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A Statistically Research About The News Tongue Of A Newspaper In The Republic Term ( Cumhuriyet D nemi Gazete Haber Dili üzerinde statistiksel Bir Ara t rma )  [PDF]
Hayrullah KAHYA
Journal of International Social Research , 2008,
Abstract: zet Türk enin ilk d nemlerinden itibaren zaman ve b lgelere g re de i iklikler g steren Türk edeki yabanc kelimelerin oran , Cumhuriyet d neminin en ok tart lan konular ndan biridir. Bu al mada Türk enin s z varl n n Cumhuriyet d nemindeki durumu istatistiksel olarak ortaya konmu tur. Bunun i in yakla k son seksen y lda gazete haber dilindeki Türk e, Arap a, Fars a ve Avrupa dillerinin yüzdelik oranlar hesaplanm t r. Cumhuriyet gazetesi haber dili merkez al narak yap lan bu ara t rman n sonucunda Cumhuriyet d nemi gazete haber dilinde Türk e k kenli kelimelerin gittik e artt , buna kar l k Arap a k kenli kelimelerin azald ; Fars a k kenli kelimelerin oran n n pek de i memesine ra men Avrupa dillerinin oran nda son yirmi be y lda art oldu u g rülmü tür. AbstractThe foreign words in Turkish are one of the most discussed subjects in republic term which differ from time to time and from region to region from the begining of first Turkish periods. In this workshop, the position of existance of Turkish words was presented statistically. For the work, in the last eighty years newspaper tongue, Turkish, Arabic, Persian and the European tongues were counted percently. Cumhuriyet newspaper taking in the center, in the Republic term, increasing Turkish words, in the opposite descreasing Arabic root words and no change in Persian root words, but increasing, especially, in the last twenty five years European languages were seen.
CURRENT CONDITIONS OF INSCRIPTIONS WITH ARABIC LETTERS IN AZERBAIJAN AZERBAYCAN’DAK ARAP HARFL YAZITLARIN BUGüNKü DURUMU
Cengiz ALYILMAZ
Turkish Studies , 2011,
Abstract: The territory within the boundaries of Azerbaijan Republic is highly important for Turkish-Islamic history. The case in territories contain many Arabic inscriptions belonging to Muslim-Turkic tribes and Arabians who arrived in the region for conquests. This paper presents to the attention the significance of Turkish and Arabic inscriptions with Arabic letters found in historical mosques, prayer rooms, caravansaries, shrines, tombstones, holy places, manuscripts, coins, knick-knacks and belongings…. belonging to Islamic Era, for Turkish-Islamic history and their current conditions in Azerbaijan Republic. Azerbaycan Cumhuriyeti s n rlar i inde kalan topraklar, Türk- slam tarihi a s ndan büyük nem ta maktad r. S z konusu topraklarda Müslüman Türk boylar na ve fütuhat i in b lgeye gelen Araplara ait pek ok Arap harfli yaz t bulunmaktad r.Bu makalede Azerbaycan’daki tarih camilerde, mescitlerde, kervansaraylarda, türbelerde, mezar ta lar nda, ziyaret yerlerinde, el yazmas eserlerde (c nklerde, kitaplarda), sikkelerde, süs ve kullan m e yalar nda… kar la lan slami d neme ait Arap harfli Türk e ve Arap a yaz tlar n Türk- slam tarihi a s ndan nemi ve bugünkü durumlar dikkatlere sunulmaktad r.
