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EFFECT OF URINE SAMPLE COLLECTION METHOD ON CONTAMINATION RATE OF URINE CULTURE  [cached]
Nada Mladina,Devleta Hadzic,Elvira Konjic,Zarko Mladina
Acta Medica Saliniana , 2009, DOI: 10.5457/ams.29.09
Abstract: Introduction: Urine sample for biochemical analysis must fulfill certain criterions. The sample collection must be done by following established standards so that the results of analysis are reliable. In children of various age, especially during serious disease, adequate consideration must be devoted to this procedure. Aims: To evaluate contamination rate of the urine sample according to the methods of obtaining samples and collecting specimens in seriously sick children of various age during their intensive treatment. Methods: Urine culture findings in children treated in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Children’s Hospital in Tuzla in period from January 2007 to the end of December 2007 were included in retrospective analysis according to the method of collecting (bag collection, urethral catheterization, clean catch). In all of the three groups the percentage of positive findings and percentage of contaminated specimens as well as sex related distribution was analyzed. The urine sample was obtained from urethral catheter only in patients with indication for urethral catheterization. Kruskal-Wallis test and regression model were used in statistical analysis. Results: A total of 662 children were treated in ICU during the observed period. The urine sample for routine biochemical tests was obtained from all patients. In 107 patients (16.2 %) urine culture examination was indicated. In 48 (44.9%) patients urine sample was obtained by bag collection, in 41 (38.3%) by clean catch, and 18 (16.8%) by urethral catheterization. In 7 patients or 6.5% urine was contaminated. The majority of contaminated specimens were collected by bag (12.5%). In 20 (18.7%) patients urine culture was positive with significant number of etiologic agents and 80 (74.8%) specimens were negative. Difference in results in three monitored groups was statistically significant which was confirmed by Kruskal-Wallis test and stepwise regression model. Conclusion: Obtaining urine sample by bag collection brings the highest risk for contamination.
Molar Pregnancy with False Negative β-hCG Urine in the Emergency Department  [cached]
Hunter, Christopher L,Ladde, Jay
Western Journal of Emergency Medicine : Integrating Emergency Care with Population Health , 2011,
Abstract: This case describes an atypical presentation of molar pregnancy in an emergency department patient with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. The patient demonstrated clinical features of hydatidiform mole, including acute discharge of a large, grape-like vesicular mass, despite multiple negative urine pregnancy tests. These false-negative qualitative human chorionic gonadotropin assays were likely caused by the “high-dose hook effect” and may have delayed proper care of the patient, who displayed pulmonary choriocarcinoma at the time of diagnosis. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(2):213-215.]
The Evaluation Of 6 And 12 Hour Urine Collection For Assessing Proteinuriu In The Hypertensive Gravida
Rahimi Sherbaf F,Khalilian S
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2003,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine wether a urine collection of less than 24 hours duration accurately assesses the level of preteinuria in inpatients being evaluated for preeclampsia."nMaterials and Methods: Patients admitted to the Mirza Kouchak-Khan hospital between years 2001 to 2002, underwent 3 consecutive collections consisting of two 6 hour and one 12 hour collection. Each volume, and urine creatinine. A concurrent serum creatinine value was obtained. The protein: creatinine ratio and creatine clearance were calculated. Pearson's correlation/sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were assessed."nResults: A total of 32 patients (98%) were preeclamptic. Total protein and serum creatinine were significantly correlated and the protein: creatinine ratio was moderately correlated between the collections. The 1st 6 hours collection (8 Am to 2 pm) had a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. The second 6 hours had a sensitivity and specificity of 96% and 86.6%. The first 12 hours had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 93.2%. The 2 nd 12 hours (8 Am to 8 pm) had a sensitivity and specificity of 80% and 93.3% respectively. There was a significant diurnal pattern of proteinuria."nConclusion: In conclusion based on the results achieved it can be concluded that a 6 and 12 hours urine collection/especially the first 6 hours after patient awakening can accurately assess proteinuria in the hypertensive gravida.
Technique for the collection of clear urine from the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus)  [cached]
Jan G. Myburgh,Fritz W. Huchzermeyer,John T. Soley,Dirk G. Booyse
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012,
Abstract: Urine samples can be a very useful diagnostic tool for the evaluation of animal health. In this article, a simple technique to collect urine from the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) was described, based on a similar unpublished technique developed for the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) using a canine urinary catheter. With this technique, it was possible to collect relatively clean urine samples from Nile crocodiles of different sizes using canine urinary catheters or small diameter stomach tubes. Based on the gross anatomical features of the cloaca of the Nile crocodile, it was confirmed that urine accumulates in a chamber consisting of the urodeum and coprodeum. Faecal material is stored temporarily in the very short rectum, which is separated from the urinary chamber by the rectocoprodeal sphincter.
