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CD133: a potential indicator for differentiation and prognosis of human cholangiocarcinoma
Linni Fan, Furong He, Hongxiang Liu, Jin Zhu, Yixiong Liu, Zhiyong Yin, Lu Wang, Ying Guo, Zhe Wang, Qingguo Yan, Gaosheng Huang
BMC Cancer , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-11-320
Abstract: Fifty-nine cases, comprised of 5 normal liver tissues and 54 consecutive CC specimens (21 well-differentiated, 12 moderately-differentiated and 21 poorly-differentiated), were included in the study. Immunohistochemical stainning with CD133 protein was carried out, and statistical analyses were performed.CD133 was found to express in all 5 normal livers and 40 out of 54 (74%) CC tissues with different subcellular localization. In the well, moderately and poorly differentiated cases, the numbers of CD133 positive cases were 19 (19 of 21, 90%), 10 (10 of 12, 83%) and 11 (11 of 21, 52%) respectively. Further statistical analyses indicated that the expression and different subcellular localization of CD133 were significantly correlated with the differentiation status of tumors (P = 0.004, P = 0.009). Among 23 patients followed up for survival, the median survival was 4 months for fourteen CD133 negative patients but 14 months for nine CD133 positive ones. In univariate survival analysis, CD133 negative expression correlated with poor prognosis while CD133 positive expression predicted a favorable outcome of CC patients (P = 0.001).Our study demonstrates that CD133 expression correlates with the differentiation of CC and indicates that CD133 is a potential indicator for differentiation and prognosis of human CC.CD133, also known as prominin-1, is a five-transmembrane domain molecule [1,2] located on apical plasma membrane protrusions of embryonic epithelial structures [3-5]. Up to now, it is mainly used for marking stem-like cells of various tissues and cancers [6]. Many tumors are known to contain a minority population of cancer stem cells or tumor-initiating cells which have the properties of self-renewal, proliferation, and multilineage differentiation and are responsible for sustaining the tumor [7]. Moreover, CD133 may represent a putative cancer stem cell marker in many solid tumors, such as human colon cancer [8,9], prostate tumor [10,11], pancreatic adenocarcinoma
Correlation of Ki67-Positivity in Tumoral Cells` Percentage with Effective Factors on Prognosis in Primary Breast Cancer
Mohammad Reza Jalali Nadoushan,Elham Neisani,Mitra Karbassi
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common cancers in women in the world. Molecular markers are one of the most important prognosis factors. In this study, correlation of proliferative factor, Ki67, has been evaluated by grade, stage and axillary involvement in primary breast cancer. This study has been done by cross-sectional study on 69 paraffin blocks of patients with breast cancer which obtained from pathology department of shahid Mostafa Khomeini hospital, since 2000-2004. From each, two samples with 3 micrometer thickness were provided. One from tumor and one from lymphnode(s) which were stained by hematoxillin and eosin. Then we determined number of lymphnode(s) and grade according to Nattingham Modification of Bloom-Richardson criteria. Another section for Ki67 was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. The results have been analyzed statistically according to grading, lymphnode(s) involvement and ki67-positivity. Our study showed that 100% of samples of ki67 were positive. The most samples were grade III, 43.5% and the least were grade I, 17.4%. 69.6% of the patients had axillary lymphnode(s) involvement. In this study, there was correlation between ki67 and axillary lymphnode(s) involvement. The expression of ki67 in patients with breast cancer should be noticed. It has to be paid attention to this marker as effective factor in prognosis of breast cancer in Iran. It can`t be concluded definitely by this study in its role in prognosis and it needs more study with more samples and longer following up.
