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Phylogenetic Analysis and Taste Cell Expression of Calpain 9 in Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)  [PDF]
Tetsuya Ookura, Eiki Koyama, Anne Hansen, John H. Teeter, Yukio Kawamura, Joseph G. Brand
Natural Science (NS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2015.73016
Abstract: The calpains, calcium-activated neutral proteases, play important roles in calcium-regulated intra-cellular signal transduction cascades. Here we report the isolation and initial characterization of a cDNA encoding a calpain 9, digestive tract specific calpain, from catfish taste epithelium. This calpain 9 (Ip-CAPN9a) shares 61% identity with human calpain 9. Phylogenetic analysis provides evidence that catfish calpain 9 and the related enzymes from Oncorhynchus mykiss, Danio rerio, Xenopus laevis, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus and Homo sapiens make up a distinct clade within the tissue-specific calpain family. Northern blot analysis reveals that Ip-CAPN9a is predominantly expressed in barbell and digestive tract, but not expressed in brain. An antibody against the N-terminal segment of Ip-CAPN9a recognizes cells within the taste buds in catfish barbells.
Identification, isolation and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Aeromonas veronii associated with an acute death of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus lunetas) in China
X Huang, K Wang, D Zong-Jun, Y Geng, Y Deng
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: Aeromonas veronii is a common pathogen in both humans and animals. It exists in the environment we live. Many reports showed it could lead to human infection but few demonstrated its effect on aquatic animals, especially Channel Catfish (Ictalurus lunetaus). Here, A. veronii was isolated from an acute death case of Channel Catfish in Southwestern China. This Gram-negative bacillus was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Antimicrobial susceptibility was also conducted to guide the treatment of the disease.
The Effect of Feeding by the Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) on the Benthic Invertebrate Community in the Ponds  [cached]
Martin M. Matute,Yvonne A. Manning,Mariam I. Kaleem
Journal of Agricultural Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jas.v4n6p267
Abstract: The impact of fish feed on benthic invertebrates in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) ponds was investigated. Benthic samples were collected from 10 catfish ponds, five in which fish were fed and five in which fish were not fed. The fed and unfed ponds were identical in design, management history and stocking density. Four benthic composite samples were collected from each pond monthly for three months and the invertebrates extracted and pH values determined. Fish feeding significantly reduced invertebrate taxa, abundance and the pH in fed ponds as compared to the unfed ponds. The mean pH in fed and unfed ponds was respectively 6.38 and 7.59; this represents an approximate 71 fold difference. Differences in the benthic invertebrate community seem therefore to be associated with pH levels. Fish feed reduced the populations of certain catfish parasites and this could partly account for the increased fish yield in fed ponds. Ecologically, the results reveal that fish feeding has a reductive effect on invertebrate taxa richness and taxa abundance. The results of this investigation seems to suggest fish feeding has a disruptive effect on the natural ecological functions and processes ascribed to benthic invertebrates, by significantly reducing their abundance, taxa richness, and altering the hydrogen ion concentration of the benthic environment.
Determina??o do sexo em catfish de canal (Ictalurus punctatus) utilizando endoscopia
Lima, Fernando Souza Mendon?a De;Murgas, Luis David Solis;Felizardo, Viviane De Oliveira;Costa, Adriano Carvalho;Mattos, Bruno Olivetti De;Paula, Daniela Aparecida De Jesus;
Revista Ceres , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-737X2011000300006
Abstract: sex identification in fish is an important practice for the development of broodstock management strategies. endoscopy can be used for sex identification, although in fish, it is still restricted. therefore, the objective of this study was to validate the use of rigid endoscope via the urogenital pore to determine the sex of the catfish (ictalurus punctatus afinesque, 1818). the equipment used was a multi-purpose rigid ? 30o endoscope, with 2.7 mm in diameter and 18 cm in length. we examined 60 fish weighing between 86 and 1032 grams, in which the endoscope was introduced via the genital pore and then immediately euthanized to confirm the sex. gonadal tissue samples were collected for histological assessment of maturation stage and sex confirmation. the results showed that of the 60 fish examined, 57 had positive sex confirmation by endoscopy, corresponding to 95% of the sample. the results show that it is feasible the use of endoscopy for sex determination in catfish via genital pore.
