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Dictature, témoignage, histoire : paroles de victimes et de bourreaux dans les littératures argentine et chilienne (1983-2002)  [cached]
José García-Romeu
Cahiers de Narratologie , 2008, DOI: 10.4000/narratologie.796
Abstract: Les dictatures militaires qui gouvernèrent le Chili et l’Argentine dans les années soixante-dix et quatre-vingt eurent un impact considérable sur les écrivains. Nous étudierons comment certains textes littéraires abordent la question à travers une reconstruction de la mémoire et de l’histoire, nationale ou familiale, en recourant au témoignage des victimes ou des bourreaux. Parfois l’auteur médiatise son expérience personnelle, d’autres fois il fabrique une fiction complexe et ambigu . Cette étude nous permettra de distinguer à ce propos deux générations, la première soucieuse de résoudre les traumatismes propres (Daniel Moyano, Libro de navíos y borrascas, 1983 ; Juan Gelman, Interrupciones 2, 1988), la seconde engagée dans un réquisitoire envers les responsables de la répression (Roberto Bola o, Nocturno de Chile, 2000 ; Martín Kohan, Dos veces junio, 2002). Las dictaduras militares que gobernaron en Chile y en Argentina durante los a os setenta y ochenta tuvieron un impacto importante en los escritores. Estudiaremos cómo algunos textos literarios contemplan el problema mediante una reconstrucción de la memoria y de la historia, nacional o familiar, recurriendo al testimonio de las víctimas y de los verdugos. A veces, el autor representa su experiencia personal, otras fabrica una ficción compleja y ambigua. Este estudio nos ayudará a distinguir dos generaciones, la primera preocupada en resolver los traumas propios (Daniel Moyano, Libro de navíos y borrascas, 1983 ; Juan Gelman, Interrupciones 2, 1988), la segunda comprometida en acusar a los responsables de la represión (Roberto Bola o, Nocturno de Chile, 2000 ; Martín Kohan, Dos veces junio, 2002).
Chronique et symbole au Mexique en 1968
Fran?oise Léziart
Amerika : Mémoires, Identités, Territoires , 2011, DOI: 10.4000/amerika.2034
Abstract: Cette communication a pour objet d’analyser la transformation d’un événement tragique qui a eu lieu en 1968 à Mexico. Il s’agit du massacre de Tlatelolco qui a fait plus de 300 morts sur la place du même nom lors de manifestations estudiantines organisées pour réclamer plus de démocratie dans le pays. Entre information et revendication, douleur et exaltation, écriture et oralité, les chroniques des deux écrivains et journalistes : Elena Poniatowska (La Noche de Tlatelolco, 1971) et Carlos Monsiváis (Días de guardar, 1970) ont contribué à la création de nouveaux symboles. The subject of this paper is an analysis of the changes following the tragedy that took place in Mexico 1968. The massacre of some 300 students happened in Tlatelolco during a peaceful protest rally demanding democratic government reform. The writers and journalists Elena Poniatowska (‘Massacre in Mexico’ 1971) and Carlos Monsiváis (‘Days to Remember’ 1970) collated interviews for the claims and counterclaims, plus written and oral statements of what happened in that time of despair and intense emotion. Their work is a major influence in the creation of a modern symbolic moment in Mexican history.