Correlation of Ki67-Positivity in Tumoral Cells` Percentage with Effective Factors on Prognosis in Primary Breast Cancer
Mohammad Reza Jalali Nadoushan,Elham Neisani,Mitra Karbassi
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common cancers in women in the world. Molecular markers are one of the most important prognosis factors. In this study, correlation of proliferative factor, Ki67, has been evaluated by grade, stage and axillary involvement in primary breast cancer. This study has been done by cross-sectional study on 69 paraffin blocks of patients with breast cancer which obtained from pathology department of shahid Mostafa Khomeini hospital, since 2000-2004. From each, two samples with 3 micrometer thickness were provided. One from tumor and one from lymphnode(s) which were stained by hematoxillin and eosin. Then we determined number of lymphnode(s) and grade according to Nattingham Modification of Bloom-Richardson criteria. Another section for Ki67 was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. The results have been analyzed statistically according to grading, lymphnode(s) involvement and ki67-positivity. Our study showed that 100% of samples of ki67 were positive. The most samples were grade III, 43.5% and the least were grade I, 17.4%. 69.6% of the patients had axillary lymphnode(s) involvement. In this study, there was correlation between ki67 and axillary lymphnode(s) involvement. The expression of ki67 in patients with breast cancer should be noticed. It has to be paid attention to this marker as effective factor in prognosis of breast cancer in Iran. It can`t be concluded definitely by this study in its role in prognosis and it needs more study with more samples and longer following up.
Menopausal Symptoms among Breast Cancer Patients: A Potential Indicator of Favorable Prognosis  [PDF]
Yong Chen, Tsogzolmaa Dorjgochoo, Ping-Ping Bao, Ying Zheng, Hui Cai, Wei Lu, Xiao-Ou Shu
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075926
Abstract: Menopausal symptoms have been suggested to be an indicator of better prognosis among patients treated for breast cancer, because women who experience these symptoms usually have a lower level of estrogen. We tested this hypothesis in a population-based, prospective cohort study involving 4,842 women with stage 0 to III primary breast cancer who were enrolled in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study between March 2002 and April 2006, were aged 20 to 75 years, and were recruited 6 months post-diagnosis. They were followed-up by in-person surveys and record linkages with the vital statistics registry. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of menopausal symptoms at baseline with breast cancer recurrence. Approximately 56% of patients experienced at least one menopausal symptom, including hot flashes, night sweats, and/or vaginal dryness at baseline. During a median follow-up period of 5.3 years, 720 women had a recurrence. Experiencing hot flashes or having ≥2 menopausal symptoms was associated with lower risk of recurrence among premenopausal women (hazard ratio [HR]=0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-0.96 for hot flashes; 0.73, 0.56-0.96 for ≥2 menopausal symptoms). Lower recurrence risk in relation to hot flashes was also observed among women who were not overweight/obese (HR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.64-0.99), those with relatively low waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (HR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.61-0.97), and those who used tamoxifen (HR=0.75, 95% CI: 0.58-0.98). Consistently experiencing multiple menopausal symptoms was associated with lower recurrence risk among women with low WHR or who used tamoxifen. This large, population-based cohort study of women with breast cancer confirms that experiencing menopausal symptoms is an indicator of favorable breast cancer prognosis.