THE LANGUAGE OF DIVAN POETRY IS THE LANGUAGE OF THE EMPIRE D VAN R N N D L MPARATORLUK D L D R  [PDF]
?. Hakk? AKSOYAK
Turkish Studies , 2009,
Abstract: The language of Divan literature has always been introduced as a synthesis of three languages: Arabic, Persian and Turkish. Indeed, Ottoman Turkish that is the combination of these three is the essential of Divan literature. However, Divan poets also used words from Greek, Armenian, Italian, and some languages of Balkans and Caucasus besides Arabic and Persian words. Especially poets who were Rumelian or worked as the state officers for years were finding different ways of usage in their works with the expressions they borrowed from the Balkan languages. In ten verses of a poem of Mustafa l of Gallipoli who was a bureaucrat, an intellectual and at the same time a poet and who had served as a statesman for a long time in the Balkans in the 16th century, there are expressions of Arabic, Persian, Albanian, Franc, Serbian, Greek, Manav, Bosnian and Chagatai people in their own languages and dialects. Based on this example, it would not be wrong to say that Divan poetry is a part of “a literature of an empire” and that the language is “an imperial language”. In conclusion, the language of Divan literature is an entire entity that has basically Ottoman Turkish as a dominant factor but also comprises many elements from the languages of the nations all around the Ottoman Empire. Divan edebiyat n n dili daima Arap a, Fars a ve Türk e kar m bir dil olarak tan t lm t r. Ger ekten de Türk e Divan edebiyat n n esas n olu turur. Divan airleri, Arap a ve Fars a k kenli kelimelerin yan nda Yunanca, Ermenice, talyanca, Balkan ve Kafkas dillerinden s zcükler de kullan yorlard . zellikle Rumelili olan veya oralarda uzun y llar g rev yapan airler, Balkan dillerinden ald klar ibarelerle de i ik ileti im ve anlat m yollar buluyorlard . Balkanlarda uzun y llar g rev yapan XVI. yüzy lda bürokrat, entelektüel ve ayn zamanda air olan Gelibolulu Mustafa l de bir manzumesinin 10 beytinde Arap, Acem, Arnavut, Firenk, S rp, Rum, Manav, Bosnal ve a atay halklar ndan insanlar kendi dil ve leh eleri ile konu turur. Bu rnekten hareketle divan iiri i in “imparatorluk edebiyat ” ve dili i in de “imparatorluk dili” ifadesini kullanmak hi de yanl olmaz. K sacas Divan edebiyat n n dili, Türk e esas olmakla birlikte imparatorlu u olu turan kavimlerin dillerinden eleri de bar nd ran bir bütündür.
Ana Dili ve Ana Dil Terimleri  [PDF]
Salih Kür?ad Dolunay
Ana Dili E?itimi Dergisi , 2013,
Abstract: Terimler, bir bilim veya bilgi dal n n anahtar kelimeleridir ve “k sa yoldan anla may sa lama” zelli ine sahiptirler. ülkemizde terim konusunda ya anan tart ma ve anla mazl klar ge mi te oldu u gibi bugün de devam etmektedir. Bu anla mazl klardan biri de “ana dil” ile “ana dili” terimleri üzerinde ya anmaktad r. Bu makalede, bu terimlerin ifade etti i anlamlar de i ik kaynaklardan yararlan larak a klanmaya al lmakta ve nerelerde kullan lmalar gerekti i üzerinde durulmaktad r. Ayr ca “ana dili” terimi yerine “mill dil” terimi teklif edilmektedir.
nternet Kullan m n n Türk eye Etkileri: Nitel Bir Ara t rma
Havva YAMAN,Yavuz ERDO?AN
Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies , 2007,
Abstract: Bu ara t rman n amac , internet kullan m n n Türk eye etkilerini belirlemektir.Ara t rmada nitel ara t rma desenlerinden durum al mas deseni; veri toplamatekniklerinden de dokümanlar kullan lm t r. nternet ortam nda MSN ve forumkay tlar ndan elde edilen bulgular i erik analiziyle de erlendirilmi tir. Bulgular, ‘ses zelikleri’, ‘kelime’, ‘s z dizimi’ ve ‘imla’ olmak üzere d rt ana düzlemde eleal nm t r. Ara t rma sonucunda, internet ortam nda yaz dilinin rast gele ve zensizolarak kullan ld , kelimelerin yaz m nda k saltmalara ve konu ma dili unsurlar na yerverildi i belirlenmi tir. ngilizce kurallar n ve ngilizce kelimelerin Türk enin yap s n bozdu u ve dilde yozla maya neden oldu u g zlenmi tir.
SOME DETERMINATIONS ABOUT THE EFFECTS OF TURKISH TO ARABIC TüRK EN N ARAP AYA ETK LER üZER NE BAZI TESP TLER  [PDF]
Zeki KAYMAZ
Turkish Studies , 2011,
Abstract: There is a language relationship, ancedentaly, between Turkish and Arabic. It is known that Arabic has affected Turkish. So has Turkish, even not as much as Arabic. In this article, the plurals and verbs based on Turkish are going to be mentioned. Türk e ve Arap a aras nda uzun bir ge mi e dayanan dil ili kisi bulunmaktad r. Arap an n Türk eyi etkiledi i bilinmektedir. Arap a kadar olmamakla birlikte Türk e de Arap ay etkilemi tir. Bu makalede Arap aya giren zel ekiller, Türk e k kene dayal okluklar, kal p yap lar ve fiiller üzerinde durulacakt r.
