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Advantages of a Four-Year Residency  [cached]
Weichenthal, Lori
Western Journal of Emergency Medicine : Integrating Emergency Care with Population Health , 2004,
Comparison of Advantages and Weaknesses Among Three Major Urban Agglomerations in China  [cached]
Yumei Ma
Asian Social Science , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v4n10p132
Abstract: Several urban agglomerrations have formed in China in different size recently, with China’s population and ecnomic activities shifting to big cities at large scale, becoming important driving force of economic development. Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan Area in terms of high speed of economic development and economic contribution rate are called China’s three major urban agglomerations.This article aims to illustrate construction of three major agglomerations and in particular the main advantages and weaknesses.
Underutilization of Vaginal Hysterectomy and its Impact on Residency Training
A.N Ocheke, C.C Ekwempu, J Musa
West African Journal of Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The advantages of vaginal hysterectomy over abdominal hysterectomy include lower morbidity, shorter hospital stay, and reduced cost to the patient. It is, therefore, important to pass the required skill for vaginal hysterectomy unto trainees. OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of vaginal hysterectomies done in a residency training institution in Nigeria and its possible impact on the proficiency of future gynaecologists in performing the procedure. METHODS: A chart review was done on all documented cases of hysterectomies for benign gynaecological conditions done in Jos University Teaching Hospital, over a four-year period (January 2002 to December 2005). Case files of patients who had hysterectomy during the study period were retrieved and the relevant information obtained for analysis of frequencies and percentages. RESULTS: A total of 94 hysterectomies for benign gynaecological conditions were done during the study period. Nine (~10%) vaginal hysterectomies were done. All the vaginal hysterectomies performed were for uterovaginal prolapse by consultants. However, 45 (53%) of the abdominal hysterectomies were performed by consultants and 40 (47%) by residents. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that residents’ exposure and training on the act of vaginal hysterectomy is inadequate. This has potential implications on future gynaecologist proficiency to perform this method of surgery that has documented advantages and better outcome for patients. WAJM 2009; 28(5): 323–326
Incorporating resident research into the dermatology residency program  [cached]
Wagner RF Jr,Raimer SS,Kelly BC
Advances in Medical Education and Practice , 2013,
Abstract: Richard F Wagner Jr, Sharon S Raimer, Brent C Kelly Department of Dermatology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA Abstract: Programmatic changes for the dermatology residency program at The University of Texas Medical Branch were first introduced in 2005, with the faculty goal incorporating formal dermatology research projects into the 3-year postgraduate training period. This curriculum initially developed as a recommendation for voluntary scholarly project activity by residents, but it evolved into a program requirement for all residents in 2009. Departmental support for this activity includes assignment of a faculty mentor with similar interest about the research topic, financial support from the department for needed supplies, materials, and statistical consultation with the Office of Biostatistics for study design and data analysis, a 2-week elective that provides protected time from clinical activities for the purpose of preparing research for publication and submission to a peer-reviewed medical journal, and a departmental award in recognition for the best resident scholarly project each year. Since the inception of this program, five classes have graduated a total of 16 residents. Ten residents submitted their research studies for peer review and published their scholarly projects in seven dermatology journals through the current academic year. These articles included three prospective investigations, three surveys, one article related to dermatology education, one retrospective chart review, one case series, and one article about dermatopathology. An additional article from a 2012 graduate about dermatology education has also been submitted to a journal. This new program for residents was adapted from our historically successful Dermatology Honors Research Program for medical students at The University of Texas Medical Branch. Our experience with this academic initiative to promote dermatology research by residents is outlined. It is recommended that additional residency programs should consider adopting similar research programs to enrich resident education. Keywords: dermatology, resident, research, education, accreditation
Changes in medicine: residency  [cached]
Robbins RA
Southwest Journal of Pulmonary and Critical Care , 2011,
Abstract: No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The most important time in a physician’s educational development is residency, especially the first year. However, residency work and responsibility have come under the scrutiny of a host of agencies and bureaucracies, and therefore, is rapidly changing. Most important in the alphabet soup of regulatory agencies is the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) which accredits residencies and ultimately makes the governing rules.Resident work hours have received much attention and are clearly decreasing. However, the decline in work hours began in the 1970’s before the present political push to decrease work hours. The residency I entered in 1976 had every third night call during the first year resident’s 6-9 months on general medicine or wards. It had changed from every other night the year before. On wards, we normally were in the hospital for our 24 hours of call and followed this with a 10-12 hour day before …
Associations between quality indicators of internal medicine residency training programs
Stephen D Sisson, Sarah S Casagrande, Deepan Dalal, Hsin-Chieh Yeh, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
BMC Medical Education , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-11-30
Abstract: Survey of internal medicine residency programs that shared an online ambulatory curriculum on hospital type, faculty size, number of trainees, proportion of international medical graduate (IMG) trainees, Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (IM-ITE) scores, three-year American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying Examination (ABIM-CE) first-try pass rates, Residency Review Committee-Internal Medicine (RRC-IM) certification length, program director clinical duties, and use of pharmaceutical funding to support education. Associations assessed using Chi-square, Spearman rank correlation, univariate and multivariable linear regression.Fifty one of 67 programs responded (response rate 76.1%), including 29 (56.9%) community teaching and 17 (33.3%) university hospitals, with a mean of 68 trainees and 101 faculty. Forty four percent of trainees were IMGs. The average post-graduate year (PGY)-2 IM-ITE raw score was 63.1, which was 66.8 for PGY3s. Average 3-year ABIM-CE pass rate was 95.8%; average RRC-IM certification was 4.3 years. ABIM-CE results, IM-ITE results, and length of RRC-IM certification were strongly associated with each other (p < 0.05). PGY3 IM-ITE scores were higher in programs with more IMGs and in programs that accepted pharmaceutical support (p < 0.05). RRC-IM certification was shorter in programs with higher numbers of IMGs. In multivariable analysis, a higher proportion of IMGs was associated with 1.17 years shorter RRC accreditation.Associations between quality indicators are complex, but suggest that the presence of IMGs is associated with better performance on standardized tests but decreased duration of RRC-IM certification.There is no generally accepted single measure that defines the quality of an internal medicine residency training program [1-3]. "Quality" is generally determined in large part by the perspective from which a residency training program is viewed, be that by the trainees, the trainers, the regulators, or society [2]. ABIM-CE
Advantages of Three-Dimensional Space-Time Frames
Frontiers in Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.fs.20120203.01
Abstract: Time dilation and length contraction formulas are derived in Special Relativity. However, these phenomena cannot be visualized in four-dimensional space-time frames. From the time dilation formula, we can derive a relationship between space and time for a pair of inertial frames and, in turn, construct three-dimensional space-time frames based on this relationship. Furthermore, length contraction can be shown on these frames. Since space and time are inseparable, neither time dilation nor length contraction can be fully understood unless discussed together. We apply three-dimensional space-time frames to describe the motion of an object in the twin paradox. Using the concept of the center of mass of a pair of inertial frames, we are able to determine who is on the rest frame of a pair of inertial frames. This example demonstrates the advantage of three-dimensional space-time frames over four-dimensional space-time frames in describing relativistic motion.
