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Restricted expression of classic cadherins in the spinal cord of the chicken embryo  [PDF]
Juntang Lin,Christoph Redies
Frontiers in Neuroanatomy , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnana.2014.00018
Abstract: Classic cadherins belong to the family of cadherin genes and play important roles in neurogenesis, neuron migration, and axon growth. In the present study, we compared the expression patterns of 10 classic cadherins (Cdh2, Cdh4, Cdh6, Cdh7, Cdh8, Cdh9, Cdh11, Cdh12, Cdh18, and Cdh20) in the developing chicken spinal cord (SP) by in situ hybridization. Our results indicate that each of the investigated cadherins exhibits a spatially restricted and temporally regulated pattern of expression. At early developmental stages (E2.5–E3), Cdh2 is expressed throughout the neuroepithelial layer. Cdh6 is strongly positive in the roof plate and later also in the floor plate. Cdh7, Cdh11, Cdh12, and Cdh20 are expressed in restricted regions of the basal plate of the SP. At intermediate stages of development (E4–E10), specific expression profiles are observed for all investigated cadherins in the differentiating mantle layer along the dorsoventral, mediolateral, and rostrocaudal dimensions. Expression profiles are especially diverse for Cdh2, Cdh4, Cdh8, Cdh11, and Cdh20 in the dorsal horn, while different pools of motor neurons exhibit signal for Cdh6, Cdh7, Cdh8, Cdh9, Cdh12, and Cdh20 in the ventral horn. Interestingly, subpopulations of cells in the dorsal root ganglion express combinations of different cadherins. In the surrounding tissues, such as the boundary cap cells and the notochord, the cadherins are also expressed differentially. The highly regulated spatiotemporal expression patterns of the classic cadherins indicate that these genes potentially play multiple and diverse roles during the development of the SP and its surrounding tissues.
The role and function of cadherins in the mammary gland
Jennifer L Andrews, Alvin C Kim, Julie R Hens
Breast Cancer Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/bcr3065
Abstract: Members of the cadherin superfamily provide cell-cell contact and communication in many different organ systems. Cadherins comprise a large superfamily consisting of six groups: classical, fat and daschous, flamingo, protocadherins, 7-pass transmembrane, and desmosomal cadherins. They operate as transmembrane receptors that mediate calcium-dependent homophilic and heterophilic interactions between cells. These interactions are crucial for enhancing the cell's ability to not only interact with neighboring cells, but also for cell signaling [1]. This review will provide an overview of all cadherins known to be expressed in the mammary gland with particular focus on the less reviewed cadherins and atypical cadherins. Information on the regulation and function of these cadherins in the mammary gland and during breast cancer will be included.Cadherins have specific structural features that are used to classify them into type I, type II, and type III or atypical cadherins (Figure 1). Type I cadherins possess a unique histidine-alanine-valine (HAV) motif in their amino acid sequence before the first calcium binding site in the amino terminus of the protein that is suggested to function in cadherin-cadherin interactions and has a single tryptophan (W) before the first calcium binding site. Type II cadherins contain the HAV motif, but this has two tryptophan residues (WW) instead of the one tryptophan found in type I cadherins. Type III or atypical cadherins possess calcium binding sites, but do not typically have HAV or W residues in their amino acid sequence [2]. All three classifications of cadherin are expressed in the mammary gland (Table 1).Type I cadherins, which include epithelial (E), neural (N), placental (P), and retinal (R) cadherins, are expressed in the mammary gland [3-6]. E-cadherin is expressed exclusively in all of the mammary epithelial cells, while P-cadherin is expressed in mammary epithelial cells of the alveoli and ducts, but also in the myoepithelial
Accessory optical device for the Heidelberg retina angiograph ( HRA classic ) to perform angiography of the vitreous cavity and the anterior eye segment  [cached]
Mennel Stefan,Schwendinger Rudolf,Hausmann Norbert,Peter Silvia
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2007,
Abstract: The Heidelberg retina angiograph ( HRA) classic enables fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICG-A) of the retina and choroid. The goal of this study was to design an accessory device to adapt the HRA classic for application on structures anterior to the retina. The optical device consisted of a cylindrical two-piece plastic frame holding a magnifying lens commonly used with the indirect ophthalmoscope. A 60-diopters lens was inserted in this frame to enable the angiography of the anterior segment. A less strong lens of 30 diopters was used for the visualization of pathologic findings in the vitreous cavity. We designed an easy-to-use and low-cost device to adapt the HRA classic for angiography of the fundus, vitreous cavity and anterior segment in the same session and without delay. FA and ICG-A images of two patients with rubeosis iridis and of one patient with choroidal melanoma are described.