The Influence of Instruction about the Method of Urine Collection and Storage on the Incidence or Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection
IC Anochie, KEO Nkanginieme, F Eke
Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics , 2001,
Abstract: A study of 66 children, including 46 (69.7 percent) females and aged between four weeks and 15 years with significant bacteriuria was undertaken over a four-month period to determine the effects of instructions received about the methods of urine collection and storage on the prevalence of urinary tract infection. The commonest clinical presentation was fever (65.2 per cent). Only 23(35.1 per cent) of the patients had specific symptoms suggestive of urinary tract infection(UTI). The method of urine collection was explained to 68.2 per cent of the patients and/or their relations. This instruction was given mostly by the attending physicians (80.0 per cent). Despite the explanation, 14 (21.2 per cent) of the patients collected the urine samples wrongly and 48 (72.7 per cent) stored the samples longer than one hour. Significant bacteriuria was more prevalent in 72.7 per cent of patients who submitted their urine samples to the laboratory later than one hour after collection. There is a need for health care workers to effectively educate patients and/or their relations on the proper methods of urine collection and storage in order to reduce the frequency of making a false diagnosis of UTI with its consequent financial wastage. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics 2001; 28:39. pp 39-42
Effect Of Instructions About The Method Of Urine Collection And Storage On The Isolation Rate Of Urinary Bacteria In Children
SI Adeleke, G Ihesiulor
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology , 2010,
Abstract: A study of 65 children (29males and 36females) and aged between four weeks and 15years with significant bacteriuria was undertaking over a six month period to determine the effects of instruction received about the methods of urine collection and storage on the prevalence of urinary tract infection. The commonest clinical presentation was fever (64.6%). Only 22(35.4%) of the patients had specific symptoms suggestive of urinary tract infections. The instructions about urine collection were given to 48(73.8%) care givers. This instruction was given by the attending doctors (84%). Despite the explanation, 15(23.1%) of the patients collected the urine samples wrongly and 44(67.7%) stored the samples for longer than one hour. Significant bacteriuria was more prevalent in 74.2% of patients who submitted their urine samples more than one hour after collection. Communication skill is important and should be emphasized in the trainings of health workers in procedure on the patients.
Technique for the collection of clear urine from the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus)  [cached]
Jan G. Myburgh,Fritz W. Huchzermeyer,John T. Soley,Dirk G. Booyse
Journal of the South African Veterinary Association , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v83i1.8
Abstract: Urine samples can be a very useful diagnostic tool for the evaluation of animal health. In this article, a simple technique to collect urine from the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) was described, based on a similar unpublished technique developed for the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) using a canine urinary catheter. With this technique, it was possible to collect relatively clean urine samples from Nile crocodiles of different sizes using canine urinary catheters or small diameter stomach tubes. Based on the gross anatomical features of the cloaca of the Nile crocodile, it was confirmed that urine accumulates in a chamber consisting of the urodeum and coprodeum. Faecal material is stored temporarily in the very short rectum, which is separated from the urinary chamber by the rectocoprodeal sphincter. How to cite this article: Myburgh JG, Huchzermeyer FW, Soley JT, et al. Technique for the collection of clear urine from the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2012;83(1), Art. #8, 6 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v83i1.8
Urinary tract infection in full-term newborn infants: value of urine culture by bag specimen collection
Falc?o, Mário Cícero;Leone, Cléa Rodrigues;D'Andrea, Renata A. P.;Berardi, Roberta;Ono, Nilce A.;Vaz, Flávio Adolfo Costa;
Revista do Hospital das Clínicas , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0041-87811999000300005
