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Inequalities of caries experience in Nevada youth expressed by DMFT index vs. Significant Caries Index (SiC) over time
Marcia Ditmyer, Georgia Dounis, Connie Mobley, Eli Schwarz
BMC Oral Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-11-12
Abstract: Retrospective data was analyzed from a series of sequential, standardized oral health surveys across eight years (2001/2002-2008/2009) that included over 62,000 examinations of adolescents 13-19 years of age, attending public/private Nevada schools. Mean Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth index (DMFT) and Significant Caries Index (SiC) were subsequently computed for each academic year. Descriptive statistics were reported for analysis of comparative DMFT and SiC scores in relation to age, gender, racial background, and residence in a fluoridated/non-fluoridated community. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the differential impact of the variables on the probability of being in the high caries prevalence group.Comparison of students' mean DMFT to National (NHANES) data confirmed that dental caries remains a common chronic disease among Nevada youth, presenting higher prevalence rates and greater mean scores than the national averages. Downward trends were found across all demographics compared between survey years 1 and 6 with the exception of survey year 3. An upward trend began in survey year six. Over time, the younger group displayed an increasing proportion of cariesfree individuals while a decreasing proportion was found among older examinees. As expected, the mean SiC score was significantly higher than DMFT scores within each survey year across comparison groups (p < 0.001).Using both caries indices together may help to highlight oral health inequalities more accurately among different population groups within the community in order to identify the need for special preventive oral health interventions in adolescent Nevadans. At the community level, action should focus on retaining and expanding the community fluoridation program as an effective preventive measure. At the individual level the study identifies the need for more targeted efforts to reach children early with a focus on females, Hispanics and Blacks, and uninsured children.For many years,
Dental Caries and Associated Determinants among Students of the Military School of Saint Louis (Senegal)  [PDF]
Massamba Diouf, Mababou Kebe, Mamadou Lamine Guirassy, Mbathio Diop, Abdoulaye Diouf, Aida Kanoute, Jean-Claude Guinan, Amadou Dieng, Abou Dramane Sanghare, Daouda Cisse, Daouda Faye, Cheikh Mbacké Lo
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2017.74024
Abstract: Introduction: Due to its health, social and economic morbidity, dental caries leads to absenteeism and a drop in school performance among schoolchildren. The objective of this work is to study dental caries and its determinants in pupils known as Children of Troop (CT) of the “Military School of Saint Louis” (MSS). Method: This was a descriptive and cross-sectional study. Recruitment was exhaustive. The collection was made at the school and has covered the period of March 10 throughout June 13, 2014 in an individual interview, based upon a deliberate consent, using a questionnaire drawn up on the basis of the variables studied. The bivariate analysis was done with the Epi Info software version 3.5.3. Results: The mean age of CT was 14.9. The prevalence of caries was 61.2%. Determinants related to caries were: sugar intake between meals (OR = 6.44 [3.4 - 11.9]); insufficient tooth brushing (OR = 14.3 [8.8 - 23.29]); (OR = 3.84 [2.38 - 7.14]) and for regular dental visits (OR = 5.26 [3.44 - 8.33]), with the last dental visit dating back more than one year. Conclusion: In the face of challenges of school performance of CT, it is necessary to set up a control plan focusing mainly on the factors identified and associated with dental caries in military school.
Epidemiology of dental caries: when structure and context matter  [cached]
Paulo Fraz?o
Brazilian Oral Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/s1806-83242012000700016
Abstract: The widespread expansion of the sugar market drove dental caries prevalence to high levels in several regions of the world. On the other hand, the dissemination of fluoride use is one of the reasons for caries decline at the end of the 20th century. However, caries remains one of the most prevalent non-communicable chronic diseases in human beings, and an important cause of pain and dental loss, which lead to school and work absenteeism affecting individuals' daily activities and emotional stability. The decline in caries has important implications for research, human resources and oral healthcare. The aim of this study was to summarize the changes in dental caries occurrence in the population, and bring to light the latest research on the role of non-biological determinants in caries distribution.
Dental caries vaccine  [cached]
Shivakumar K,Vidya S,Chandu G
Indian Journal of Dental Research , 2009,
Abstract: Dental caries is one of the most common diseases in humans. In modern times, it has reached epidemic proportions. Dental caries is an infectious microbiologic disease of the teeth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissue. Dental caries is a mulitifactorial disease, which is caused by host, agent, and environmental factors. The time factor is important for the development and progression of dental caries. A wide group of microorganisms are identified from carious lesions of which S. mutans , Lactobacillus acidophilus , and Actinomyces viscosus are the main pathogenic species involved in the initiation and development of dental caries. In India, surveys done on school children showed caries prevalence of approximately 58%. Surveys among the U.S. population showed an incidence of 45.3% in children and 93.8% in adults with either past or present coronal caries. Huge amounts of money and time are spent in treating dental caries. Hence, the prevention and control of dental caries is the main aim of public health, eventually the ultimate objective of public health is the elimination of the disease itself. Recently, dental caries vaccines have been developed for the prevention of dental caries. These dental caries vaccines are still in the early stages.
Incidence of dental caries in chronic urticaria
Kaur Surrinder,Ghosh Srabani,Kanwar A,Gauba A
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 1991,
Abstract: Three hundred patients of chronic urticaria were screened for dental affections. Sixty two (20.66%) patients were detected to have dental caries. Among the control group which com-prised of 100 patients, 20% had dental caries. There was thus no increased incidence of dental caries among patients with urticaria. Only 2 patients had remission of urticaria following treat-ment of caries. Dental caries therefore is probably not a cause of chronic urticaria.
