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Estrutura genética de peroba (Aspidosperma polyneuron) no Estado de S o Paulo, Brasil. Genetic structure of Aspidosperma polyneuron in the State of S o Paulo, Brazil.  [PDF]
Léo ZIMBACK,Edson Seizo MORI,Paulo Yoshio KAGEYAMA,Hideyo AOKI
Revista do Instituto Florestal , 2011,
Abstract: A estrutura genética de Aspidosperma polyneuron Muell Arg. (Apocynaceae)foi estudada utilizando a análise de marcadores microssatélites, nas localidades de Bauru,Gália, Avaré, Piracicaba, Valinhos, Teodoro Sampaio, Botucatu, Porto Ferreira, municípiosdo Estado de S o Paulo, e Selvíria (Mato Grosso do Sul) onde foram coletadas folhas paraextra o de DNA da popula o de cada local. Foram obtidos sete locos polimórficos e quatromonomórficos. Analisando os locos polimórficos, observou-se que o número de alelosvariou de dois a seis, que demonstraram uma alta heterozigosidade (ho = 0,5209). Em oitopopula es estudadas, os coeficientes de fixa o f foram negativos com média de -0,0173 dasnove popula es e a fixa o total F foi 0,1034, enquanto o valor de coancestralidade θ p entrepopula es foi 0,1187. Foram também obtidos valores de fixa o dentro de popula es FIS(-0,0669), fixa o total FIT (0,0747) e fixa o genética entre popula es com FST (0,1343) eGST (Hedrick) (0,4875). O fluxo gênico médio obtido Nm foi 1,6121. Exibe estrutura genéticatípica de espécie alógama, com baixo coeficiente de endogamia e alta heterozigosidade, comisolamento entre popula es. A popula o Piracicaba indicou a maior eros o genética eisolamento; as outras popula es ainda mostram a variabilidade original para coletas visandoà conserva o e melhoramento genético.The genetic structure of Aspidosperma polyneuron Muell Arg. (Apocynaceae)was studied with SSR marker analysis, in Bauru, Gália, Avaré, Piracicaba, Valinhos, TeodoroSampaio, Botucatu, Porto Ferreira (S o Paulo State cities), and Selvíria city (Mato Grosso doSul State), where leaves were collected for extracting DNA from the population of each site.Seven polymorphic and four monomorphic loci were obtained. Analyzing polymorphic loci,allele number ranged from two to six alleles, and showed high heterozigosity (ho = 0.5209).In eight populations the endogamy inbreeding coefficient f was negative, the nine populationsaverage was -0.0173, and total inbreeding coefficient F was 0.1034, meanwhile the coancestryvalue θ p among populations was 0.1187. Values of fixation within population FIS (-0.0669),total inbreeding FIT (0.0747), genetic fixation among populations with FST (0.1343) andGST (Hedrick) (0.4875) index were also obtained. The average gene flow Nm was 1.6121.It displays genetic structure typical of allogamous species with low inbreeding coefficientand high heterozygosity, with isolation between populations. Piracicaba population showedthe greatest genetic erosion and isolation, the other populations still remain the ori
Morpho-anatomical analysis of Aspidosperma olivaceum and A. polyneuron, Apocynaceae
Krentkowski, Fernanda Lisot;Duarte, Márcia do Rocio;
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2012005000044
Abstract: the family apocynaceae includes many medicinal species, such as aspidosperma olivaceum müll. arg. and a. polyneuron müll. arg. the first, popularly known as "peroba-branca", is a source of indole alkaloids that are recognized for their antitumor activity. the second, known as "peroba-rosa", is used by some people for treating malaria. to contribute to the knowledge about brazilian medicinal plants and potential vegetal drugs, a morpho-anatomical analysis of the leaves and stems of these tree species was carried out. the botanical material was fixed, sectioned and stained using standard techniques. histochemical tests were performed and the material was also analyzed using a scanning electron microscope. aspidosperma olivaceum and a. polyneuron are morphologically similar, both presenting alternate, simple, elliptic-lanceolate leaves. the leaves are hypostomatic with anomocytic stomata and have non-glandular trichomes. in the stem, there are peripheral phellogen, lignified fibers and some stone cells in the cortex and pith, as well as numerous gelatinous fibers near the phloem. prismatic calcium oxalate crystals and laticifers are present in the leaves and stems. unlike a. olivaceum, a. polyneuron also has cyclocytic stomata, predominantly unicellular non-glandular trichomes and a biconvex midrib with a sharper curve on the adaxial side. in addition, a. olivaceum differs because it has some idioblasts with phenolic content.