Localization of ABCG5 and ABCG8 proteins in human liver, gall bladder and intestine
Eric L Klett, Mi-Hye Lee, David B Adams, Kenneth D Chavin, Shailendra B Patel
BMC Gastroenterology , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-230x-4-21
Abstract: Here we report the biochemical and immuno-localization of ABCG5 and ABCG8 in human liver, gallbladder and intestine using cell fractionation and immunohistochemical analyses.We raised peptide antibodies against ABCG5 and ABCG8 proteins. Using human liver samples, cell fractionation studies showed both proteins are found in membrane fractions, but they did not co-localize with caveolin-rafts, ER, Golgi or mitochondrial markers. Although their distribution in the sub-fractions was similar, they were not completely contiguous. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that while both proteins were readily detectable in the liver, ABCG5 was found predominately lining canalicular membranes, whereas ABCG8 was found in association with bile duct epithelia. At the cellular level, ABCG5 appeared to be apically expressed, whereas ABCG8 had a more diffuse expression pattern. Both ABCG5 and ABCG8 appeared to localize apically as shown by co-localization with MRP2. The distribution patterns of ABCG5 and ABCG8 in the gallbladder were very similar to each other. In the small intestine both ABCG5 and ABCG8 appear to line the brush border. However, at the level of the enterocyte, the cellular distribution patterns of ABCG5 and ABCG8 differed, such that ABCG5 was more diffuse, but ABCG8 was principally apical. Using standard deglycosylation methods, ABCG5 and ABCG8 do not appear to be glycosylated, suggesting a difference between human and mouse proteins.We report the distribution patterns of ABCG5 and ABCG8 in human tissues. Cell fractionation studies showed that both proteins co-fractionated in general, but could also be found independent of each other. As predicted, they are expressed apically in both intestine and liver, although their intracellular expression patterns are not completely congruent. These studies support the concept of heterodimerization of ABCG5 and ABCG8, but also support the notion that these proteins may have an independent function.The gastrointestinal tract is the
Taste buds in the palatal mucosa of snakes  [cached]
Herman Berkhoudt,Perrin Wilson,Bruce Young
African Zoology , 2011,
Abstract: An examination of the oral mucosa ofCrotalus and several Scolecophidia revealed the presence of taste buds. The taste buds in these two divergent groups of snakes are similar in appearance, and correspond to previous descriptions of gustatory organs in other reptiles. Few taste buds were present in any specimen, and these were restricted to the palatal mucosa adjacent to the ducts to the vomeronasal organ. Taste buds were not found in some of the scolecophidians examined.
Proportion of long-term injection drug users as an indicator to characterize the state and prognosis of HIV-epidemic within a certain territory  [cached]
Vasylyeva, Tetyana,Andreeva, Tatiana
Tobacco Control and Public Health in Eastern Europe , 2012,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Epidemics of drug use and thus the spread of HIV have different duration in different regions, and, therefore, the prognosis of these epidemics may differ. We aimed to assess indicators measuring the peculiarities of injection drug use epidemics by region, informative for prevention activities among vulnerable to HIV groups. METHODS: Data from cross-sectional survey of 4026 injection drug users (IDUs) conducted in 2007 in Ukraine were analyzed. The outcome measure was a binary variable depicting whether a respondent injects drugs for 20 years and over. Binary Logistic Regression in SPSS software was used to test associations with socio-demographic characteristics. RESULTS: More respondents from Odessa, Mykolayiv, Dnipropetrovsk, Cherkassy, Poltava, and Crimea regions inject over 20 years. Older respondents were more likely to belong to the group of long-term users. Men were more likely to inject over 20 years than women. Those respondents who were married, but did not live with their spouse or other sexual partner were more likely to inject longer than 20 years compared to those single or in a stable marriage. Those respondents who use opiates or combine them with stimulants were more likely to inject over 20 years and those who use only stimulants were more likely to inject less than 20 years. CONCLUSION: Injection drug use in Ukraine started earlier among men, on certain territories and was associated with opiate use. Percentage of IDUs who inject for more than 20 years was found to be a good indicator to distinguish territories with long-lasting epidemics.