PROVERB CREATING STATUS OF COMMON HIGHEST-FREQUENCY SEVEN WORDS OF EASTERN DESCENT IN THE TURKISH TüRK YE TüRK ES NDE SIKLI I EN YüKSEKDO U K KENL YED KEL MEN N ATAS Zü OLU TURMA DURUMU  [PDF]
Meryem EKER
Turkish Studies , 2009,
Abstract: Quoted words are too few in Orkhon Turkic. However, in the period of Uygur Turkic quoted words have increased fairly in Turkish by the effect of different religions and cultures. Arabic and Persian words as defined “Eastern descent Words” have gained intensity in Turkish after Turks accepted Islam.To use a word in proverbs by people of the culture circle and adoption should be used for many years. Arabic and Persian words are used from immemorial time in Turkish, our language was also included in proverbs. During this study we has also benefited from the work Yaz l Türk enin Kelime S kl S zlü ü of lyas G z. So, we have discussed proverb creat ng status of common highest-frequency seven words of eastern or g n.7 words of 27 common highest-frequency quoted words of Arabic and Persian used in proverbs. This case shows that human, world, man, money, government, too, every words have been adopted and reflected to life despite the quoted words. Orhun Türk esinde al nt kelimeler yok denecek kadar azd r. Uygur Türk esi d neminde ise de i ik din ve kültürlerin etkisiyle Türk ede al nt kelimelerin say s epeyce artm t r. Türklerin slamiyeti kabul etmelerinden sonra genel olarak “Do u K kenli Kelimeler” olarak da tan mlanan Arap a ve Fars a kelimeler Türk e i erisinde yo unluk kazanm t r.Bir kelimenin atas zlerinde kullan labilmesi i in bulundu u kültür dairesinin insanlar taraf ndan uzun y llar kullan lmas ve benimsenmesi gerekir. Türk ede ok eskiden beri kullan lan Arap a ve Fars a kelimeler, dilimizde atas zleri i erisinde de yer alm t r.Biz bu al mam zda lyas G z’ün Yaz l Türk enin Kelime S kl S zlü ü adl eserinden de faydalanarak s kl en yüksek do u k kenli yedi kelimenin atas zleri olu turma durumlar n ele alaca z.Arap a ve Fars adan dilimize ge en s kl en yüksek 27 kelimeden 7 kelime atas zleri i erisinde kullan lm t r. Bu durum; insan, dünya, adam, para, devlet, fazla, her kelimelerinin al nt kelimeler olmalar na ra men benimsendi ini ve atas zlerinde yer alacak kadar hayata aksetti ini g stermektedir.
Kurds and Kurdish Language Kürtler ve Kürt Dili  [PDF]
Ahmet BURAN
Turkish Studies , 2011,
Abstract: The word Kurd is a name used both as a common noun and ethnonym in Turkish language since DLT. It can be thought that the word Kurd may be a proper noun used for Kurds who are a hybrid community and come from different origins, just like the word Bulgar, which is a Turkish word, has been accepted as a name for today’s Slavic Bulgarian community. Meanwhile some argue that Kurds come from Arabic, Iranian, Yaphetic, Armenian and Anatolian native tribes.It is known that the area which is called Kurdistan is around Zagros mountains. The Kurds in Turkey are Kurman . The history of the Kurds in Anatolia has a parallel time line with the sovereignty of Turks in Anatolia. At the result of the Shia-Sunni fighting between Ottoman State and Iran, Alewi Turkmens in Anatolia went to Iran and Sunni Turkmens and Kurds came to Anatolia. The population of the Kurds is not known exactly and quite different numbers are claimed. Kurdish language is generally thought to be a member of Indo-European family of languages. But it is argued by many researchers that Kurds have changed their language and their first language was rather different than the current one. Both vocabulary and grammatical structure show that Kurdish is a hybrid language. Kurmanci and Sorani are the most important dialects of Kurdish. Zazaki is not a dialect of Kurdish, it is a different language. According to the results of general census in 1965, native language of 7% of the people in Turkey is Kurdish. Kürt s zü, DLT’den itibaren Türk ede hem cins isim olarak hem de etnonim olarak kullan lan bir add r. Türk e olan Bulgar ad n n bugünkü Slav Bulgar toplumuna ad olmas gibi, Kürt ad n n da farkl k kenlerden gelen ve karma bir toplum olan Kürtlere