layer LEO satellite constellation is considered as double-layer constellation. A satellite at special geographical position is selected as the plane speaker according to the dynamic characteristics of inter-satellite links and the distribution of traffic load carried by the network, consequently the idea of distributed hierarchical routing is realized. Experimental results show that ODRP has the adaptive abilities to deal with the dynamic topology of LEO satellite networks and guarantees the path's optimality, and especially can decrease the packet loss probability efficiently in case of high traffic load. Furthermore, results from the implementation complexity analysis demonstrate that the proposed protocol has lower onboard computational, storage and signaling requirements than other on-board routing schemes.
An Off-line Based QoS Routing Scheme for LEO Satellite Networks  [cached]
Zhian Yang,Fei Long,Fuchun Sun
Journal of Networks , 2011, DOI: 10.4304/jnw.6.2.247-254
Abstract: With the development of the space technology, the low performance of the on-board computing becomes a bottleneck of the satellite networks. To solve this problem, we proposed a new off-line QoS routing scheme for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite networks based on ground station in this paper. This routing scheme is off-line and based on prediction. The most computing task of the routing scheme will be implemented on the ground station with algebraic methods and on-board computing complexity will be reduced to polynomial. Simulation results show this new routing scheme can provide more QoS guarantees and higher performance.
A Distributed Routing Algorithm for LEO Networks

REN Hong-Bo,

计算机科学 , 2007,
Abstract: Due to high-speed movement of satellites around the regions, the dynamic topology of LEO satellite networks and earth and temporal variation of traffic intensity in certain variable traffic load in different satellite coverage areas pose special requirements to routing in ISL segment of network. Considering inherent characteristic of LEO satellite networks, a compressed path information based distributed routing algorithm is proposed in this paper. The algorithm can support multi-path routing capability without introducing additional signal overhead by using a distributed hierarchical link state collection policy and a compact path information coding scheme, so as to realize traffic load balancing and optimize utilization of costly spatial network resources.
Lightweight On-demand QoS Source Routing for LEO Satellite Network

ZHU Jun,RAO Yuan,LI Shao-wen,SHAO Xing,

计算机科学 , 2012,
Abstract: QoS routing for LEO(Low Earth Orbit) satellite network faces great challenges due to several issues, such as, ingress satellite handover, unbalanced distribution of traffic and the limited on-board processing ability. A light-weight on-demand QoS source routing algorithm using mobile agent was proposed. Firstly,ISL(inter-satellite link) availability index was designed considering ISL utility. Secondly, satellite availability index was put forward based on traffic distribution undertaken by satellite network. hhirdly, the migration strategy of mobile agent was given taking both indexes into account. Consequcntly,ISI. routing and rerouting were presented in detail. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach has lower signaling overhead, better delay fitter, new call blocking probability and handover blocking probability than the traditional methods.
Multi path and multi service routing strategy for LEO/GEO satellite networks

- , 2017,
Abstract: 针对卫星网络中业务需求因时间空间分布不均导致的网络拥塞,以及高误码率导致的数据损坏,提出了一种面向LEO/GEO卫星网络的多路径多业务路由策略。该策略将时空因子引入链路代价公式,并综合考虑链路状态、多路径标志位、业务对时延敏感性和用户等级,进行传输路径的选择。仿真结果表明,该策略具有较好的性能,整个卫星网络的平均丢包率下降,吞吐量上升,保证了高优先级数据包的优先传输,提高了数据传输的可靠性。
The uneven distribution of network demand over time and space causes the congestion and the data damage due to high error rates,a multi path and multi service routing strategy for LEO/GEO satellite networks is explored.In the strategy,the space time factor is introduced into the link cost formula,and the transmission path is selected by considering the link state,multi path flag,the sensitivity of the traffic to the delay and the user level.The simulation results show that the routing strategy has better performance.The average packet loss rate of the whole satellite network is decreased,and the throughput is increased.Thus,the strategy ensures the transmission of high priority packets and improves the reliability of data transmission
Handover Priority Schemes for Multi-Class Traffic in LEO Mobile Satellite Systems
Amr Salah El-Din Hashem Matar,Gamal Abd-Elfadeel,Ibrahim Ismail Ibrahim,Hesham Mahmoud Zarif Badr
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper, an analytical framework is developed to evaluate the performance of complete sharing (CS) with two different handover priority schemes for multi-class traffic in Low Earth Orbit-Mobile Satellite Systems (LEO-MSS). In the first priority scheme, the handover requests are given the higher priority using queuing scheme with also taking into consideration the priority between classes of traffic. Where, in the second priority scheme a combination of guard channel and queuing of handover requests scheme is developed.
On-Demand QoS Multicast Routing for Triple-Layered LEO/HEO/GEO Satellite IP Networks  [cached]
Zhizhong Yin,Long Zhang,Xianwei Zhou
Journal of Communications , 2011, DOI: 10.4304/jcm.6.6.495-508
Abstract: In this paper, for the sake of better global coverage, we introduce a novel triple-layered satellite network architecture including the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO), the Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO), and the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite layers, which provides the near-global coverage with 24 hour uninterrupted over the areas varying from 75° S to 90° N. On the basis of this satellite network architecture, we propose an on-demand QoS multicast routing protocol (ODQMRP) for satellite IP networks using the concept of logical locations to isolate the mobility of LEO and HEO satellites. In ODQMRP, we present two strategies, i.e., the parallel shortest path tree (PSPT) strategy and the least cost tree (LCT) strategy, to create the multicast trees under the condition that the QoS requirements, containing the delay constraint, and the available bandwidth constraint, are guaranteed. The PSPT and LCT strategy minimize the path delay and the path cost of the multicast trees, respectively. Simulation results demonstrate that the performance benefits of the proposed ODQMRP in terms of the end-to-end tree delay, the tree cost, and the failure ratio of multicasting connections by comparison with the conventional non-QoS shortest path tree (SPT) strategy.
Dynamic Multi-path Routing Protocol for LEO/MEO Satellite Networks

TANG Jian,SHE Chun-dong,XU Zhi-ming,

计算机科学 , 2009,
Abstract: According to the characteristic of LEO/MEO satellite constellation,a rapid and reconstructable routing protocol was proposed.At the same time,the model of the algorithm was simulated and features were analyzed.This protocol not only reduces the duration for end-to-end path establishment significantly,but also the multi-path capability provides the flexibility for reliable transmission and load balance in satellite networks.
Diagnosis of Links in ATM-Based Robust Routing Algorithm in LEO Satellite Communication Networks

ZHAO Zhi-Gang,LI Hang,WANG Guang-Xing,

计算机科学 , 2006,
Abstract: A robust ATM-based routing algorithm for LEO satellite systems employing ISL is proposed,by which a source satellite can communicate with any end satellite,so long as a path exists between the source satellite and the destination satellite.The focus of this paper is on faulty links' identification part of the routing algorithm.At first,a source satellite builds discrete-time dynamic virtual topology graph(DT-DVTG)based on collected unreachable path in- formation,then it can detect the most probable failed network links through probability method,and the actual failed links can be accurately pinpointed through quick and autonomous testing.Because of its supporting dynamic routing concept,the robust routing algorithm can be further improved the robustness on the ground of the performance of the original dynamic routing algorithm.
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