Morpho-anatomical analysis of Aspidosperma olivaceum and A. polyneuron, Apocynaceae  [cached]
Fernanda Lisot Krentkowski,Márcia do Rocio Duarte
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2012,
Abstract: The family Apocynaceae includes many medicinal species, such as Aspidosperma olivaceum Müll. Arg. and A. polyneuron Müll. Arg. The first, popularly known as "peroba-branca", is a source of indole alkaloids that are recognized for their antitumor activity. The second, known as "peroba-rosa", is used by some people for treating malaria. To contribute to the knowledge about Brazilian medicinal plants and potential vegetal drugs, a morpho-anatomical analysis of the leaves and stems of these tree species was carried out. The botanical material was fixed, sectioned and stained using standard techniques. Histochemical tests were performed and the material was also analyzed using a scanning electron microscope. Aspidosperma olivaceum and A. polyneuron are morphologically similar, both presenting alternate, simple, elliptic-lanceolate leaves. The leaves are hypostomatic with anomocytic stomata and have non-glandular trichomes. In the stem, there are peripheral phellogen, lignified fibers and some stone cells in the cortex and pith, as well as numerous gelatinous fibers near the phloem. Prismatic calcium oxalate crystals and laticifers are present in the leaves and stems. Unlike A. olivaceum, A. polyneuron also has cyclocytic stomata, predominantly unicellular non-glandular trichomes and a biconvex midrib with a sharper curve on the adaxial side. In addition, A. olivaceum differs because it has some idioblasts with phenolic content.
ESTABELECIMENTO DE CULTURAS ASSéPTICAS DE Aspidosperma polyneuron
Luciana Lopes Fortes Ribas,Flávio Zanette,Luiz Kulchetscki,Miguel Pedro Guerra
Ciência Florestal , 2002,
Abstract: O presente trabalho objetivou estabelecer um protocolo para obten o de culturas assépticas de Aspidosperma polyneuron visando à regenera o in vitro de mudas dessa espécie. Brota es apicais de mudas de dois anos de idade foram coletadas em casa de vegeta o e desinfestadas com hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl) ou cloreto de mercúrio (HgCl2) visando ao estabelecimento de culturas assépticas. Os tratamentos testados com NaOCl foram: solu o 0,125 ou 0,25%, durante cinco ou dez minutos e com HgCl2: 0,025; 0,05 ou 0,1%, durante cinco ou dez minutos e em todas as esta es do ano. As avalia es das percentagens de necrose, contamina o fúngica, contamina o bacteriana e de sobrevivência foram feitas após três semanas. Os resultados revelaram que o tratamento com solu o de NaOCl a 0,25%, durante 10 minutos, resultou em 70% de sobrevivência para brota es apicais, independente da época do ano (ver o e outono). O HgCl2 foi mais eficiente que o NaOCl na desinfesta o de brota es apicais de peroba-rosa, sendo recomendado o tratamento de 0,05% de HgCl2, durante 10 minutos (84,10% de sobrevivência). Em todas as esta es do ano, foram estabelecidas culturas assépticas, contudo, os melhores resultados foram obtidos na primavera e ver o.
Esterase polymorphism in remanant populations of Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll.Arg. (Apocynaceae)
Carvalho, Vanda Marilza de;Machado, Maria de Fátima Pires da Silva;
Revista árvore , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-67622004000500001
Abstract: the population genetic structure of the endangered tree species aspidosperma polyneuron mull.arg. (apocynaceae) was reported based on analysis of esterase polymorphism in two remanant populations. allelic variation was detected at three isoesterase loci (est-3, est-9, and est-10). the proportion of polymorphic loci for both populations was 30% and deviation from hardy-weinberg equilibrium was observed for the est-3 locus observed in the northern population. segregation distortion and the lower level of observed and expected heterozygosity in this population were attributed to founder genotype. the high genetic identity values for northern and northwestern populations are in accordance with the low levels of interpopulation genetic divergence demonstrated by the f(st) (0.03) value. the f(is) value (0.23) indicated moderate levels of inbreeding. a. polyneuron can be indicated as an example of endangered species suggesting high genetic variation in contrast to the low genetic variation reported for endangered species. the esterase isozymes may be a good genetic marker for studies of natural a. polyneuron populations.
