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Paradigm of development: methodological outlines
Sliva S. V.
Sociosfera , 2012,
Abstract: The article is devoted to the peculiarities of economic system development. It is found that economic development appears as functional, structural and developmental changes. The necessity to take into consideration these peculiarities in the creation of the methodological tools of economic development paradigm is proved.
A Paradigm Shift in Science Learning and Teaching  [cached]
Yin Cheong CHENG
Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching , 2000,
Abstract: There is a great demand for paradigm shift in education to meet the challenges of rapid globalization, tremendous advances in information technology, and strong pursuit of economic and social developments in the new century. A new paradigm of school education has been proposed by Cheng (2000)*. It is built on the concepts of contextualized multiple intelligences**, globalization, localization, and individualization in schooling, teaching, and learning. Its assumptions about the future of the world, the human nature, the developments of individuals and the society, the aims of education, the students and learning, the teachers and teaching, and the school and schooling are contrastingly different from the traditional paradigm. The new paradigm is named as "New Triplization Paradigm" and the traditional one as "Traditional Site-Bounded Paradigm." Triplization refers to the process including globalization, localization and individualization. The adaptation of this new paradigm to science learning and teaching can be illustrated as follows:
On the Importance of Scientific Reasoning Methods in Science Education in the Context of Science's Rationality Problem of Philosophy of Science  [PDF]
Davut Sar?ta?,Yüksel Tufan
Maarif Mektepleri-International Journal of Educational Sciences , 2017, DOI: -
Abstract: To understand science, besides doing a science; it is necessary to evaluate it with historical, philosophical, sociological and even psychological context. Philosophy of Science, as an understanding activity on science, it must also be a critical factor in defining the nature of science. Philosophy of Science take the science with epistemology and ontology dimensions and problem areas such as methodological and rational aspects. Since a long time, it is emphasized that the statements given by the philosophy of science are also valuable in terms of science education. In this study, the nature of science in the context of science literacy, the key concepts of present-day science education, is discussed in the light of the rationality problem of science, which is an important topic of discussion of science philosophy. In this context, the possible contributions of science philosophy to the nature of science in science education are mentioned and some suggestions are presented.
Methodological pitfalls of the Unconscious Thought paradigm  [PDF]
Laurent Waroquier,David Marchiori,Olivier Klein,Axel Cleeremans
Judgment and Decision Making , 2009,
Abstract: According to Unconscious Thought Theory (UTT: Dijksterhuis and Nordgren, 2006), complex decisions are best made after a period of distraction assumed to elicit ``unconscious thought''. Over three studies, respectively offering a conceptual, an identical and a methodologically improved replication of Dijksterhuis et al. (2006), we reassessed UTT's predictions and dissected the decision task used to demonstrate these predictions. We failed to find any evidence for the benefits of unconscious decision-making. By contrast, we found some evidence that conscious deliberation can lead to better decisions. Further, we identified methodological weaknesses in the UTT decision task: (a) attributes weighting was neglected although attributes were seen as different in importance; (b) the material was not properly counterbalanced; and (c) there was some confusion in the experimental instructions. We propose methodological improvements that address these concerns.
Training of technical education and computer science teacher in higher education
El?bieta Sa?ata
Technológia vzdelávania , 2011,
Abstract: Teacher of today is a person professionally trained to do her/his job. To achieve this aim it is necessary to ensure required education on the universities. Development of science, technique and technology extract qualitative changes in work character and consequently requirements against teachers are still growing. The same tendency is to observe on the specialization of technical education and computer science at Technical University of Radom. Education on the mentioned specialization consists of two stages. Students are free to specialize either in teaching or engineering. Studies on ETI (technical education and computer science) prepare students in content-related, methodological and practical manner to do the job of a teacher.
Paradigm, science and society
N.T. van der Merwe
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 1975, DOI: 10.4102/koers.v40i4-6.847
Abstract: The subject of my contribution to the Taljaard Festschrift is focused on a cardinal aspect of the contemporary discussion in the area of theory of science, namely the relationship between science and society', and in this connection especially the role ascribed by certain scholars to paradigms in the practice of science. Because of its bridge function, the first task will be a global getting acquainted with some characteristic accents in contemporary theory of science. If this is successful, it can hopefully open up avenues for a view of the relationship of the remaining two components of the above mentioned subject.
