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Interdisciplinary Research Collaborations: Evaluation of a Funding Program  [PDF]
Nadine Rons
Computer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1080/09737766.2011.10700900
Abstract: Innovative ideas are often situated where disciplines meet, and socio-economic problems generally require contributions from several disciplines. Ways to stimulate interdisciplinary research collaborations are therefore an increasing point of attention for science policy. There is concern that 'regular' funding programs, involving advice from disciplinary experts and discipline-bound viewpoints, may not adequately stimulate, select or evaluate this kind of research. This has led to specific policies aimed at interdisciplinary research in many countries. There is however at this moment no generally accepted method to adequately select and evaluate interdisciplinary research. In the vast context of different forms of interdisciplinarity, this paper aims to contribute to the debate on best practices to stimulate and support interdisciplinary research collaborations. It describes the selection procedures and results of a university program supporting networks formed 'bottom up', integrating expertise from different disciplines. The program's recent evaluation indicates that it is successful in selecting and supporting the interdisciplinary synergies aimed for, responding to a need experienced in the field. The analysis further confirms that potential for interdisciplinary collaboration is present in all disciplines.
Identifying research priorities on infections in older adults: proceedings of an interdisciplinary workshop
Mark Loeb, Kevin Brazil, Pierre Durand, Michael Gordon, Paul Krueger, David Lewis, Lynne Lohfeld, Allison McGeer, Lindsay Nicolle, Alexandra Papaioannou, Andrew E Simor
BMC Geriatrics , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2318-1-1
Abstract: Researchers from four sectors (basic science, clinical sciences, health services and epidemiology/determinants of health) and representatives from various Canadian local, provincial, and federal stakeholder groups were invited to a two-day workshop. Five multi-disciplinary groups and stakeholders from each of three healthcare settings (long term, acute care and community) discussed research priorities for each of the settings. Five to ten research questions were identified for each setting.The research questions proposed ranged from risk factors and outcomes for different infections to the effect of nutrition on infection and the role of alternative and complementary medicine in treating infections. Health service issues included barriers to immunization, prolongation of hospital length of stay by infection, use of care paths for managing infections, and decision-making in determining the site of care for individuals with infections. Clinical questions included risk factor assessment for infection, the effectiveness of preventative strategies, and technology evaluation. Epidemiologic issues included the challenge of achieving a better understanding of respiratory infections in the community and determining the prevalence of colonization with multi-resistant bacteria.The questions are of direct relevance to researchers in a wide variety of fields. Bringing together a multi-disciplinary group of researchers to frame and prioritize research questions about aging is feasible, participants valued the opinions of people working in other areas.Older adults consume a disproportionate amount of healthcare resources in Canada. Persons over the age of 65 years make up 12% of the general population, but account for 31% of acute hospital days and half of all hospital stays [1]. The proportion of older adults in Canada is expected to rise to 20% by 2021 [2], so meeting the future healthcare needs of this vulnerable population will be formidable. The provision of care for older ad
Falls and consequent injuries in hospitalized patients: effects of an interdisciplinary falls prevention program
René Schwendimann, Hugo Bühler, Sabina De Geest, Koen Milisen
BMC Health Services Research , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-6-69
Abstract: This study used a serial survey design to examine in-patient fall rates and consequent injuries before and after the implementation of an interdisciplinary falls prevention program (IFP) in a 300-bed urban public hospital. The population under study included adult patients, hospitalized in the departments of internal medicine, geriatrics, and surgery. Administrative patient data and fall incident report data from 1999 to 2003 were examined and summarized using frequencies, proportions, means and standard deviations and were analyzed accordingly.A total of 34,972 hospitalized patients (mean age: 67.3, SD ± 19.3 years; female 53.6%, mean length of stay: 11.9 ± 13.2 days, mean nursing care time per day: 3.5 ± 1.4 hours) were observed during the study period. Overall, a total of 3,842 falls affected 2,512 (7.2%) of the hospitalized patients. From these falls, 2,552 (66.4%) were without injuries, while 1,142 (29.7%) falls resulted in minor injuries, and 148 (3.9%) falls resulted in major injuries. The overall fall rate in the hospitals' patient population was 8.9 falls per 1,000 patient days. The fall rates fluctuated slightly from 9.1 falls in 1999 to 8.6 falls in 2003. After the implementation of the IFP, in 2001 a slight decrease to 7.8 falls per 1,000 patient days was observed (p = 0.086). The annual proportion of minor and major injuries did not decrease after the implementation of the IFP. From 1999 to 2003, patient characteristics changed in terms of slight increases (female gender, age, consumed nursing care time) or decreases (length of hospital stay), as well as the prevalence of fall risk factors increased up to 46.8% in those patients who fell.Following the implementation of an interdisciplinary falls prevention program, neither the frequencies of falls nor consequent injuries decreased substantially. Future studies need to incorporate strategies to maximize and evaluate ongoing adherence to interventions in hospital falls prevention programs.Patient falls in
Reminiscences of Collaborations with Joel Scherk  [PDF]
John H. Schwarz
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: I had the privilege of collaborating with Joel Scherk on three separate occasions: in 1970 at Princeton, in 1974 at Caltech, and in 1978-79 at the Ecole Normale Superieure. In this talk I give some reminiscences of these collaborations.
