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The robustness of reindeer husbandry – need for a new approach to elucidate opportunities and sustainability of the reindeer industry in its socio-ecological context (In Swedish with Summary in English)
?je Danell
Rangifer , 2005,
Abstract: A series of transformations and adaptations in the Sami use of land for their subsistence over a long period of time has led to the reindeer husbandry of today. In Sweden the Sami rights to land and water are today legally connected to the practising of reindeer husbandry as a livelihood. Together with a few associated commodities, it has become considered is the only lasting Sami land-use. In the Sami culture, a central element is the association of the people with the land and the subsistence on what is provided in nature. Consequently, this association between people and land is today kept alive by the reindeer husbandry practiced as a livelihood, which thereby also produces and manages an essential base for the culture. The developments in the surrounding society are currently reducing the latitude for the reindeer industry at an accelerated rate and thereby also its capacity to handle new situations. In the complicated ecological, economic, social and institutional contexts, where reindeer husbandry is practiced, there is a large risks for sudden and unpredicted disintegrations and collapses at different system levels. The consequences thereof for the long term continuation and adaptability of Sami land use are largely unpredictable. If it leads to a collapse of reindeer industry as mode of land-use, the risks of additional deterioration of the Sami indigenous rights is also apparent and thereby the scope for new solutions as well. This will likely have serious negative consequences for the viability of the Sami culture concurrently with declining live dependences of the land. The situation of reindeer husbandry has similarities with management crises in many other integrated socio-ecological systems, which have led to sustainability failures and unpredicted consequences. These insights seem to be deficient in the treatment of the problems, which reindeer industry is facing. Scientists could probably make a very important contribution by elucidating these circumstances. This requires the adoption of a new approach based on complex systems thinking, where possible changes associated with internal and external conditions can be analysed across system borders, scales and disciplines. A possible conceptual framework for such analyses would be the theories evolved around adaptive transformations in integrated human and natural systems, now becoming a vital part of sustainability science. Fundamental in this framework is the integration of physical, ecological, economic, social and institutional systems via adaptive cycles. These are characterised by four
Economical importance of Finnish reindeer industry
Mauri Nieminen,Jorma Kemppainen
Rangifer , 1999,
Abstract: Within 15 years favourable weather conditions, antiparasite medication, supplementary feed, modern technology, calf slaughter and other factors all contributed to a vast increase in reindeer, and hence reindeer meat production, so much so that by the early 1990s the total number of reindeer was approaching 430 000, and reindeer meat production exceeded 4 million kg. Due to excess numbers of reindeer, stocks had to be culled. At the same time problems arose with the processing of reindeer meat. As a result, demand slumped and prices plummeted. In a few years the outlook for reindeer management changed drastically. Since then the profession has been marked by uncertainty and change. The number of reindeer is now below the permitted level. In the 1996/97 season, number of living reindeer in herds totalled over 202 000, slaughtered reindeer 80 000 (Fig. 1) and meat production about 2 million kg. Income from slaughtered animals amounted to FIM 58 million.
Analysis of Operational Risks in Shipbuilding Industry
Daniela MATEI,Mioara CHIRITA
Risk in Contemporary Economy , 2012,
Abstract: Our paper emphasizes the opportunities provided both for the academic research and companies by using a proposed model of analyzing the operational risks within business in general and shipbuilding industry in particular. The model aims to display the loss distribution from the operational risk for each business line/ type of event, based on frequency and severity estimation of the events. These estimations are derived mainly from the history logs of internal loss events. The calculations extend over a certain period of time in the future with a certain level of confidence. It should also be mentioned that the proposed model estimates unexpected losses, without making any suppositions concerning the values of the expected and unexpected losses. Several ideas could be extracted by analyzing and synthesizing the theoretical models from available literature. These ideas were analyzed in order to develop a model for operational risk analysis that is adapted to shipbuilding. This paper describes a new model, which can be applied to the naval industry to quantify operational risks.
