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Underrepresentation of Women at Academic Excellence and Position of Power: Role of Harassment and Glass Ceiling  [PDF]
Rizwana Yousaf, Rudi Schmiede
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.42023
Abstract: The study intends to comprehend the underrepresentation of women on positions of power and academic excellence in academia. The study explained the role of exploitation and harassment, which might hinder, when women were trying to climb to top hierarchical position. The majority of women supervised by male heads, sexual harassment could be used as a glass ceiling to hamper women to reach top hierarchal level. The majority participants were working on lower academic and administrative hierarchy; they were experiencing harassment throughout the hierarchical level. Similarly, they considered that harassment could contribute to the underrepresentation of women at academic excellence and a position of power.
Sexual Harassment in the Education Sector
D Smit, V du Plessis
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad , 2011,
Abstract: Education should safely shape the minds and attitudes of young adults and children, especially with the in loco parentis principle in mind. Young adults who have experienced sexual harassment in the very environment that should have protected them as learners suffer greatly from social problems and from emotional and academic strain. Victims often become future harassers themselves. Sexual harassment should be eradicated from the education sector in toto to ensure a safe learning environment. High incidences of harassment have been found among college students in America, while a very small percentage of such transgressions have been reported. Similar statistics in South African universities are not available, the problem is therefore managed in a void. The position in schools is more alarming. In South Africa it has been found that 30 per cent of girls are raped at school and that male learners and educators are the main culprits. Not only is the magnitude of this problem gravely underestimated, but the effect of sexual harassment on learners has also not been managed properly. The authors argue that the focus is on avoiding legal responsibility and accountability, rather than on being proactive. The historic invisibility of sexual harassment in education can be attributed to the wrongful silencing thereof. KEYWORDS: Sexual harassment; schools; workplace rights; educational rights
Sexual Harassment in the Education Sector
D Smit,V du Plessis
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad , 2011,
Abstract: Education should safely shape the minds and attitudes of young adults and children, especially with the in loco parentis principle in mind. Young adults who have experienced sexual harassment in the very environment that should have protected them as learners suffer greatly from social problems and from emotional and academic strain. Victims often become future harassers themselves. Sexual harassment should be eradicated from the education sector in toto to ensure a safe learning environment. High incidences of harassment have been found among college students in America, while a very small percentage of such transgressions have been reported. Similar statistics in South African universities are not available, the problem is therefore managed in a void. The position in schools is more alarming. In South Africa it has been found that 30 per cent of girls are raped at school and that male learners and educators are the main culprits. Not only is the magnitude of this problem gravely underestimated, but the effect of sexual harassment on learners has also not been managed properly. The authors argue that the focus is on avoiding legal responsibility and accountability, rather than on being proactive. The historic invisibility of sexual harassment in education can be attributed to the wrongful silencing thereof.
A cross sectional study on demographic profile and role of education in adolescent girls
Amruta Swati Indupalli,,Siddesh Basavaraj Sirwar
People's Journal of Scientific Research , 2011,
Abstract: Adolescent is a period of rapid growth and maturation in human development. It is a crucial period of women’s life where sociocultural factors not only influence her health but also health of future generation. Hidden behind the socially sanctioned cloak of marriage, underage girls are deprived of their personal freedom, forced into non-consensual sex, exploitation of their labour and discrimination of their educational development and individual life choices. A community based cross sectional study was carried out among 250 adolescent girls aged 13 -19 years. This age group was considered for the study because of marked acceleration of physical and emotional development which occurs during this period. Aimof this study was to find out the incidence of early marriage and pregnancies among adolescent girls and the impact of education. It was observed that 18.8% of adolescents were married and 8.4% were pregnant at one or the other time. Pressure of elders was the major reason for early marriage (53%) and early pregnancy (57%) among married girls. The education of adolescent girls plays a major role on the marital status and awareness of the health problems.
The Role of Physical Education Homework to Adolescent Girls’ Physical Activity in Finland  [PDF]
Mari K??p?, Sanna Palom?ki, Henri V?h?-Ypy?, Tommi Vasankari, Mirja Hirvensalo
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2019.94016
Abstract:
Introduction: There is an urgent need for active strategies to promote physical activity (PA) among female adolescents, as they are at greater risk of physical inactivity. In addition to Physical Education (PE) in school, to reach adequate levels of PA, young people need to participate in PA during the school day and/or after-school hours and/or in the before-school period. One week of objectively measured and self-reported information enlightens the status quo of adolescent girls’ PA and the role that PE homework plays. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine girls’ objectively measured PA in a lower secondary school as part of the Physical Education Homework Study, a project conducted in Finland. An additional aim was to provide insights into physical education (PE) homework as part of PA. Methods: Different levels of PA (i.e., light, moderate, vigorous), sedentary time, number of total steps and running steps were measured using accelerometers among girls in the 7th, 8th and 9th grades, aged between 12 and 15 years (n = 88) for a period of 1 week. In addition, self-reported structured diaries were used to gather information about after school activities, including PE homework. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tamhane’s post-hoc test was used to compare the different grades on the basis of participants’ PA levels and sedentary time. Data from self-reported PE homework frequencies and time spent on PE homework were analysed using the independent-samples t-test. Results: The PE homework was a small aspect of the participants’ whole-day PA, averaging 34 minutes per week (7th grade girls 20 minutes, 8th grade girls 51 minutes, and 9th grade girls 32 minutes). Half of the girls from the 8th grade reached the 60-minute PA recommendation every day; 38% of all the girls met the recommended levels of PA. For the
Mobile Database System: Role of Mobility on the Query Processing  [PDF]
Samidha Dwivedi Sharma,Dr. R. S. Kasana
Computer Science , 2010,
Abstract: The rapidly expanding technology of mobile communication will give mobile users capability of accessing information from anywhere and any time. The wireless technology has made it possible to achieve continuous connectivity in mobile environment. When the query is specified as continuous, the requesting mobile user can obtain continuously changing result. In order to provide accurate and timely outcome to requesting mobile user, the locations of moving object has to be closely monitored. The objective of paper is to discuss the problem related to the role of personal and terminal mobility and query processing in the mobile environment.