zel ad oldu u dü ünülebilir. Bu arada Kürtlerin Arap, rani, Yafetik, Ermeni ve Anadolu yerli kavimlerinden geldi ine dair g rü ler vard r. Kürdistan denilen co rafyan n Zagros da lar civar oldu u bilinmektedir. Türkiye’deki Kürtler asl nda Kurman ’t r. Kürtlerin Anadolu’daki tarihi, Türklerin Anadolu hakimiyeti ile paralellik g sterir. Osmanl devleti ile ran aras nda ya anan ii-Sünni eki mesi i inde, Anadolu’daki Alevi Türkmenler ran’a, ran co rafyas ndaki Sünni Türkmen ve Kürtler de Anadolu’ya do ru ekilmi tir. Kürtlerin Türkiye’deki nüfusu kesin olarak bilinmemektedir ve ok farkl say lar verilmektedir. Kürt e, genellikle Hin-Avrupa dil ailesinden bir dil olarak de erlendirilir. Ancak Kürtlerin dil de i tirdikleri ve ilk dillerinin ba ka oldu u bir ok ara t rmac taraf ndan dile getirilmektedir. Kürt enin karma bir dil oldu u s z varl nda ve gram
A Brief Look at the History of Turkish Press from the Beginning to Kar nca Ba lang c ndan Kar nca'ya Kadar Türk Bas n Tarihine K sa Bir Bak
Hasan Duman
Türk Kütüphanecili?i , 1995,
Abstract: This paper reviews the history of the Turkish press from the beginning until the publication of Kar nca in 1934. It also looks at the collections of periodicals that are held by Istanbul libraries and were published between 1828 and 1928. Her meslek sahibi, her yurtta i in okumak, ara t rmak, birka süreli yay n izlemek gere i vard r. Süreli yay nlardaki bilgilerin güncelli i kadar izleyenlerin dinamikli i, evresinde kanaat lideri olmalar da kayda de er. Türkiye'ye matbaan n giri inden 1928 Harf nk lab na kadar yay mlanan süreli yay nlar n tam bir listesi yoktur. lk kez irdeleyici bir giri im ile stanbul'un 10 büyük kütüphanesinde yap lan al ma sonucu 1804 bibliyografik künyedeki süreli yay nlar n durumu ve hangi kütüphanelerde ne l üde mevcut olduklar "Toplu Katalog"da g sterilmi tir. 1831'de yay mlanan ilk gazetemiz "Takvim-i Vakayi" de il, ondan 3 y l nce 1828'de Kahire'de kan Arap a-Türk e "Vakay '- M sriyye'dir. Ele al nan süreli yay nlar n, Arap harfli Türk e, Arap a, Fars a, Urdu dili v.b. olabildi i gibi bu dillerden biri ya da ikisi birlikte 2-3 dilde oldu u, hatta ba ka alfabe ve dillerde de yay mland klar g rülmü tür. Co rafi alan olarak 4 k tada; pulculuk, moda ve müzikten bilim, edebiyat, sanat ve sosyolojiye kadar ok konuda yay mlanm lard r. Ara t r c lar ve yazarlar, Arap harfli süreli yay nlar m zdan kaynak olarak yeterince yararlanmam lard r. Yak n tarihimiz tozlu raflar aras nda kalmamal d r. Bunlar sürekli y pranmaktad rlar, fiziksel durumlar da iyi de ildir. Süratle mikroform ortam na aktar lmalar , tüm dünyan n yararlanmas na sunulmalar zorunlulu u vard r.
Critical Evaluation for Alternative Causes of Drug Induced and Herbal Induced (DILI/HILI) Hepatotoxicity  [PDF]
Vasilios Frankos, Raushanah Najeeullah, Joel Morgan
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.89084
Abstract: The objective of this review is to highlight the continued exclusion of discussion in the literature regarding alternative causes and proper causality assessment of cases of hepatotoxicity when use of dietary supplements is reported. Though independent experts are working diligently to advance the discussion related to alternative causes of hepatotoxicity resulting in idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury/herb-induced liver injury (DILI/HILI), the literature continues to recite the same cases, such as those presented here, to reiterate potentially biased positions and ignore current, standardized and valid evaluations utilizing the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM). Several historical cases purporting hepatotoxicity induced by use of dietary supplements are presented in this review to demonstrate how such cases may be improperly assessed due to bias, inconsistent use of causality assessment methods, as well as use of causality assessment methods deemed obsolete. This in essence, delays any true progress in establishing sound criteria to determine and address the actual cause(s) of DILI/HILI.
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