Functional classification of esterases from leaves of Aspidosperma polyneuron M. Arg. (Apocynaceae)
Carvalho, Vanda Marilza de;Marques, Rosimar Maria;Lapenta, Ana Sílvia;Machado, Maria de Fátima P.S.;
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572003000200013
Abstract: polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system (page) and inhibition tests for biochemical characterization of a- and b-esterases were used to obtain a functional classification of esterases fromaspidosperma polyneuron. the characterization of a- and b-esterases from young leaves of a. polyneuron by the page system showed fourteen esterase isozymes. the differential staining pattern showed that est-2 isozyme hydrolyzes b-naphthyl acetate; est-6, est-7 and est-8 isozymes hydrolyze a-naphthyl acetate, and est-1, est-3, est-4, est-5, est-9, est-10, est-11, est-12, est-13, and est-14 isozymes hydrolyze both a- and b-naphthyl acetate. inhibition pattern of a- and b-esterases showed that folidol is a more potent inhibitor that malathion, while thiamethoxan (an insecticide with organophosphorus-like action) acts as an est-4 and est-6 inhibitor and induces the appearance of est-5 and est-7 isozymes as more intensely stained bands. inhibition tests showed that opc insecticides inhibit or activate plant esterases. thus, plant esterases may be used as bioindicators to detect the presence and toxicity of residues of topically applied insecticides in agriculture and may be valuable for monitoring pollutants in the environment.
Functional classification of esterases from leaves of Aspidosperma polyneuron M. Arg. (Apocynaceae)  [cached]
Carvalho Vanda Marilza de,Marques Rosimar Maria,Lapenta Ana Sílvia,Machado Maria de Fátima P.S.
Genetics and Molecular Biology , 2003,
Abstract: Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system (PAGE) and inhibition tests for biochemical characterization of alpha- and beta-esterases were used to obtain a functional classification of esterases fromAspidosperma polyneuron. The characterization of alpha- and beta-esterases from young leaves of A. polyneuron by the PAGE system showed fourteen esterase isozymes. The differential staining pattern showed that Est-2 isozyme hydrolyzes beta-naphthyl acetate; Est-6, Est-7 and Est-8 isozymes hydrolyze alpha-naphthyl acetate, and Est-1, Est-3, Est-4, Est-5, Est-9, Est-10, Est-11, Est-12, Est-13, and Est-14 isozymes hydrolyze both alpha- and b-naphthyl acetate. Inhibition pattern of a- and beta-esterases showed that Folidol is a more potent inhibitor that Malathion, while Thiamethoxan (an insecticide with organophosphorus-like action) acts as an Est-4 and Est-6 inhibitor and induces the appearance of Est-5 and Est-7 isozymes as more intensely stained bands. Inhibition tests showed that OPC insecticides inhibit or activate plant esterases. Thus, plant esterases may be used as bioindicators to detect the presence and toxicity of residues of topically applied insecticides in agriculture and may be valuable for monitoring pollutants in the environment.