Residency and Spatial Use by Reef Sharks of an Isolated Seamount and Its Implications for Conservation  [PDF]
Adam Barnett, Kátya G. Abrantes, Jamie Seymour, Richard Fitzpatrick
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036574
Abstract: Although marine protected areas (MPAs) are a common conservation strategy, these areas are often designed with little prior knowledge of the spatial behaviour of the species they are designed to protect. Currently, the Coral Sea area and its seamounts (north-east Australia) are under review to determine if MPAs are warranted. The protection of sharks at these seamounts should be an integral component of conservation plans. Therefore, knowledge on the spatial ecology of sharks at the Coral Sea seamounts is essential for the appropriate implementation of management and conservation plans. Acoustic telemetry was used to determine residency, site fidelity and spatial use of three shark species at Osprey Reef: whitetip reef sharks Triaenodon obesus, grey reef sharks Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos and silvertip sharks Carcharhinus albimarginatus. Most individuals showed year round residency at Osprey Reef, although five of the 49 individuals tagged moved to the neighbouring Shark Reef (~14 km away) and one grey reef shark completed a round trip of ~250 km to the Great Barrier Reef. Additionally, individuals of white tip and grey reef sharks showed strong site fidelity to the areas they were tagged, and there was low spatial overlap between groups of sharks tagged at different locations. Spatial use at Osprey Reef by adult sharks is generally restricted to the north-west corner. The high residency and limited spatial use of Osprey Reef suggests that reef sharks would be highly vulnerable to targeted fishing pressure and that MPAs incorporating no-take of sharks would be effective in protecting reef shark populations at Osprey and Shark Reef.
Pharmacist educators in family medicine residency programs: A qualitative analysis  [cached]
Jorgenson Derek,Muller Andries,Whelan Anne
BMC Medical Education , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-12-74
Abstract: Background 25-29% of North American family medicine residency programs utilize a pharmacist to teach residents. Little is known about the impact that these pharmacist educators have on residency training. The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of residents, residency directors and pharmacists within Canadian family medicine residency programs that employ a pharmacist educator to better understand the impact of the role. Methods Recruitment from three cohorts (residents, residency directors, pharmacists) within family medicine residency programs across Canada for one-on-one semi-structured interviews followed by thematic analysis of anonymized transcript data. Results 11 residents, 6 residency directors and 17 pharmacist educators participated in interviews. Data themes were: (1) strong value of the teaching with respect to improved resident knowledge, confidence and patient care delivery; (2) lack of a formal pharmacotherapy curriculum; (3) desire for expansion of pharmacist teaching; (4) impact of teaching on collaboration; (5) impact of teaching on residency program faculty; and (6) lack of criticism of the role. Conclusions The pharmacist educator role is valued within residency programs across Canada and the role has a positive impact on several important aspects of family medicine resident training. Suggestions for improvement focused on expanding the teaching role and on implementing a formal curriculum for pharmacist educators to follow.
Health-related quality of life predictors during medical residency in a random, stratified sample of residents
Macedo, Paula Costa Mosca;Cítero, Vanessa de Albuquerque;Schenkman, Simone;Nogueira-Martins, Maria Cezira Fantini;Morais, Mauro Batista;Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antonio;
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-44462009000200007
Abstract: objective: to evaluate the quality of life during the first three years of training and identify its association with sociodemographicoccupational characteristics, leisure time and health habits. method: a cross-sectional study with a random sample of 128 residents stratified by year of training was conducted. the medical outcome study -short form 36 was administered. mann-whitney tests were carried out to compare percentile distributions of the eight quality of life domains, according to sociodemographic variables, and a multiple linear regression analysis was performed, followed by a validity checking for the resulting models. results: the physical component presented higher quality of life medians than the mental component. comparisons between the three years showed that in almost all domains the quality of life scores of the second year residents were higher than the first year residents (p < 0.01). the mental component scores remained high for third year residents (p < 0.01). predictors of higher quality of life were: second or third year of residency, satisfaction with the training program, sufficient time for leisure, and care of critical patients for less than 30 hours per week. conclusion: the mental component of quality of life was the most impaired component, indicating the importance of caring for residents' mental health, especially during their first year and when they are overloaded with critical patients.
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