Modeling Collaborations with Persistent Homology  [PDF]
Maria Bampasidou,Thanos Gentimis
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: In this paper we describe a model based on persistent homology that describes interactions between mathematicians in terms of collaborations. Some ideas from classical data analysis are used.
Addressing Injuries in Vulnerable Populations: Research Collaborations and Partnerships  [cached]
Monica H. Swahn,Abigail Hankin,Debra Houry
Western Journal of Emergency Medicine : Integrating Emergency Care with Population Health , 2012,
Abstract:
Crime in media: an interdisciplinary research  [cached]
Ronaldo Henn,Carmen Oliveira,Maria Palma Wolff,Marta Conte
Brazilian Journalism Research , 2005,
Abstract: This article analyses conceptual issues that present problems for interdisciplinary research - criminality and urban space; the transversal aspects of violence - developed by researchers from di erent elds: communications, psychology and social services. Highlighted in this work, above all, are questions related to the media and journalism; which constitute one of the axes of the proposal (media, growing juvenile component of criminality, drugs and social control) but are inevitably interconnected with the others due to the interdisciplinary force of the initiative. It is argued that the processes of report construction, the subject agenda and consumption of the news constitute complex semioses that involve other semiotic systems.
Interdisciplinary patterns of a university: Investigating collaboration using co-publication network analysis  [PDF]
Uwe Obermeier,Hannes Brauckmann
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: We investigate collaborative and interdisciplinary research features of University College Dublin, using methods from social network analysis to analyze and visualize (co-)publications covered by the Web of Science from 1998 through 2007. We account for the extent of interdisciplinarity in collaborations, distinguishing collaborations between schools within one college ("small interdisciplinarity") from collaborations between schools in different colleges ("big interdisciplinarity"). Based on the interdisciplinary nature, we compare the types of collaboration to a model of random matching across units, observing several marked differences. During the period of consideration, collaborations within UC Dublin nearly doubled, almost entirely due to the increasing level of intra-school collaborations.
Network Effects on Scientific Collaborations  [PDF]
Shahadat Uddin, Liaquat Hossain, Kim Rasmussen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057546
Abstract: Background The analysis of co-authorship network aims at exploring the impact of network structure on the outcome of scientific collaborations and research publications. However, little is known about what network properties are associated with authors who have increased number of joint publications and are being cited highly. Methodology/Principal Findings Measures of social network analysis, for example network centrality and tie strength, have been utilized extensively in current co-authorship literature to explore different behavioural patterns of co-authorship networks. Using three SNA measures (i.e., degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality), we explore scientific collaboration networks to understand factors influencing performance (i.e., citation count) and formation (tie strength between authors) of such networks. A citation count is the number of times an article is cited by other articles. We use co-authorship dataset of the research field of ‘steel structure’ for the year 2005 to 2009. To measure the strength of scientific collaboration between two authors, we consider the number of articles co-authored by them. In this study, we examine how citation count of a scientific publication is influenced by different centrality measures of its co-author(s) in a co-authorship network. We further analyze the impact of the network positions of authors on the strength of their scientific collaborations. We use both correlation and regression methods for data analysis leading to statistical validation. We identify that citation count of a research article is positively correlated with the degree centrality and betweenness centrality values of its co-author(s). Also, we reveal that degree centrality and betweenness centrality values of authors in a co-authorship network are positively correlated with the strength of their scientific collaborations. Conclusions/Significance Authors’ network positions in co-authorship networks influence the performance (i.e., citation count) and formation (i.e., tie strength) of scientific collaborations.
Keneti: South Seas Adventures of Kenneth Emory, by Bob Krause University of Hawaii Press, 1988
Andrew L. Christenson
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology , 1991, DOI: 10.5334/bha.01204
Abstract: Most American archaeologists have not heard of Kenneth Emory, even though he is one of the senior American archaeologists. The problem is that he lives and did much of his work in the only state not in North America, an area not normally included in overviews or histories of "American" archaeology. Emory was raised in Hawaii (his parents moved there from Massachusetts when he was two), but received an Ivy League education (Dartmouth, Harvard, Yale). A biology major as an undergraduate at Dartmouth, he had developed an interest in Hawaiian language and folklore when growing up in Honolulu. The year he graduated (1921 ). a meeting with Herbert Gregory, the new director of the Bishop Museum, netted him a $75 per month job as assistant ethnologist. According to his biographer, Emory had to look the word up after the interview! Gregory, a geologist and noted southwestern explorer, had grand plans of major ethnological research in the Pacific and Emory was one of the several people to be hired as part of this program (others included Robert T. Aitken. E.S. Handy, Ralph Linton, and E. W. Gifford).
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