Le massacre est-il né aux guerres de Religion ?  [cached]
David El Kenz
La Révolution Fran?aise : Cahiers de l’Institut d’Histoire de la Révolution Fran?aise , 2011,
Abstract: Dans les débats publics de la Révolution Fran aise, le massacre de la Saint-Barthélemy constitue un symbole répulsif à travers lequel le régime monarchique et les passions confessionnelles sont stigmatisés. Cette mémoire est la marque d’un basculement dans les sensibilités face aux violences extrêmes ; son origine est repérable dès les troubles de religion, au XVIe siècle. Lors du procès des magistrats du Parlement d’Aix-en-Provence en 1551, accusés d’être les responsables du massacre de Vaudois de Provence en 1545, la notion de crime hors humanité appara t. Au cours des guerres civiles de Religion, le massacre s’avère une pratique admissible sous la plume des hommes de guerre, mais aussi, a contrario, un seuil intolérable à partir duquel les victimes justifient une guerre totale et exigent reconnaissance. Se constitue ainsi une nouvelle norme qui distingue des violences qui relèvent de l’état de droit théoriquement mesuré et celles considérées comme des exactions parce que les civils en sont les premières victimes. La législation des paix de religion en témoigne. In the debates taking place during the French Revolution, the Saint Bartholomew’s day massacre appears as a repelling symbol through which the Monarchy and the religious passions are stigmatized. This memory indicates a watershed in the perceptions of extreme violence; it starts during the 16th Century, as early as the Religious wars begin. In 1551, during the trial of Aix en Provence’s Parliament magistrates who were accused of being responsible for the massacre of the Vaudois of Provence which took place in 1545, the concept of crime “hors humanité” emerges. During the Religion Wars, murdering appears in the writings of warlords as an admissible practice but in the same time and contrarily as a threshold beyond which victims of a “total war” demand for recognition. Thus, a new norm comes up which distinguishes State-related violence, in theory measured, from violence considered as atrocities for civilians are its primary victim. During the Religious wars, the legislation issued during peace times reflects this trend.
The aim of the massacre: To crush any resistance.  [PDF]
Takis Fotopoulos
International Journal of Inclusive Democracy , 2006,
Abstract: As the Zionist attack continues – after being given the green light by the transnational elite (the USA and EU in association with Russia and China) – and is expected to intensify as soon as the elite’s subjects are evacuated from the ‘war’ zone, the aims of the massacre become clear.
UNDERSTANDING THE BULHOEK MASSACRE: VOICES AFTER THE MASSACRE AND DOWN THE YEARS  [cached]
D.H. Makobe
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/26-2-244
Abstract: Die gevolge van die Bulhoekopstand het uiteenlopende reaksies ontlok. Afhangend vanuit watter politieke oogpunt die aangeleentheid benader is, het die toerekening van blaam gewissel van die Israeliete self tot die Regering se optrede. Hierdie verskillende reaksies word ontleed. The squatting and defiance of the law by the followers of Enoch Mgijima (Israelites) at Bulhoek was an unwelcome exercise by the people who stayed in the vicinity of Queenstown. Various African leaders, including the members of the South African Native National Congress (SANNC), tried to persuade the Israelites to leave Bulhoek peacefully. The massacre generated mixed reactions from different political organisations: within parliament, the general public and from various newspapers. There were many fiery debates about the tragedy after the massacre and the trial.1 Almost every newspaper in the country at the time carried reports about the events of 24 May 1921. The newspaper reports give a clear indication of who was blamed for the Bulhoek massacre. It is the purpose of this article to analyze what the nation at the time thought of the conflict between the Israelites and the government and what African political leaders thought of the event down the years.
"We are taking you to attend the birth of history": Tlatelolco in Carlos Fuentes' Los 68: París, Praga, México and Roberto Bola o's Amuleto  [cached]
Susana Domingo Amestoy
Perífrasis : Revista de Literatura, Teoría y Crítica , 2012,
Abstract: Este artículo se propone analizar la novela de Roberto Bola o Amuleto (1999) y en particular su interés por el límite de una resistencia política. En este estudio se yuxtapone la descripción en la novela de la masacre en Tlatelolco con la obra de Carlos Fuentes Los 68: París, Praga, México (2005), y su uso tanto de la memoria no ficcional de París en 1968 como el recuento ficcional de lo sucedido en Tlatelolco. Este artículo intenta demostrar cómo en Los 68 se intenta recuperar un tipo de subjetividad cuyos imaginarios utópicos definían los a os sesenta, y cómo el uso de alegoría en Amuleto marca el vaciamiento de ese imaginario.This paper analyzes Roberto Bola o’s Amuleto (1999), and in particular its interest in the cotemporary limits of political resistance. The essay subsequently juxtaposes the novel’s depiction of the massacre at Tlateloco with Carlos Fuentes’ Los 68: Paris, Praga, México (2005), and its use of both a non-fictional memoir of Paris in 1968 and a fictionalized account of Tlateloco. Ultimately, this essay demonstrates how Los 68 attempts to recuperate a kind of subjectivity in which utopian imaginaries defined the 1960s, but which Amuleto’s mobilization of allegory reveals as emptied out.