Domestication of ruminant livestock and the impact of nematode parasites:possible implications for the reindeer industry
Peter J. Waller
Rangifer , 2005,
Abstract: In a balanced ecological system, both host and nematode parasite populations are firmly controlled by a complex array of interacting factors. However domestication of livestock has tipped the balance in favour of the parasites. This is due to increasing the proportion of susceptible animals in the herd or flock (lactating females and weaned young animals), increasing stocking rate, increasing productivity demands and decreasing the movement of the animals. In contrast with microbial infections, where multiplication takes place entirely within the host, metazoan parasites have both a parasitic phase and a free-living phase. Every worm present has been separately acquired by the ingestion of free-living stages on pasture. Immunity to nematodes develops slowly, it is labile, and its maintenance is dependent upon a good nutritional state of the animal. Consequently, worm parasites are ubiquitous wherever livestock are kept and they impose a constant and often a high infectious pressure on grazing animals. Nematode infections in grazing livestock are almost always a mixture of species. All have deleterious effects and collectively lead to chronic ill thrift. Economic evaluations repeatedly show that the major losses due to parasites are on animal production, rather than on mortality. This paper focuses on the problems of nematode parasites; problems associated with drug use (anthelmintic resistance, environmental impact) and costs of nematode infections for the common ruminant livestock industries (cattle, sheep, goats), with possible analogies for the semi-domesticated reindeer industry.
Potential hazards and risks associated with the aquaculture industry
ES Erondu, PE Anyanwu
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2004,
Abstract: Aquaculture, the farming of aquatic organisms, is fraught with potential hazards and risks which are categorized into occupational, environmental, food safety and public health. This paper reviewed major hazards and risks associated with the aquaculture industry and proffered strategies for their management and control. Aquaculture stakeholders should therefore ensure that guidelines and policies which promote an environmentally friendly and sustainable industry are instituted and enforced.
What Propels The Pharma Industry?  [cached]
Ajai R. Singh
Mens Sana Monographs , 2007,
Abstract: In this final section, we shall see what are the ground realities that both industry and academia-biomedicine have to acknowledge; what are the major propellants of the pharma industry; what is the difference between marketing a pharma and any other product; how tactics of the short term industry player, although attractive, are unsuited for the long term player; where is secrecy justified and where not; why does pharma adopt questionable means at all; what are the four different types of drugs according to usefulness and side-effects; and what is a reasonable blueprint for industry to follow in an attempt to re-establish credibility without forsaking profits.[No abstract available.]Concluding remarksThe process of self-correction set into motion due to greater clout of conscientious researchers, unrelenting expose by medical journalists and supportive editors, patients right activism and law suits against industry will, hopefully, help tilt the balance towards value-based advance, even if belated, and done grudgingly. Major industry players may soften the offensive of such self-correction only by playing the game according to the rules. The earlier the major players understand this, the better it is for all concerned.[
Impact of Risks and Uncertainties on Supply Chain: A Dairy Industry Perspective  [cached]
Journal of Management Research , 2011, DOI: 10.5296/jmr.v3i2.651
Abstract: No business organisation is out of purview of risks and uncertainties and hence the dairy industry is no deviation. Dairy industry which plays a crucial role in agro-based economy of a country provides enough scope to the rural and sub-urban people to earn extra money in their leisure time. The industry is extended from a milk producer in the rural area to a consumer in the urban area through some of the core processes like pasteurisation and transportation. The dairy food supply chain which entangles several stakeholders in the system gets disrupted many a times due to various vulnerabilities in the operation. The vulnerabilities in terms of risks and uncertainties get multiplied with the perishability nature of the raw material that is milk which the industry deals in. The study will discuss about the various risks and uncertainties from a dairy industry perspective and their impact at various stages of the supply chain.
Reindeer husbandry in Finland
Jouni Filppa
Rangifer , 2005,
Abstract: Reindeer are herded in the northernmost Finland over an area of 114 000 km2, about 35% of the area of the country. Herding is carried out both by Sami and Finns. The paper gives some statistics on the reindeer industry and underlines the importance of reindeer husbandry in Finland.
Financial risks insurance in Russian travel industry
Elena A. Ivanova
European Researcher , 2011,
Abstract: The article provides general characteristics of financial risks insurance in travel organizations activities, defines problem issues of legislation implementation, concerning tourist activities within travel cancellation insurance.
Financial risks insurance in Russian travel industry (continuation)  [PDF]
Elena A. Ivanova
European Researcher , 2011,
Abstract: The article provides general characteristics of financial risks insurance in travel organizations activities, defines problem issues of legislation implementation, concerning tourist activities within travel cancellation insurance.
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