Evaluation of conceptual change research and alternative conceptions. An approach to the current state of science education  [cached]
Marín Martínez, Nicolás;,Soto Lombana, Carlos
Revista Eureka sobre Ense?anza y Divulgación de las Ciencias , 2012,
Abstract: Reviewing two of the most important lines of research in the field of Science Education, (conceptual change and alternative conceptions), the same series of methodological and theoretical weaknesses pointed out in professional seminars, has been revealed. The theoretical and methodological flaws suggest the existence of other less rational commitments to explain the intense production of works in this field.
Psychology as an Associational Science: A Methodological Viewpoint  [PDF]
Sam S. Rakover
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2012.22023
Abstract: Unlike the sciences (physics), psychology has not developed in any of its areas (such as perception, learning, cognition) a top-theory like Newtonian theory, the theory of relativity, or quantum theory in physics. This difference is explained by a methodological discrepancy between the sciences and psychology, which centers on the measurement procedure: in psychology, measurement units similar to those in physics have not been discovered. Based on the arguments supporting this claim, a methodological distinction is made between the sciences and psychology as an associational science. It is suggested that that these two kinds of science generate two different classes of technologies. The possibility that in psychology there is a connection between the issue of measurement and the unsolved consciousness/brain problem is discussed.
Rethink Science Education  [cached]
Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching , 2003,
Abstract: Whereas change in school science is slow, the pace of scientific and technological development within society is great, so much so that there is a danger that the changing world leaves science education behind. This is not only in terms of content and its related conceptual understanding, but also in its approach, its field of operation and the skills demanded of the teacher. In addressing these concerns, research in a science education context has tended to focus on the following problem areas: (a) the unpopularity of science subjects among students, where less and less students are thinking about careers in science and further study in science related areas (Krajcik et al., 2001; UNESCO,1999); (b) the irrelevance of science for students as taught in schools. Students do not see science useful for their lives and future developments (Osborne & Collins, 2001; Holbrook, 1998; Pak, 1997; Yager, 1996); (c) the static nature of the science content, overloaded with facts and theories taken from the past (Krajcik et al., 2001; Rannikmae, 2001). This bears little relationship with everyday needs; (d) student perception of school science as dominated by content with too much repetition and too little challenge (Osborne & Collins, 2001; Sjoberg, 2001); (e) isolation of science education from the values components of education and communication. Science education tends to be portrayed as value free, yet at the same time, the community needs increasingly to address moral and ethical issues and related problems (Anderson, et al., 1992; Holbrook, 1992; Layton, 1986); (f) teaching that is lacking attention to higher order learning among students has limited the development of problem-solving and decision-making skills among school graduates (Anderson et al., 1992; Zoller, 1993; Tal et al., 2001). These areas of focus are interrelated, even though they are addressing and highlighting issues in different contexts of science education. In general, all can be discussed within two domains: teacher's lack of training to teach higher order cognitive skills (problem-solving, decision-making) to students, and concerns for the context in which the science content is taught by teachers. It seems there is a need to rethink the rationale for teaching science in schools. Essential to this is determining the meaning of "science education", or "school science" and its relationship, if any, to other subjects in the school curriculum. A major consideration is to consider the place of science education within the context of education as a whole. Students go to school to be educated, or
New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm  [PDF]
J. Marvin Herndon
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: I present here a new, indivisible planetary science paradigm, a wholly self-consistent vision of the nature of matter in the Solar System, and dynamics and energy sources of planets. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures. Earth's complete condensation included a 300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions stripped the gases away from the inner planets and stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet, and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System and formed the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. In response to decompression-driven planetary volume increases, cracks form to increase surface area and mountain ranges characterized by folding form to accommodate changes in curvature. The differences between the inner planets are primarily the consequence of different degrees of protoplanetary compression. The internal composition of Mercury is calculated by analogy with the Earth. The rationale is provided for Mars potentially having a greater subsurface water reservoir capacity than before realized.
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