The missense mutation in Abcg5 gene in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) segregates with phytosterolemia but not hypertension
Jianliang Chen, Ashok Batta, Shuqin Zheng, Wayne R Fitzgibbon, Michael E Ullian, Hongwei Yu, Patrick Tso, Gerald Salen, Shailendra B Patel
BMC Genetics , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-6-40
Abstract: To investigate whether the missense change in Abcg5 is responsible for the sitosterolemia we performed a segregation analysis in 103 F2 rats from a SHR × SD cross. Additionally, we measured tail-cuff blood pressure and measured intestinal lipid transport to identify possible mechanisms whereby this mutation causes sitosterolemia.Segregation analysis showed that the inheritance of the Gly583Cys mutation Abcg5 segregated with elevated plant sterols and this pattern was recessive, proving that this genetic change is responsible for the sitosterolemia in these rat strains. Tail-cuff monitoring of blood pressure in conscious animals showed no significant differences between wild-type, heterozygous and homozygous mutant F2 rats, suggesting that this alteration may not be a significant determinant of hypertension in these rats on a chow diet.This study shows that the previously identified Gly583Cys change in Abcg5 in three hypertension-susceptible rats is responsible for the sitosterolemia, but may not be a major determinant of blood pressure in these rats.Sitosterolemia is an autosomal recessive disease, characterized by significantly increased plasma levels of plant sterols (such as sitosterol, campesterol), and is associated with premature atherosclerotic disease [1]. This disease has been mapped to a single locus, STSL, on human chromosome 2p21 [2,3]. Mutations in both alleles of one of two genes, ABCG5 or ABCG8, that comprise this locus, are now known to cause this disease [4-6]. No phytosterolemic patient with a single mutant ABCG5 allele and a mutant ABCG8 allele has been reported, suggesting these genes are not only linked physically, but their protein products may act as obligate heterodimers. ABCG5 and ABCG8 encode for sterolin-1 and sterolin-2 respectively. These genes are expressed in the liver, gall bladder and intestine and are implicated in determining biliary sterol excretion and selectivity of sterol absorption at the apical surfaces of the enterocytes [7-
Serum Anti-CCNY Autoantibody Is an Independent Prognosis Indicator for Postoperative Patients with Early-Stage Nonsmall-Cell Lung Carcinoma  [PDF]
Li Ma,Wentao Yue,Yu Teng,Lina Zhang,Meng Gu,Yue Wang
Disease Markers , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/935943
Abstract: Cyclin Y (CCNY) is a novel cyclin and almost nothing is known about its role in human cancers. To investigate the clinical significance of serum anti-CCNY autoantibodies in nonsmall-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), the serum levels of CCNY protein in 264 patients with NSCLC, 103 patients with tuberculosis, and 89 healthy controls were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The result shows that, compared with normal lung tissues, the NSCLC tissues contained higher levels of CCNY protein. The levels of anti-CCNY autoantibodies were higher in the sera of the patients with NSCLC than in the sera of the healthy controls ( ) or the patients with tuberculosis ( ). Moreover, in a Cox regression analysis, anti-CCNY autoantibody was an independent factor that predicted poor prognosis for postoperative patients with early-stage NSCLC ( ) as well as for those with distant metastasis ( ). Our data indicated that Anti-CCNY autoantibody may be useful as a latent tumor marker to facilitate diagnosis and may represent a novel prognostic indicator for patients with early stage NSCLC. 1. Background In recent decades, the incidence of lung cancer has decreased in some countries although lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide [1–5]. Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 75% to 80% of all cases of lung cancer. Surgical treatment, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and radiotherapy are the usual therapeutic approaches used for NSCLC patients. In particular, surgery is the preferred method in the treatment of patients with clinical stages I–IIIA NSCLC. At present, other than imaging as part of conventional detection, there are no indicators or methods to evaluate therapeutic efficacy, even though prognostic and predictive biomarkers have been widely investigated. Therefore, there is an urgent need for sensitive indicators and effective methods to evaluate treatment efficacy and to assess prognosis. Cell cycle progression is an important regulatory mechanism for cell proliferation, as dysregulation of the cell cycle results in unrestrained cell proliferation as a consequence of tumorigenesis [6]. Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are important components of the regulation of the cell cycle. Cyclins play important roles in controlling progression through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase enzymes (CDK) [7–9]. Cyclin Y (CCNY) is the latest cell cycle protein to be identified from a human testis cDNA library. CCNY acts as a growth factor sensor, to integrate extracellular signals with the cell cycle machinery [10].
Twist Positivity  [PDF]
Arthur Jaffe
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1006/aphy.1999.5918
Abstract: We identify a positivity property for partition functions in quantum systems with a unitary symmetry group, and we call this "twist positivity." The existence of Feynman-Kac measures and the existence of zero-mass limits are both related to this property. Twist positivity arises from the occurrence of complex conjugate representations on an energy eigenspace, and ultimately reflects a particle interpretation of the quantum system.
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