Somatotopic organization of ferret thalamus  [PDF]
Mario Vázquez-García,Marie-Josée Wallman,Igor Timofeev
Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnint.2014.00090
Abstract: The stereotaxic reference marks of ferret skull have large variability and the reference point for stereotaxic experiments in ferret brain is difficult to define. Here, using extracellular single-unit recordings, we studied the somatotopic organization of cutaneous receptive fields in the ventroposterior medial (VPM) and the ventral posterolateral (VPL) nuclei of the ferret thalamus. The mechanical stimulation of the skin was done through air puffs. The skull was positioned according to Horsley-Clarke coordinate system. Most of the neurons responding to face skin stimulation were located +7–+9 mm anterior, 2–3.9 mm lateral and 7–9.6 mm from cortical surface, whereas those responding to body skin stimulation were located +7–+10 mm anterior, 3.3–5.5 mm lateral and 6.7–10 mm from cortical surface. Out of 90 thalamic neurons recorded in this study, 58 responded to the body and the other neurons to the face stimulation. All neurons responded with spikes to stimulus onset, 37% of neurons responded only to stimuli onset and offset and 22% neurons fired tonically throughout stimulating epoch. The whiskers representation was located in the middle of the VPM nucleus, whereas those of the tongue, nose, bridge of the nose, supraorbital areas, upper and lower lips, and lower jaw were surrounding the whiskers representation. Within the VPL nucleus there was a clear topological correspondence from forelimb to hindlimb in the medial-to-lateral direction. Our findings indicate the whiskers representation in VPM or the forelimb-hindlimb representation in the VPL nucleus can be considered as a reliable reference in the ferret thalamus.
Protocadherins, not prototypical: a complex tale of their interactions, expression, and functions  [PDF]
Joshua A. Weiner,James D. Jontes
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnmol.2013.00004
Abstract: The organization of functional neural circuits requires the precise and coordinated control of cell–cell interactions at nearly all stages of development, including neuronal differentiation, neuronal migration, axon outgrowth, dendrite arborization, and synapse formation and stabilization. This coordination is brought about by the concerted action of a large number of cell surface receptors, whose dynamic regulation enables neurons (and astrocytes) to adopt their proper roles within developing neural circuits. The protocadherins (Pcdhs) comprise a major family of cell surface receptors expressed in the developing vertebrate nervous system whose cellular and developmental roles are only beginning to be elucidated. In this review, we highlight selected recent results in several key areas of Pcdh biology and discuss their implications for our understanding of neural circuit formation and function.
Metagenomic Analysis of the Ferret Fecal Viral Flora  [PDF]
Saskia L. Smits, V. Stalin Raj, Minoushka D. Oduber, Claudia M. E. Schapendonk, Rogier Bodewes, Lisette Provacia, Koert J. Stittelaar, Albert D. M. E. Osterhaus, Bart L. Haagmans
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071595
Abstract: Ferrets are widely used as a small animal model for a number of viral infections, including influenza A virus and SARS coronavirus. To further analyze the microbiological status of ferrets, their fecal viral flora was studied using a metagenomics approach. Novel viruses from the families Picorna-, Papilloma-, and Anelloviridae as well as known viruses from the families Astro-, Corona-, Parvo-, and Hepeviridae were identified in different ferret cohorts. Ferret kobu- and hepatitis E virus were mainly present in human household ferrets, whereas coronaviruses were found both in household as well as farm ferrets. Our studies illuminate the viral diversity found in ferrets and provide tools to prescreen for newly identified viruses that potentially could influence disease outcome of experimental virus infections in ferrets.