Abstract: objetive: to evaluate the efficacy of urine culture by bag specimen for the detection of neonatal urinary tract infection in full-term newborn infants. retrospective study (1997) including full-term newborn infants having a positive urine culture (>100,000 cfu/ml) by bag specimen collection. the urinary tract infection diagnosis was confirmed by positive urine culture (suprapubic bladder aspiration method). the select cases were divided into three groups, according to newborn infant age at the bag specimen collection: gi (< 48 h, n = 17), gii (48 h to 7 d, n = 35) and giii (> 7 d, n = 9). sixty one full-term newborn infants were studied (5.1 % of total infants). the diagnosis was confirmed on 19/61 (31.1 %) of full-term infants born alive. distribution among the groups was: gi = 2/17 (11.8 %), gii = 10//35 (28.6 %), and giii = 7/9 (77.7 %). the most relevant clinical symptoms were: fever (gi - 100 %, gii - 91.4 %) and weight loss (gi - 35.3 %, gii - 45.7 %). urine culture results for specimens collected by suprapubic aspiration were: e. coli gi (100 %), gii (40 %) and giii (28.6 %), e. faecalis gi (30%), staphylococcus coagulase-negative gii (20 %) and giii (42.8 %), and staphylococcus aureus gii (10 %). correlation between positive urine culture collection (bag specimen method) and urinary tract infection diagnosis, using relative risk analysis, produced the following results: gi=0.30 (ci95% 0.08-1.15), gii=0.51 (ci 95% 0.25-1.06) and giii=3.31 (ci95% 1.8-6.06) the most frequent urinary tract infection clinical signs in the first week were fever and weight loss, while non-specific symptomatology occurred later. e. coli was most frequent infectious agent, although from the 7th day of life, staphylococcus was noted. the urine culture (bag specimen method) was effective in detecting urinary tract infection only after the 7th day of life.
Urinary tract infection in full-term newborn infants: value of urine culture by bag specimen collection  [cached]
Falc?o Mário Cícero,Leone Cléa Rodrigues,D'Andrea Renata A. P.,Berardi Roberta
Revista do Hospital das Clínicas , 1999,
Abstract: OBJETIVE: to evaluate the efficacy of urine culture by bag specimen for the detection of neonatal urinary tract infection in full-term newborn infants. Retrospective study (1997) including full-term newborn infants having a positive urine culture (>100,000 CFU/ml) by bag specimen collection. The urinary tract infection diagnosis was confirmed by positive urine culture (suprapubic bladder aspiration method). The select cases were divided into three groups, according to newborn infant age at the bag specimen collection: GI (< 48 h, n = 17), GII (48 h to 7 d, n = 35) and GIII (> 7 d, n = 9). Sixty one full-term newborn infants were studied (5.1 % of total infants). The diagnosis was confirmed on 19/61 (31.1 %) of full-term infants born alive. Distribution among the groups was: GI = 2/17 (11.8 %), GII = 10//35 (28.6 %), and GIII = 7/9 (77.7 %). The most relevant clinical symptoms were: fever (GI - 100 %, GII - 91.4 %) and weight loss (GI - 35.3 %, GII - 45.7 %). Urine culture results for specimens collected by suprapubic aspiration were: E. coli GI (100 %), GII (40 %) and GIII (28.6 %), E. faecalis GI (30%), Staphylococcus coagulase-negative GII (20 %) and GIII (42.8 %), and Staphylococcus aureus GII (10 %). Correlation between positive urine culture collection (bag specimen method) and urinary tract infection diagnosis, using relative risk analysis, produced the following results: GI=0.30 (CI95% 0.08-1.15), GII=0.51 (CI 95% 0.25-1.06) and GIII=3.31 (CI95% 1.8-6.06) The most frequent urinary tract infection clinical signs in the first week were fever and weight loss, while non-specific symptomatology occurred later. E. coli was most frequent infectious agent, although from the 7th day of life, staphylococcus was noted. The urine culture (bag specimen method) was effective in detecting urinary tract infection only after the 7th day of life.
The herpetological collection of the Ecology and Zoology Department at the Federal University of Santa Catarina
Tobias Saraiva Kunz,Ivo Rohling Ghizoni-Jr.,Walter Luis Alves dos Santos,Paulo Afonso Hartmann
Biotemas , 2007,
Abstract: Scientific collections with regional representation are relevant sources for ecological, taxonomic and biogeographical studies, as well as studies of species conservation status. On account of its importance, we now present a list of the deposited material in the herpetological collection of the Ecology and Zoology Department (ECZ) at the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC). Our aim with this note is to make the information about the material of this collection accessible. From the date of its creation up to November 2006, representatives of 146 taxa (76 reptiles, 70 amphibians) were deposited, making up a total of 1,889 specimens. In 2004, an effort to revitalize the collection was begun, with a betterment of storage conditions and a revision of the specimens’ identification. Presently, the herpetological collection is in the phase of initial computerization.
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