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Information Architecture / Enformasyon Mimarisi
Alan Gilchrist
Bilgi Dünyas? , 2004,
Abstract: For some time now, the pundits have been declaiming that “Information is the fourth resource”, and that to ignore that fact will inevitably lead to organisational catastrophe. But it is only more recently that people have started to take the problem of unstructured information more seriously (see, for example a Conference in London scheduled for September 2004 with the title “Exploiting unstructured information”, organised by Bloor Research and sponsored by Microsoft). This attention is welcome, but behind the hype it is sensible to consider what we mean by information and knowledge. In a very perceptive paper, Miller [1] argues that I=0, that information has no intrinsic meaning, and that knowledge is the uniquely human capability of making meaning from information. It is therefore imperative that we build information systems that recognize this, particularly in view of the deluge of “information” currently flooding the Web and organisational intranets.
Information and Meaning  [PDF]
Christophe Menant
Entropy , 2003, DOI: 10.3390/e5020193
Abstract: We propose here to clarify some of the relations existing between information and meaning by showing how meaningful information can be generated by a system submitted to a constraint. We build up definitions and properties for meaningful information, a meaning generator system and the domain of efficiency of a meaning (to cover cases of meaningful information transmission). Basic notions of information processing are used.
Ultrasound has the potential to detect degeneration of articular cartilage clinically, even if the information is obtained from an indirect measurement of intrinsic physical characteristics
Hiroshi Kuroki, Yasuaki Nakagawa, Koji Mori, Masahiko Kobayashi, Ko Yasura, Yukihiro Okamoto, Takashi Suzuki, Kohei Nishitani, Takashi Nakamura
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/ar2727
Abstract: Our ultrasound system obtains indirect information on intrinsic physical characteristics of living human articular cartilage in vivo. We recognize that the ultrasound signal intensity of articular cartilage relates to the parameters of the tissue reflection coefficient, acoustic impedance, the elastic modulus, and surface conditions. In clinical settings, however, these parameters are difficult to measure separately. We therefore consider that the signal intensity obtains information including these parameters.We do not disregard measuring the intrinsic physical characteristics. Indeed, the signal intensity (maximum magnitude) correlated significantly with the aggregate modulus of articular cartilage [3]. We mentioned the equations of Young modulus, indicating the speed of sound, the density of a material, and the acoustic impedance of a material [4], and presented the Gabor function as the mother wavelet and equations [2]. The signal intensity did not depend on the surface curvature for radii >40 mm, and mainly reflects the condition from the surface of the cartilage to a depth of one wavelength (about 0.150 mm) [5]. The tip of the probe with an ultrasonic transducer is designed to achieve uniform distance between the transducer and the cartilage surface.Our ultimate goal is not to measure the intrinsic physical characteristics but to improve the diagnostic use of an arthroscopic ultrasound system and the method to detect the early stage of degeneration of human articular cartilage. The signal intensity, considering tissue histology [4] and estimation of the mechanical property of meniscus [6], was studied aiming toward human clinical study [7]. Our ultrasound system can be used with the arthroscopic probe and can obtain information on the degeneration of human articular cartilage in vivo.It is not easy to calculate the intrinsic physical characteristics from an ultrasonic echo obtained under arthroscopy. True it is ideal that the intrinsic physical characteristics
An Algorithmic Approach to Information and Meaning  [PDF]
Hector Zenil
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: I will survey some matters of relevance to a philosophical discussion of information, taking into account developments in algorithmic information theory (AIT). I will propose that meaning is deep in the sense of Bennett's logical depth, and that algorithmic probability may provide the stability needed for a robust algorithmic definition of meaning, one that takes into consideration the interpretation and the recipient's own knowledge encoded in the story attached to a message.
When Information Conveys Meaning  [PDF]
Anthony Reading
Information , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/info3040635
Abstract: While some information is clearly meaningful and some clearly is not, no one has been able to identify exactly what the difference is. The major obstacle has been the way information and meaning are conceptualized: the one in the physical realm of tangible, objective entities and the other in the mental world of intangible, subjective ones. This paper introduces an approach that incorporates both of them within a unified framework by defining them in terms of what they do, rather than what they are. Meaningful information is thus conceptualized here as patterns of matter and energy that have a tangible effect on the entities that detect them, either by changing their function, structure or behavior, while patterns of matter and energy that have no such effects are considered meaningless. The way that meaningful information can act as a causal agent in bio-behavioral systems enables us to move beyond dualistic concepts of ourselves as comprised of a material body that obeys the laws of physics and a non-material essence that is too elusive to study [1].