The role of the cell adhesion molecules (integrins / cadherins) in prostate cancer
Drivalos, Alexandros;Papatsoris, Athanasios G.;Chrisofos, Michael;Efstathiou, Eleni;Dimopoulos, Meletios A.;
International braz j urol , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1677-55382011000300002
Abstract: during prostate carcinogenesis the cellular adhesion molecules, i.e.; integrins and cadherins mediate aberrant interactions between glandular epithelial cells and the extracellular matrix. several integrin α subunits are down-regulated, while β subunits are up-regulated. the expression of several cadherins and catenins has specific prognostic value. there is an association between the expression of the e-cadherin/catenin complex and high grade prostate cancer. clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of integrin antagonists are ongoing with promising results. in this article we update the role of integrins and cadherins in prostate carcinogenesis and evaluate the therapeutic potential of their manipulation.
Transcriptome sequencing and development of an expression microarray platform for the domestic ferret
Carl E Bruder, Suxia Yao, Francis Larson, Jeremy V Camp, Ronald Tapp, Alexis McBrayer, Nicholas Powers, Willy Valdivia Granda, Colleen B Jonsson
BMC Genomics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-11-251
Abstract: We produced more than 500000 sequence reads that were assembled into 16000 partial ferret genes. These genes were combined with the available ferret sequences in the GenBank to develop a ferret specific microarray platform. Using this array, we detected tissue specific expression patterns which were confirmed by quantitative real time PCR assays. We also present a set of 41 ferret genes with even transcription profiles across the tested tissues, indicating their usefulness as housekeeping genes.The tools developed in this study allow for functional genomic analysis and make further development of reagents for the ferret model possible.The ferret is an important model for pulmonary research studies because of the long trachea, large lung capacity and bronchiolar branching. It is commonly used for studies of infectious diseases and is susceptible to infection with a large number of pathogens, such as influenza virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) corona virus, and canine distemper virus [1-8]. The ferret is an essential model for influenza research as it develops a number of the clinical symptoms of influenza that are also seen in humans and, in contrast to mice, can be infected by human isolates of influenza virus [9]. With the recent two-animal ruling by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the licensing of drugs or vaccines directed against diseases of low or no incidence, the ferret represents an inexpensive small, non-rodent animal model. Despite the fact that ferrets have been used in biomedical research for decades, little is known about the genome of M. p. furo. Currently, there are only a limited number of partial or full length cDNAs present in the GenBank. This not only impacts the number of molecular genetic assays available for analysis, but also hinders the development of antibody-based assays, such as flow cytometry. The lack of reagents for molecular analysis of the mechanisms involved in infection and immunogenic protection is rest
Clinical Profiles Associated with Influenza Disease in the Ferret Model  [PDF]
Gregory V. Stark, James P. Long, Diana I. Ortiz, Melicia Gainey, Benjamin A. Carper, Jingyu Feng, Stephen M. Miller, John E. Bigger, Eric M. Vela
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058337
Abstract: Influenza A viruses continue to pose a threat to human health; thus, various vaccines and prophylaxis continue to be developed. Testing of these products requires various animal models including mice, guinea pigs, and ferrets. However, because ferrets are naturally susceptible to infection with human influenza viruses and because the disease state resembles that of human influenza, these animals have been widely used as a model to study influenza virus pathogenesis. In this report, a statistical analysis was performed to evaluate data involving 269 ferrets infected with seasonal influenza, swine influenza, and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) from 16 different studies over a five year period. The aim of the analyses was to better qualify the ferret model by identifying relationships among important animal model parameters (endpoints) and variables of interest, which include survival, time-to-death, changes in body temperature and weight, and nasal wash samples containing virus, in addition to significant changes from baseline in selected hematology and clinical chemistry parameters. The results demonstrate that a disease clinical profile, consisting of various changes in the biological parameters tested, is associated with various influenza A infections in ferrets. Additionally, the analysis yielded correlates of protection associated with HPAI disease in ferrets. In all, the results from this study further validate the use of the ferret as a model to study influenza A pathology and to evaluate product efficacy.
Nematode in the retina  [cached]
Ittyerah T
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1990,
Abstract: An unidentified nematode in the retina of an otherwise healthy young lady causing inflammation and exudation is reported. The worm was destroyed by Xenon photocoagulation, There was complete recovery and remarkable improvement in visual acuity.
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