Early prevention of dental caries in children  [PDF]
Kharitonova T.L.,Lebedeva S.N.,Kazakova L.N.
Saratov Journal of Medical Scientific Research , 2011,
Abstract: Early prevention of dental caries in children plays an important role in the preservation of dental health. This article explains the necessity of early prevention of dental caries in children. The most effective methods of prevention of dental caries are beginning hygiene care and respect for the recommendations dentist since the first teeth. It is shown that the use of conservative therapy is very effective in the treatment of early forms of dental caries
Health promotion and dental caries
Maltz, Marisa;Jardim, Juliana Jobim;Alves, Luana Severo;
Brazilian Oral Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-83242010000500004
Abstract: the central idea of the brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene), among others. for decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. however, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. an alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. if a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. the prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene) should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.
Dental caries: Therapeutic possibilities  [PDF]
Peri? Tamara,Markovi? Dejan,?ivkovi? Slavoljub
Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo , 2008, DOI: 10.2298/sarh0812662p
Abstract: Contemporary tendencies in dentistry are based on the concept of maximal protection of healthy tooth tissues. Caries removal has been done traditionally with mechanical rotary instruments that are fast and precise. However, conventional cavity preparation has potential adverse effects to the pulp due to heat, pressure and vibrations. Moreover, drilling often causes pain and requires local anaesthesia, and these procedures are frequently perceived as unpleasant. Etiology, development and prevention of dental caries are better understood today and new restorative materials that bond micromechanically and/or chemically to dental tissues have been introduced. Thus, development of a new, less destructive caries removal technique is allowed. In the last decades, many alternative methods have been introduced in an attempt to replace rotary instruments. These are claimed to be efficient and selective for diseased tissues and to offer comfortable treatment to the patients. New methods include air abrasion, air polishing, ultrasonic, polymer burs, enzymes, systems for chemo-mechanical caries removal, and lasers. The aim of this paper was to discuss various caries removal techniques and possibilities of their use in clinical practice. Based on the literature review it can be concluded that none of the new caries removal methods can completely replace conventional rotary instruments.
Validation of a multifactorial risk factor model used for predicting future caries risk with nevada adolescents
Marcia M Ditmyer, Georgia Dounis, Katherine M Howard, Connie Mobley, David Cappelli
BMC Oral Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-11-18
Abstract: This study examined retrospective data from an oral health surveillance initiative that screened over 51,000 students 13-18 years of age, attending public/private schools in Nevada across six academic years (2002/2003-2007/2008). The Risk Factor Model included ten demographic variables: exposure to fluoridation in the municipal water supply, environmental smoke exposure, race, age, locale (metropolitan vs. rural), tobacco use, Body Mass Index, insurance status, sex, and sealant application. Multiple regression was used in a previous study to establish which significantly contributed to caries risk. Follow-up logistic regression ascertained the weight of contribution and odds ratios of the ten variables. Researchers in this study computed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PVP), negative predictive value (PVN), and prevalence across all six years of screening to assess the validity of the Risk Factor Model.Subjects' overall mean caries prevalence across all six years was 66%. Average sensitivity across all six years was 79%; average specificity was 81%; average PVP was 89% and average PVN was 67%.Overall, the Risk Factor Model provided a relatively constant, valid measure of caries that could be used in conjunction with a comprehensive risk assessment in population-based screenings by school nurses/nurse practitioners, health educators, and physicians to guide them in assessing potential future caries risk for use in prevention and referral practices.Although dental caries has declined significantly among school-aged children since the early 1970s, oral disease, including caries, remains a major public health challenge [1-3]. In 2004, the reported prevalence of dental caries was approximately 60% in US children ages 12 to 19, with a reported 20% in untreated tooth decay [3]. Childhood dental caries has been reported to be the most prevalent infectious disease in our nation - 5 times as common as asthma and 7 times as common as hay fever [4]. Sixty-s
Dental caries: A complete changeover (Part II)- Changeover in the diagnosis and prognosis  [cached]
Carounanidy Usha,Sathyanarayanan R
Journal of Conservative Dentistry , 2009,
Abstract: Realization that dental caries is a reversible, dynamic biochemical event at a micron level has changed the way the profession recognizes the caries disease and the caries lesion. The diagnosis of dental caries poses challenges due to the complex interaction of multiple endogenous causal factors. The most appropriate diagnostic aid for this purpose is the risk model of caries risk assessment. The analyses of the biological determinants provide clues to the dominant causal factor. The detection of a carious lesion has undergone a rigorous revision and revolution in order to identify the earliest mineral change so that it can be controlled without resorting to invasive management options. Apart from detection, it became mandatory to assess the extent of the lesion (noncavitated/cavitated), assess the activity status of the lesion (active/arrested), monitor the lesion progress (progression/regression over a period of time), and finally to predict the prognosis of the lesion as well as the disease. The prognosis of the disease can be best assessed by analyzing the predictor factors in caries risk assessment. The ultimate objective of such a meticulous and methodical approach aids in devising a tailor-made treatment plan, using preventing measures precisely and restorative measures minimally. This ensures the best oral health outcome of the patient.
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