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Susceptibility of Pediococcus isolates to antimicrobial compounds in relation to hop-resistance and beer-spoilage
Monique Haakensen, David M Vickers, Barry Ziola
BMC Microbiology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-9-190
Abstract: Lactic acid bacteria susceptibility test broth medium (LSM) used in combination with commercially available GPN3F antimicrobial susceptibility plates was an effective method for assessing antimicrobial susceptibility of Pediococcus isolates. We report the finding of Vancomycin-susceptible Pediococcus isolates from four species. Interestingly, we found that hop-resistant, beer-spoilage, and beer-spoilage gene-harbouring isolates had a tendency to be more susceptible, rather than more resistant, to antimicrobial compounds.Our findings indicate that the mechanisms involved in conferring hop-resistance or ability to spoil beer by Pediococcus isolates are not associated with resistance to antibiotics commonly used for treatment of human infections. Also, Vancomycin-resistance was found to be isolate-specific and not intrinsic to the genus as previously believed.Isolates from the genus Pediococcus are particularly problematic for the brewing industry where hop-compounds are used to provide flavour to beer. Hop-compounds are antimicrobial in that they dissipate the trans-membrane pH gradient of microbes, thereby inhibiting growth and potential spoilage of product [1]. As pediococci are also used as beneficial microbes in the context of food microbiology and animal husbandry (e.g., wine, cheese, and yogurt industries as well as for the production of silage), the emergence of hop-resistant Pediococcus isolates in the brewing industry is of broader interest. These isolates frequently harbour one or more ATP-binding cassette type multidrug resistance (ABC MDR) genes, suggesting that resistance to hop-compounds may also confer resistance to other antimicrobial compounds [2]. We have previously shown that several genes can be correlated with ability of Pediococcus isolates to grow in beer and to resist the antimicrobial activity of hop-compounds [3-5]. These are the ABC MDR genes ABC2, bsrA, bsrB, [6] and horA [2], a putative divalent cation transporter known as hitA [7], and ho
Fundamentals, Representative Applications and Future Perspectives of Green Chemistry: A Short Review
Kalyan Kumar Rana, Suparna Rana
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1100748

Green chemistry is an eco-friendly and rapid emerging field of chemistry which offers a green alternative to conventional chemistry practices. It focuses on the reduction, recycling and removal of the use of toxic and hazardous chemicals through innovative alternative routes making desired products with minimum environment impact. Its growing importance is in exploitation of maximum possible resources in such a way that, there is minimum production of undesired chemical wastes. It is helpful to chemists and chemical engineers in research, development and production for improvement of more eco-friendly and efficient products which may also have significant financial benefits. The green chemistry movement is part of a larger movement that leads to sustainable development, sustainable economics and sustainable living practices. Sustainable chemistry is a scientific concept that seeks to improve the efficiency with which natural resources are used to meet human needs for chemical products and services. It encompasses the design, manufacture and use of efficient, effective, safe and more environmentally benign chemical products and processes. This has enormous potential to contribute in renewable energy technologies, synthesis of new molecules and development of pollution prevention technologies. The aim of this review is to raise awareness on the fundamental aspects, necessities and benefits of green chemistry.