Potential early development of Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll in rehabilitation projects of degraded area in southeastern Amazon  [cached]
Rubens Ribeiro Ribeiro da Silva,Gilson Araujo de Freitas,Aurélio Vaz de Melo,Al?ncio Gottardo Pietralonga
Pesquisa Aplicada & Agrotecnologia , 2010, DOI: 10.5777/625
Abstract: La definición y la recomendación de las especies para las diferentes etapas de sucesión en las zonas en proceso de recuperación dependen de su comportamiento en ambientes bajo diferentes intensidades de luz. Por lo tanto, el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo definir la etapa de sucesión en que las plantas de Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll Arg deben ser indicado para su uso en los proyectos que se ocupan de la recuperación de áreas degradadas en función de la intensidad de la luz. El experimento se llevó a cabo en un dise o de bloques al azar con 15 repeticiones. Los tratamientos consistieron en tres niveles de brillo (T1: Pleno sol, T2: 50% de retención de la luz y T3: sombra natural). La recolección de datos se realizó a intervalos de 21 días, hasta 145 días después de la emergencia (DDE). las plantas de Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll presentado a diferentes niveles de intensidad de la luz mostró una función lineal del tiempo de la siembra. Cuando se cultivan en la luz del sol el 50% tuvo una tasa de crecimiento en altura y diámetro mayor que las plantas bajo luz solar plena. El mayor peso de la masa seca del tallo y de la raíz y también total se observaron en los entornos del 50% de luz. Todas las características evaluadas mostraron incrementos en la masa por el aumento de la intensidad de la luz. A defini o e a recomenda o das espécies para os diferentes estágios sucessionais em áreas sob processo de recupera o s o dependentes do seu comportamento em ambientes sob diferentes intensidades de luz. Assim, com o presente trabalho objetivou-se definir o estágio sucessional em que as plantas de Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll Arg devem ser indicadas para o uso em projetos que visam de recupera o de áreas degradadas em fun o da intensidade de luz. O experimento foi desenvolvido em delineamento de blocos casualizados com 15 repeti es. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por três níveis de luminosidade (T1: Pleno sol; T2: 50% de reten o de luz e T3: Sombra Natural). A coleta dos dados foi realizada em intervalo de 21 dias, até os 145 dias após a emergência (DAE). As plantas de Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll submetidas aos diferentes níveis de luminosidades apresentaram comportamento linear em fun o do tempo após o plantio. Quando cultivadas em ambiente com 50% de luminosidade apresentaram taxa de crescimento em altura e diametro superior às plantas submetidas a pleno sol. Os maiores pesos de massa seca caule, raiz e total também foram observados em ambientes de 50% de luminosidade. Todas as características avaliadas apresentaram incrementos de massa pelo aument
Micropropaga??o de Aspidosperma polyneuron (peroba-rosa) a partir de segmentos nodais de mudas juvenis
Ribas, Luciana Lopes Fortes;Zanette, Flávio;Kulchetscki, Luiz;Guerra, Miguel Pedro;
Revista árvore , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-67622005000400003
Abstract: the objective of the present work was to establish a micropropagation protocol of aspidosperma polyneuron from juvenile material. apical shoots from two years old seedlings were collected in a greenhouse and sterilised with naocl or hgcl2 to establish aseptic cultures. multiple shoots induction was evaluated in wpm medium, supplemented with bap, zea or kin (2.2 - 8.8 mm) in initial culture and two subsequent subcultures. the elongation of shoots was tested with growth regulators combinations: 2.25 mm of bap, zea or kin with 1.25 mm of iba. iba treatments (2.5; 5.0 and 10 mm) were tested with 5 and 15 minutes to induce roots. plantlets were planted in a greenhouse. efficient apical shoots sterilization was achieved with naocl (0,25% - 10 minutes) or hgcl2 (0.05%-10 minutes); survival rates were 72.89% and 84,10%, respectively. apical shoots induced 4-5 axillary buds in wpm culture medium, containing zea or bap (4.4 - 8.8 mm) following two subcultures. reduced concentrations of zea or bap (2.25 mm), combined with iba (1.25) produced elongated shoots. iba treatment (10 mm) during 15 minutes induced higher rooting percentages (80%). plantlets planted in a greenhouse showed higher survival rates (90%).
Genetic variability of pre and post-fragmentation cohorts of Aspidosperma polyneuron Muell. Arg. (Apocynaceae)
Torezan, José Marcelo Domingues;Souza, Rogério Fernandes de;Ruas, Paulo Maurício;Ruas, Claudete de Fátima;Camargo, Elvis Hassmann;Vanzela, André Luís Laforga;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132005000200002
Abstract: rapd was used to access the genetic variability in aspisdosperma polyneuron, a long-lived, late-reproducing tropical tree, and highly important for the atlantic forest. rapd profiles from adults (pre-fragmentation, >300 years old) and seedlings (post-fragmentation, <<50 years old) were analyzed. results showed a decrease of genetic polymorphism of post-fragmentation cohorts in small fragments and higher genetic diversity within population. the genetic diversity distribution suggested the establishment of fragments as protected reserves, and the transference of seedlings among fragments for conservation of a. polyneuron.
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