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Effects of phytase supplementation on growth performance, slaughter performance, growth of internal organs and small intestine, and serum biochemical parameters of broilers  [PDF]
Wei Wang, Zhiyue Wang, Haiming Yang, Yujuan Cao, Xiaochun Zhu
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2013.33035
Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of phytase supplementation on growth performance, slaughter performance, growth of internal organs and small intestine, and serum biochemical indices of broilers. A total of 360 1-day-old Ross 308 broilers were randomly divided into 4 groups with 3 replicates and 30 broilers per replicate (15 male, 15 female). The treatments were fed with basal diet supplemented with 0%, 0.01%, 0.02% and 0.03% phytase. The results showed that: 1) Phytase supplementation increased the body weight gain and the body weight of Ross 308 broilers (P < 0.05); 2) Compared with the control group, the feed containing 0.02% phytase increased the eviscerated carcass ration (P < 0.05); 3) The feed supplemented phytase could improve the weight of liver (P < 0.05); 4) The phytase supplementation was good for the weight and the length of small intestine; 5) The phytase supplementation which improved the serum phosphorus (P) consistency and lowered serum calcium (Ca) consistency was 0.02%. According to the above analysis, the feasible supplementation of phytase (enzyme activity for 5000 u/g) in broiler dietary was 0.02%.

Rare benign tumours of the small intestine presened as acute abdomen in childhood
B. Kasselas, M. Papoutsakis, Ch.Chaidos, Ch. Kasselas, G. Tsikopoulos, M. Agelidou, G.Papouis,Th. Karagiozoglou
Annals of Gastroenterology , 2007,
Abstract: SUMMARY Benign tumours of the small intestine in children although rare, may represent an additional cause of acute abdomen symptoms that the gastroenterologist, the paediatrician and the surgeon must keep in mind in order to proceed to accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Three cases of benign tumours of the small intestine, histologically diagnosed as leiomyoma, fibroma and hamartoma., are presented, and the literature is revised emphasizing issues of pathophysiology, specific characteristics and the treatment of these tumours. Key words: Benign tumours, small intestine, acute abdomen, children.
Radionuclide Small Intestine Imaging  [PDF]
Jiri Dolezal,Marcela Kopacova
Gastroenterology Research and Practice , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/861619
Abstract: The aim of this overview article is to present the current possibilities of radionuclide scintigraphic small intestine imaging. Nuclear medicine has a few methods—scintigraphy with red blood cells labelled by means of for detection of the source of bleeding in the small intestine, Meckel’s diverticulum scintigraphy for detection of the ectopic gastric mucosa, radionuclide somatostatin receptor imaging for carcinoid, and radionuclide inflammation imaging. Video capsule or deep enteroscopy is the method of choice for detection of most lesions in the small intestine. Small intestine scintigraphies are only a complementary imaging method and can be successful, for example, for the detection of the bleeding site in the small intestine, ectopic gastric mucosa, carcinoid and its metastasis, or inflammation. Radionuclide scintigraphic small intestine imaging is an effective imaging modality in the localisation of small intestine lesions for patients in whom other diagnostic tests have failed to locate any lesions or are not available. 1. Introduction The aim of this paper is to present current possibilities of radionuclide scintigraphic small intestine imaging. Nuclear medicine has a few methods—scintigraphy with red blood cells (RBCs) labelled by means of for detection of the source of bleeding in the small intestine, Meckel’s diverticulum scintigraphy for detection of the ectopic gastric mucosa, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy for carcinoid imaging, and radionuclide inflammation imaging. Radionuclide scintigraphic small intestine imaging is an effective imaging modality in the localisation of small intestine lesions for patients in whom other diagnostic tests have failed to locate any lesions or are not available. To improve sensitivity, specificity, and location of the area of increased radioactivity abdomen SPECT/CT and PET/CT are recommended. The hybrid SPECT/CT (single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography) and PET/CT (positron emission tomography/computed tomography) of the abdomen allow true three-dimensional (3D) image acquisition and display, while at the same time improving the imaging interpretation and accuracy of scintigraphy. Reconstruction of cross-sectional slices uses filtered back or iterative projection. 2. Scintigraphy with Radiolabeled Red Blood Cells Effective and prompt therapy for acute gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding depends on accurate localisation of the site of haemorrhage. Anamnesis and clinical examination can often distinguish upper and lower GI bleeding. Upper GI tract and colon haemorrhage can be confirmed