Influence of Hops Pellets Age on α-acids Utilization and Organoleptic Quality of Beer
Sini?a Sre?ec,Ton?i Rezi?,Bo?idar ?antek,Vladimir Mari?
Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus (ACS) , 2008,
Abstract: Parallel brewing trials were performed in laboratory brewery. For beer wort hopping, hop pellets of different age (“slightly aged” and “strongly aged” one) and storage indexes (0.35 and 0.59, respectively) were used. During brewing were measured bitterness, utilization of α-acids and index of α –acids isomerization. Mature beers were evaluated by panel taste testing. The results of panel testing, based on beer bitterness, drink ability and aroma, by universal flexible system of product quality evaluation, showed no significant difference between two beers. Therefore it was concluded that old hop pellets with high hop storage index values (0.59) could be used for beer wort hopping when fresh hop supply is missing. However such solution needs prolonged wort boiling, more energy consumption and colour of hopped wort and final beer is more intensive.
Importance of Medical Effects of Xanthohumol, Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) Bioflavonoid in Restructuring of World Hop Industry  [PDF]
Sini?a Sre?ec,Vesna Zechner-Krpan,Vlatka Petravi?-Tominac,Iztok Jo?e Ko?ir
Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus (ACS) , 2012,
Abstract: Nowadays, the world hop industry is faced with one of the biggest crisis in the history. Permanent decrease of hopping rates in the world beer industry during last 20 years caused many problems to hop producers all around the world. It resulted in the huge surpluses of hop stocks between years 2008 and 2010, the ages known as “years of famine” for hop farmers. The hop contains some compounds having medical, pharmaceutical or biological activities, and xanthohumol is one of them. Xanthohumol is a bioflavonoid whose positive effect is confirmed both in vitro and in vivo experiments. It is successfully used in medical treatment of patients having diseases such as prostate and breasts cancer, osteoporosis, menopausal problems, and even HIV. However, such attributes of hop are strong argument to consider the restructuring of the world hop industry and forming a new supply chain, primarily oriented to the pharmaceutical industry.
Slow-light enhancement of Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption  [PDF]
Niels Asger Mortensen,Sanshui Xiao
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1063/1.2720270
Abstract: We theoretically show how slow light in an optofluidic environment facilitates enhanced light-matter interactions, by orders of magnitude. The proposed concept provides strong opportunities for improving existing miniaturized chemical absorbance cells for Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption measurements widely employed in analytical chemistry.
The controversial discourse on beer in Iceland
Hildigunnur ólafsdóttir
Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs , 2012, DOI: 10.2478/v10199-012-0003-1
Abstract: AIMS-This study investigates the motives and discourses around the decision taken by the Icelandic parliament in 1989 to legalise beer sales after a prohibition of 74 years. A bill was passed in 1988 that allowed the selling of beer in licensed restaurants and the state alcohol monopoly stores. DESIGN-The sources used for this study are mainly newspaper articles and other materials and reports published in the period 1980 to 1989. RESULTS-The passing of the bill was preceded by many controversial discourses in Iceland. Lobbying groups with commercial interests campaigned for the legalisation of beer, while representatives of the alcoholism movement took no formal stance on the issue, parliamentarians broke from party lines and medical doctors were split into two factions. Common questions included the plausibility of the total consumption model, various understandings of WHO recommendations, diverging interpretations of other countries' experiences of beer, and different views on how beer would affect individuals suffering from alcoholism. CONCLUSIONS-The changes in Icelandic alcohol policy to legalise beer were in keeping with contemporary societal processes of globalisation and modernisation, but public health arguments were given less priority. While the decision to legalise beer increased the commercial functions of the state alcohol monopoly, it also strengthened the monopoly's role as an actor in alcohol policy.
The Sedative Effect of Non-Alcoholic Beer in Healthy Female Nurses  [PDF]
Lourdes Franco, Cristina Sánchez, Rafael Bravo, Ana B. Rodríguez, Carmen Barriga, Eulalia Romero, Javier Cubero
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037290
Abstract: Introduction The hop (Humulus lupulus L.), a component of beer, is a sedative plant whose pharmacological activity is principally due to its bitter resins, in particular to the α-acid degradation product 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. The mechanism of action of hop resin consists of raising the levels of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter acting in the central nervous system (CNS). Objectives To analyze the sedative effect of hops as a component of non-alcoholic beer on the sleep/wake rhythm in a work-stressed population. Methods The experiment was conducted with healthy female nurses (n = 17) working rotating and/or night shifts. Overnight sleep and chronobiological parameters were assessed by actigraphy (Actiwatch?) after moderate ingestion of non-alcoholic beer containing hops (333 ml with 0,0% alcohol) with supper for 14 days (treatment). Data were obtained in comparison with her own control group without consumption of beer during supper. Results Actigraphy results demonstrated improvement of night sleep quality as regards the most important parameters: Sleep Latency diminished (p≤0.05) in the Treatment group (12.01±1.19 min) when compared to the Control group (20.50±4.21 min), as also did Total Activity (p≤0.05; Treatment group = 5284.78±836.99 activity pulses vs Control = 7258.78±898.89 activity pulses). In addition, anxiety as indexed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) decreased in the Treatment group (State Anxiety 18.09±3.8 vs Control 20.69±2.14). Conclusion The moderate consumption of non-alcoholic beer will favour night-time rest, due in particular to its hop components, in addition to its other confirmed benefits for the organism.
The fundamentals of relations language mathematics  [PDF]
V. Ye. Mitroshin
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: The fundamentals of formal logic, theory of sets and mathematical structures are narrated in terms of relations language.
Duane Knudson
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine , 2007,
Abstract: DESCRIPTION This book provides a broad and in-depth theoretical and practical description of the fundamental concepts in understanding biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of human movement. PURPOSE The aim is to bring together up-to-date biomechanical knowledge with expert application knowledge. Extensive referencing for students is also provided. FEATURES This textbook is divided into 12 chapters within four parts, including a lab activities section at the end. The division is as follows: Part 1 Introduction: 1.Introduction to biomechanics of human movement; 2.Fundamentals of biomechanics and qualitative analysis; Part 2 Biological/Structural Bases: 3.Anatomical description and its limitations; 4.Mechanics of the musculoskeletal system; Part 3 Mechanical Bases: 5.Linear and angular kinematics; 6.Linear kinetics; 7.Angular kinetics; 8.Fluid mechanics; Part 4 Application of Biomechanics in Qualitative Analysis :9.Applying biomechanics in physical education; 10.Applying biomechanics in coaching; 11.Applying biomechanics in strength and conditioning; 12.Applying biomechanics in sports medicine and rehabilitation. AUDIENCE This is an important reading for both student and educators in the medicine, sport and exercise-related fields. For the researcher and lecturer it would be a helpful guide to plan and prepare more detailed experimental designs or lecture and/or laboratory classes in exercise and sport biomechanics. ASSESSMENT The text provides a constructive fundamental resource for biomechanics, exercise and sport-related students, teachers and researchers as well as anyone interested in understanding motion. It is also very useful since being clearly written and presenting several ways of examples of the application of biomechanics to help teach and apply biomechanical variables and concepts, including sport-related ones
Detection of Spoilage Bacteria in Beer by Polymerase Chain

TIAN Xiao-Qun,ZHOU Shi-Ning,

微生物学通报 , 2006,
Abstract: A new method for rapid detecting beer-spoilage by PCR was developed.This method is based on the sequence of a hop-resistance gene horA,which a pair of specific primers were designed based on the partial sequence of it.Using the primers,beer-spoilage Lactobacillus species were detected by PCR.The sensitivity was reached to 3CFU.The pre-enrichment of samples was needed only 12~16 h.The duration for beer-spoilage determination by PCR(24h)was markly shorter than by conventional method(5~7d).
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