Production and utilization of a high-density oligonucleotide microarray in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus
Robert W Li, Geoffrey C Waldbieser
BMC Genomics , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-7-134
Abstract: In the spleen samples, 138 genes were significantly induced or repressed greater than 2-fold by LPS treatment. Real-time RT-PCR was used to verify the microarray results for nine selected genes representing different expression levels. The results from real-time RT-PCR were positively correlated (R2 = 0.87) with the results from the microarray.The first generation channel catfish microarray provided several candidate genes useful for further evaluation of immune response mechanisms in this species. This research will help us to better understand recognition of LPS by host cells and the LPS-signalling pathway in fish.The channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is native to North America and is from the order Siluriformes (superorder Ostariophysi) which is considered more primitive among teleosts [1,2]. Commercial production of catfish as dietary protein is the leading industry of North American aquaculture, with more than 600 million pounds of catfish produced annually in the United States [3]. One of the most significant factors limiting production is loss to disease, and one of our goals is to improve non-specific immunity through selective breeding. The channel catfish immune system is the best characterized for any fish species, and it is the only fish species where clonal functionally distinct lymphocyte lines can be readily established [4]. However, there is a need to better understand the physiological and immunological pathways controlling host-pathogen interactions in vivo.Improvement of disease resistance in catfish populations depends on an understanding of the genetic control of immune-related pathways, response to pathogens, and correlations with other production traits. Recent developments in genomic technology, particularly high-throughput cDNA sequencing and development of expressed sequence microarrays, have made possible the profiling of global gene expression in experimental fish tissues.Microarray experiments have been utilized to determine regulati
Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) by Using Solexa Sequencing Technology  [PDF]
Zhiqiang Xu, Jiaping Chen, Xuguang Li, Jiachun Ge, Jianlin Pan, Xiaofeng Xu
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054174
Abstract: Channel catfish (Ictalurus spp.) is an economically important species in freshwater aquaculture around the world and occupies a prominent position in the aquaculture industry of the United States. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of almost every biological process in eukaryotes; however, there is little information available concerning miRNAs in channel catfish. In this study, a small-RNA cDNA library was constructed from 10 tissues of channel catfish, and Solexa sequencing technology was used to perform high-throughput sequencing of the library. A total of 14,919,026 raw reads, representing 161,288 unique sequences, were obtained from the small-cDNA library. After comparing the small RNA sequences with the RFam database, 4,542,396 reads that represent 25,538 unique sequences were mapped to the genome sequence of zebrafish to perform distribution analysis and to screen for candidate miRNA genes. Subsequent bioinformatic analysis identified 237 conserved miRNAs and 45 novel miRNAs in the channel catfish. Stem-loop RT-PCR was applied to validate and profile the expression of the novel miRNAs in 10 tissues. Some novel miRNAs, such as ipu-miR-129b, ipu-miR-7562 and ipu-miR-7553, were expressed in all tissues examined. However, some novel miRNAs appear to be tissue specific. Ipu-miR-7575 is predominantly expressed in stomach. Ipu-miR-7147 and ipu-miR-203c are highly expressed in heart, but are relatively weakly expressed in other tissues. Based on sequence complementarity between miRNAs and mRNA targets, potential target sequences for the 45 novel miRNAs were identified by searching for antisense hits in the reference RNA sequences of the channel catfish. These potential target sequences are involved in immune regulation, transcriptional regulation, metabolism and many other biological functions. The discovery of miRNAs in the channel catfish genome by this study contributes to a better understanding of the role miRNAs play in regulating diverse biological processes in fish and vertebrates.
Plant Natural Compounds with Antibacterial Activity towards Common Pathogens of Pond-Cultured Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)  [PDF]
Kevin K. Schrader
Toxins , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/toxins2071676
Abstract: The bacteria Edwardsiella ictaluri and Flavobacterium columnare cause enteric septicemia and columnaris disease, respectively, in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Natural therapeutants may provide an alternative to current management approaches used by producers. In this study, a rapid bioassay identified plant compounds as potential therapeutants. Chelerythrine chloride and ellagic acid were the most toxic toward E. ictaluri, with 24-h IC50 of 7.3 mg/L and 15.1 mg/L, respectively, and MIC of 2.1 mg/L and 6.5 mg/L, respectively. Chelerythrine chloride, ellagic acid, β-glycyrrhetinic acid, sorgoleone, and wogonin were the most toxic towards two genomovars of F. columnare, and wogonin had the strongest antibacterial activity (MIC = 0.3 mg/L).