THE PRICE OF FANATICISM: THE CASUALTIES OF THE BULHOEK MASSACRE  [cached]
D.H. Makobe
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/26-1-239
Abstract: The Bulhoek massacre is a well-known event in popular memory of many black South Africans and a standard feature in accounts of South African history. Despite this fact historians have not yet established the exact number of Israelites who were killed as a result of their attack on the Police on 24 May 1921. It is the purpose of this article to establish a reliable number of Israelites who were killed during the Bulhoek massacre. The Union Defence medical personnel that accompanied the Police force to Bulhoek consisted of Major M. Welsh (in charge), Sergeant Major W. Richardson, Sergeant S. Allan, Sergeant Wallace, Private Kriel and Driver Valentine with one motor ambulance and field equipment. En route from Pretoria to Queenstown, the team was joined by Private Sutton from Tempe hospital in Bloemfontein. On their arrival at Queenstown the medical personnel accompanied Colonel Truter to an interview with the senior Magistrate of Queenstown E.C.A. Welsh. The latter stressed the seriousness of the situation and warned that the Police would not be able to carry out the Government's instructions without bloodshed. The medical personnel became convinced that bloodshed was unavoidable. They decided to ascertain the exact number of available accommodation at the Frontier Hospital in Queenstown. They found that only about 25 Europeans and up to 40 Africans could be accommodated. After checking available accommodation at Frontier Hospital, they erected a tent hospital at the show grounds of Queenstown.
THE BULHOEK MASSACRE: ORIGINS, CASUALTIES, REACTIONS AND HISTORICAL DISTORTIONS  [cached]
D.H. Makobe
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/26-1-237
Abstract: The Bulhoek massacre remains a standard feature in accounts of South African history. Historians who wrote on the incident before the birth of the Popular or Peoples history movement and evidence submitted to Sir Thomas Graham, the presiding judge at the trial of the Israelites, made it clear beyond all doubt that the Israelites were religious fanatics who were driven by their fanaticism and blind faith in Enoch Mgijima's words to attack the Police. In the 1980s, with the birth of the Popular history movement, the massacre was reinterpreted by social historians, especially those associated with the University of Witwatersrand (Wits) History Workshop to fit into the perspective of the Popular history approach. The Israelites were seen as political heroes who stood against an oppressive system. The two different approaches to the massacre leads to the historical distortions of the event.
Les victimes, entre réparation et instrumentalisation  [cached]
Olivier Claverie
Champ Pénal , 2005, DOI: 10.4000/champpenal.370
Abstract: La pensée sociale a longtemps affirmé l’importance qu’il y a de jeter le bébé avec l’eau du bain afin d’être tout à fait s r de ne pas se salir les mains. Peut-être est-ce là la raison du faible intérêt porté aux victimes qui justifient les mesures de contr le social. Cette pensée nous semble aujourd’hui inacceptable. Il nous semble devoir porter attention aux victimes, en dépit ou peut-être en raison des formes d’instrumentalisation qu’elles suscitent, de la fascination que peut éveiller...
Contribución del Tratado de Tlatelolco al desarme nuclear y a la no proliferación
Gros Espiell, Héctor;
Anuario mexicano de derecho internacional , 2008,
Abstract: this commentary is about the treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in latina america (treaty of tlatelolco) -which includes also all the caribbean states- and that has just accomplish 40 years of opening for its signature in 1967. the 40th anniversary of the treaty gave place to the celebration of a seminary in mexico city organized by the foreign affairs secretary. the author, who gives us a direct testimony about the importance of this treaty, participated in the seminary.
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