Active causation and the origin of meaning  [PDF]
J. H. van Hateren
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1007/s00422-014-0622-6
Abstract: Purpose and meaning are necessary concepts for understanding mind and culture, but appear to be absent from the physical world and are not part of the explanatory framework of the natural sciences. Understanding how meaning (in the broad sense of the term) could arise from a physical world has proven to be a tough problem. The basic scheme of Darwinian evolution produces adaptations that only represent apparent ("as if") goals and meaning. Here I use evolutionary models to show that a slight, evolvable extension of the basic scheme is sufficient to produce genuine goals. The extension, targeted modulation of mutation rate, is known to be generally present in biological cells, and gives rise to two phenomena that are absent from the non-living world: intrinsic meaning and the ability to initiate goal-directed chains of causation (active causation). The extended scheme accomplishes this by utilizing randomness modulated by a feedback loop that is itself regulated by evolutionary pressure. The mechanism can be extended to behavioural variability as well, and thus shows how freedom of behaviour is possible. A further extension to communication suggests that the active exchange of intrinsic meaning between organisms may be the origin of consciousness, which in combination with active causation can provide a physical basis for the phenomenon of free will.
Emergence and Evolution of Meaning: The General Definition of Information (GDI) Revisiting Program—Part I: The Progressive Perspective: Top-Down  [PDF]
Rainer E. Zimmermann,José M. Díaz Nafría
Information , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/info3030472
Abstract: In this first part of the paper, the category of meaning is traced starting from the origin of the Universe itself as well as its very grounding in pre-geometry (the second part deals with an appropriate bottom-up approach). In contrast to many former approaches in the theories of information and also in biosemiotics, we will show that the forms of meaning emerge simultaneously (alongside) with information and energy. Hence, information can be visualized as being always meaningful (in a sense to be explicated) rather than visualizing meaning as a later specification of information within social systems only. This perspective taken has two immediate consequences: (1) We follow the GDI as defined by Floridi, though we modify it somehow as to the aspect of truthfulness. (2) We can conceptually solve Capurro’s trilemma. Hence, what we actually do is to follow the strict ( i. e., optimistic) line of UTI in the sense of Hofkirchner’s. While doing this, we treat energy and information as two different categorial aspects of one and the same underlying primordial structure. We thus demonstrate the presently developing convergence of physics, biology, and computer science (as well as the various theories of information) in some detail and draft out a line of argument eventually leading up to the further unification of UTI and biosemiotics.
Meaning-focused and Quantum-inspired Information Retrieval  [PDF]
Diederik Aerts,Jan Broekaert,Sandro Sozzo,Tomas Veloz
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: In recent years, quantum-based methods have promisingly integrated the traditional procedures in information retrieval (IR) and natural language processing (NLP). Inspired by our research on the identification and application of quantum structures in cognition, more specifically our work on the representation of concepts and their combinations, we put forward a 'quantum meaning based' framework for structured query retrieval in text corpora and standardized testing corpora. This scheme for IR rests on considering as basic notions, (i) 'entities of meaning', e.g., concepts and their combinations and (ii) traces of such entities of meaning, which is how documents are considered in this approach. The meaning content of these 'entities of meaning' is reconstructed by solving an 'inverse problem' in the quantum formalism, consisting of reconstructing the full states of the entities of meaning from their collapsed states identified as traces in relevant documents. The advantages with respect to traditional approaches, such as Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), are discussed by means of concrete examples.
Frames of Reference and the Intrinsic Directional Information of a Particle With Spin  [PDF]
Daniel Collins,Sandu Popescu
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: "Information is physical", and here we consider the physical directional information of a particle with spin. We ask whether, in the presence of a classical frame of reference, such a particle contains any intrinsic directional information, ie. information above that which can be transmitted by a classical bit. We show that when sending a large number of spins, the answer is asymptotically "no". For finite numbers of spins, N, we do not know the answer. We also show that any frame of reference which we can consider to be classical must use some resource which is exponentially large in N. This gives a quantitative meaning to the idea that classical objects are big.
Beyond information: A bit of meaning  [PDF]
Olaf Dreyer
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: Is our world just information? We argue that our current notion of information has one serious shortcoming: It is quite literally meaningless. We suggest a meaningful extension of the notion of information that is dynamic, internal, approximate, contains an element of randomness, and is layered. This new notion of information derives from the interactions of material objects. Our answer to the essay question then is Bit from It or, more appropriately, Bit++ from It. We discuss how our new notion of information sheds light on the measurement problem in quantum mechanics and how it can be applied in philosophy and computer science.
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