Epidemiology of cancer of the small intestine  [cached]
Sai Yi Pan, Howard Morrison
World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology , 2011,
Abstract: Cancer of the small intestine is very uncommon. There are 4 main histological subtypes: adenocarcinomas, carcinoid tumors, lymphoma and sarcoma. The incidence of small intestine cancer has increased over the past several decades with a four-fold increase for carcinoid tumors, less dramatic rises for adenocarcinoma and lymphoma and stable sarcoma rates. Very little is known about its etiology. An increased risk has been noted for individuals with Crohn’s disease, celiac disease, adenoma, familial adenomatous polyposis and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Several behavioral risk factors including consumption of red or smoked meat, saturated fat, obesity and smoking have been suggested. The prognosis for carcinomas of the small intestine cancer is poor (5 years relative survival < 30%), better for lymphomas and sarcomas, and best for carcinoid tumors. There has been no significant change in long-term survival rates for any of the 4 histological subtypes. Currently, with the possible exceptions of obesity and cigarette smoking, there are no established modifiable risk factors which might provide the foundation for a prevention program aimed at reducing the incidence and mortality of cancers of the small intestine. More research with better quality and sufficient statistical power is needed to get better understanding of the etiology and biology of this cancer. In addition, more studies should be done to assess not only exposures of interest, but also host susceptibility.
Sonography of the small intestine  [cached]
Kim Nylund, Svein ?degaard, Trygve Hausken, Geir Folvik, Gülen Arslan Lied, Ivan Viola, Helwig Hauser, Odd-Helge Gilja
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2009,
Abstract: In the last two decades, there has been substantial development in the diagnostic possibilities for examining the small intestine. Compared with computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy, ultrasonography has the advantage of being cheap, portable, flexible and user- and patient-friendly, while at the same time providing the clinician with image data of high temporal and spatial resolution. The method has limitations with penetration in obesity and with intestinal air impairing image quality. The flexibility ultrasonography offers the examiner also implies that a systematic approach during scanning is needed. This paper reviews the basic scanning techniques and new modalities such as contrast-enhanced ultrasound, elastography, strain rate imaging, hydrosonography, allergosonography, endoscopic sonography and nutritional imaging, and the literature on disease-specific findings in the small intestine. Some of these methods have shown clinical benefit, while others are under research and development to establish their role in the diagnostic repertoire. However, along with improved overall image quality of new ultrasound scanners, these methods have enabled more anatomical and physiological changes in the small intestine to be observed. Accordingly, ultrasound of the small intestine is an attractive clinical tool to study patients with a range of diseases.
Primary lymphoma of the small intestine
Veki? Berislav,Radovanovi? Dragan L.,?ivanovi? Jovan
Medicinski Pregled , 2003, DOI: 10.2298/mpns0302089v
Abstract: Introduction Small bowel neoplasms are relatively rare, considering digestive system neoplasms. The aim of this case report was to point to clinical manifestations, significance and treatment patterns of small bowel lymphomas. Material and methods This is a case report of a sixty-eight year old patient who had undergone surgical treatment due to clinical and radiological findings of small bowel obstruction. Results Histological findings revealed a malignant lymphoma. Primary small intestine lymphomas are treated by radiochemotherapy followed by surgical treatment (partial resection).