First record of Trichodina heterodentata (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) from channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus cultivated in Brazil
Martins, ML.;Marchiori, N.;Nunes, G.;Rodrigues, MP.;
Brazilian Journal of Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-69842010000300022
Abstract: this study characterises morphologically trichodina heterodentata duncan, 1977 from channel catfish, ictalurus punctatus (rafinesque, 1818) in the state of santa catarina, brazil. body and gill smears were air-dried at room temperature, impregnated with silver nitrate and/or stained with giemsa. ten characteristics were selected to compare the present material with other morphological characterisations of t. heterodentata. prevalence rate was 100%, mean intensity 89,333.70 (3,125 to 299,100 parasites per host). trichodina heterodentata was considered medium-sized trichodinid with mean body diameter 59.4 ± 8.5 μm, denticulate ring 38.5 ± 4.5 μm, adhesive disc 60.2 ± 6.7 μm diameter and 24.4 ± 1.6 denticles. in relation to previous reports of t. heterodentata this material resembles in 90% of the analysed characters. this work confirms the biometrical variation that exists in the different populations of t. heterodentata. a list of hosts and comparative measurements of t. heterodentata are presented and the channel catfish is considered a new host.
BIOPHYSICAL SCORE
AYSHA AFZAL MBBS
The Professional Medical Journal , 2006,
Abstract: A pregnancy is defined as high risk when there is a likelihood of anadverse outcome to the woman and or her baby that is greater than the incidence of that outcome in the generalpregnant population. Objectives: To determine the efficacy and predictive value of biophysical profile in detectingperinatal outcome. Design: Observational study. Setting: Obstetrics and Gynaecology department, PNS SHIFA KarachiPeriod: From February 2003 to October 2003. Patients and Methods: The study was carried on 100 randomlyselected high risk pregnant patients who reported to gynae OPD or were referred from different armed forces hospitalsfrom all over sindh . Manning’s biophysical profile excluding nonstress test and including only ultrasound basedparameters were employed for fetal screening ( BPS 8/8). These parameters include four variables i.e fetal breathingmovement, fetal tone, fetal movements, and amniotic fluid volume. Nonstress test and Doppler studies were used asbackup tests where biophysical profile was abnormal. All cases selected were admitted in the hospital and each hadan admission biophysical profile followed by subsequent monitoring. Parameters for abnormal perinatal outcome includefetal distress in labour, five minute apgar score less than 7/10, admission of newborn to intensive care unit and stillbirthor neonatal death. The result of last biophysical profile is compared with perinatal outcome. For statistical analysis thepredictive value, specificity and sensitivity are used to determine the ability of biophysical profile to predict an abnormalperinatal outcome. Results: Out of 100 cases 92 had a normal biophysical profile in the last scan of 8/8. 90 cases hada normal perinatal outcome with A/S > 7/10. In two cases A/S at 1 and 5 minute is < 7/10 with one baby shifted tonursery for delayed cry. 08 cases had an abnormal biophysical profile with scores of 4/8 and 2/8. There was one falsepositive who showed abnormal biophysical profile but baby was born with an A/S of 8/10 at 05 minutes. There was noneonatal death in this study group. The sensitivity of biophysical profile was 77.7%, specificity 98.90%. predictive valuefor a positive test was 87.5%, predictive value for a negative test was 97.8%. Conclusion: Biophysical profile is highlyaccurate and reliable test of diagnosing fetal status.
Biophysical Micromixer  [PDF]
Chin-Tsan Wang,Yuh-Chung Hu,Tzu-Yang Hu
Sensors , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/s90705379
Abstract: In this study a biophysical passive micromixer with channel anamorphosis in a space of 370 mm, which is shorter than traditional passive micromixers, could be created by mimicing features of vascular flow networks and executed with Reynolds numbers ranging from 1 to 90. Split and recombination (SAR) was the main mixing method for enhancing the convection effect and promoting the mixing performance in the biophysical channel. The 2D numerical results reveal that good mixing efficiency of the mixer was possible, with εmixing = 0.876 at Reynolds number ration Rer = 0.85. Generally speaking, increasing the Reynolds number will enhance the mixing. In addition, the sidewall effect will influence the mixing performance and an optimal mixing performance with εmixing = 0.803 will occur at an aspect ratio of AR = 2. These findings will be useful for enhancing mixing performance for passive micromixers.
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