Adenomyoma of the small intestine  [cached]
Yoshihisa Takahashi,Toshio Fukusato
World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology , 2011, DOI: 10.4291/wjgp.v2.i6.88
Abstract: Adenomyoma of the gastrointestinal tract is a rare benign tumor-like lesion. The small intestine is the second most frequent location, usually in the periampullary area, but the lesion also occurs in the jejunum and ileum. While adenomyoma of the Vaterian system is primarily diagnosed in adults, more than half of reported cases of jejunal and ileal adenomyoma have been diagnosed in pediatric patients. Adenomyoma of the periampullary area usually presents with biliary obstruction or abdominal pain, whereas jejunal and ileal adenomyoma usually presents with intussusception or is incidentally discovered during surgery or autopsy. Since endoscopic and radiological examination yields uncharacteristic findings, histopathological evaluation is important in adenomyoma diagnosis. Pathologically, adenomyoma consists of glandular structures of various sizes and interlacing smooth muscle bundles that surround the glandular elements. The pathogenesis of adenomyoma is generally considered to be either a form of hamartoma or a pancreatic heterotopia. Although limited resection is considered the most effective treatment, pancreaticoduodenectomy is often performed when the lesion occurs in the periampullary area due to preoperative misdiagnosis as a carcinoma. It is, therefore, important that clinicians and pathologists maintain current knowledge of the disease to avoid inaccurate diagnosis, which could lead to unnecessary surgery.
Melanosis in the small and large intestine  [cached]
Hugh James Freeman
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: Deposition of pigment in the intestinal mucosa is commonly observed by the endoscopist, especially within the colon, and particularly during investigations for constipation. Pigment may also be detected in the small intestine. Although labeled as melanosis, electron microscopy and X-ray analytical methods have provided evidence that this pigment is not melanin at all, but lipofuscin. Often, herbal remedies or anthracene containing laxatives are often historically implicated, and experimental studies in both humans and animal models have also confirmed the intimate relationship with these pharmacological or pseudo-pharmacological remedies. The appearance of melanosis coli during colonoscopy is largely due to pigment granule deposition in macrophages located in the colonic mucosa. The pigment intensity is not uniform, being more intense in the cecum and proximal colon compared to the distal colon. Possibly, this reflects higher luminal concentrations of an offending agent in the proximal compared to distal colon, differential absorption along the length of the colon, or finally, differences in macrophage distribution within the colon. Mucosal lymphoid aggregates normally display a distinct absence of pigment producing a “starry sky” appearance, especially in the rectosigmoid region. Interestingly, some focal, usually sessile, colonic mucosal neoplastic lesions, rather than submucosal lesions, may be better appreciated as pigment deposition may be absent or limited. If detected, removal and further histopathologic analysis of the polyp may be facilitated.
Lymphangiectasia of small intestine presenting as intussusception  [cached]
Katoch Pervez,Bhardwaj Subhash
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology , 2008,
Abstract: Intussusception is defined as telescoping of a segment of gastrointestinal tract into an adjacent one. In small children, it is the commonest cause of intestinal obstruction. More than 90% of childhood intussusceptions are idiopathic. We report a rare case of localized small intestinal lymphangiectasia, presenting as intussusception in a 6-month-old male child. The child presented with features of acute intestinal obstruction for which he was later operated. The gross examination of excised ileocecal mass revealed intussusception. Histopathologic examination revealed lymphangiectasia of small intestine, which acted as a lead point for ileocecal intussusception. Postoperative period was uneventful.
Adenomyoma of the Small Intestine: Case Report
Cevriye CANSIZ,Gül?ah KAYGUSUZ,I??nsu KUZU,?iyar ERS?Z
Türk Patoloji Dergisi , 2010,
Abstract: Adenomyoma of the small intestine is a rare entity characterized by a mixture of glandular structures with intervening bundles of smooth muscle. It occurs mostly in the periampullary region or ileum. Seven cases of jejunal adenomyoma have previously been reported in the literature. We describe here a 61-year-old male suffering from an inguinal hernia with a polipoid lesion in the submucosa of the jejunum strangulated in hernisac.
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