The Tourist Harassment Based on the Marketing  [PDF]
Ji Wen, Yina Li
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2015.53012
Abstract: The marketing innovation includes not only the innovation of production quality, but also the innovation of service. According to the foreign literatures and the past solution of tourist harassment, this paper emphasizes the importance of tourist harassment. “No harassment” can be a bright spot of destination marketing. The purpose of this paper is to propose a new and novel solution for destination marketing in a different prospect. The situation without production innovation can be promoted by the idea of traveling with no harassment.
Sexual harassment and violence in South African schools
Sakkie Prinsloo
South African Journal of Education , 2006,
Abstract: After1994 several pieces of legislation were passed in South Africa to ensure equity in education and equal opportunities for all learners. Some shocking reports have indicated that sexual harassment of girls is a serious problem in many of our schools. These girls are denied equal opportunities and effective education in schools as they are subject to pestering by educators and boys. In addition, they are harassed by the possibility of an unwanted pregnancy and emotional pressure, and they are denied their self-respect. The purpose in this article was to determine the nature and extent of sexual harassment and violence in South African schools and to establish how the rights of female learners to equal opportunities and equal treatment could be promoted and protected. South African Journal of Education Vol. 26(2) 2006: 305–318
Reporting, Reviewing, and Responding to Harassment on Twitter  [PDF]
J. Nathan Matias,Amy Johnson,Whitney Erin Boesel,Brian Keegan,Jaclyn Friedman,Charlie DeTar
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: When people experience harassment online, from individual threats or invective to coordinated campaigns of harassment, they have the option to report the harassers and content to the platform where the harassment has occurred. Platforms then evaluate harassment reports against terms of use and other policies to decide whether to remove content or take action against the alleged harasser--or not. On Twitter, harassing accounts can be deleted entirely, suspended (with content made unavailable pending appeal or specific changes), or sent a warning. Some platforms, including Twitter and YouTube, grant authorized reporters or trusted flaggers special privileges to identify and report inappropriate content on behalf of others. In November 2014, Twitter granted Women, Action, and the Media (WAM!) this authorized reporter status. In three weeks, WAM! reviewers assessed 811 incoming reports of harassment and escalated 161 reports to Twitter, ultimately seeing Twitter carry out 70 account suspensions, 18 warnings, and one deleted account. This document presents findings from this three-week project; it draws on both quantitative and qualitative methods. Findings focus on the people reporting and receiving harassment, the kinds of harassment that were reported, Twitter's response to harassment reports, the process of reviewing harassment reports, and challenges for harassment reporting processes.
Sexual Harassment and Sexual Harassment Policy in Jamaica: The Absence of a National Sexual Harassment Policy, and the Way Forward  [cached]
R. Peters,P.A. Bourne
Asian Journal of Business Management , 2012,
Abstract: Within the Caribbean only countries such as Belize, Bahamas and Guyana have legitimized legislation against sexual harassment. Countries such as Jamaica, Barbados and St. Kitts and Nevis have draft bills before parliament. In the Jamaican context, the country in September 1981 signed the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) which came into effect in 1984 which deals with the issue of sexual harassment under Articles 2 (Policy Measures and Legislation) and Article 11 (Employment). The current study is an assessment of sexual harassment, components of sexual harassment and sexual harassment policies in Jamaica, and whether such policy would be effective within the context of the culture. The methodology that was utilized for the study was ethnography. Ethnography focuses on describing the cultural traits of a group and may also be used to explore and describe the relationship among variables. This qualitative methodology was thought to be most suited for the nature of research as it describes and situates the phenomenon of sexual harassment in a cultural context, both the broad Jamaican culture and the specific organizational culture. Six themes emerged from the current study. These are culture and perception of harassment; culture and element of harassment; culture and effectiveness of policy; power and power relations and gendered response to harassment. It was postulated and agreed upon that there is no definite definition for sexual harassment, it is fluid and based solely on one’s perception. One respondent said, “We’ve been unable to define sexual harassment it doesn’t have to be intentional or not. Sexual harassment is pretty much from the person’s perspective”. It was brought out during the study that culture would clearly define what is constituted as sexual harassment. A respondent in an elite interview stated that in a Jamaican context sexual harassment is very difficult to be identified because “these societal attitudes to woman and the woman’s bodies is such that the woman’s body is not really her own she doesn’t have a right to decide what is to be done with it, to it and sexual harassment is an extension of that” There was consensus in the focus group that policies such as those for sexual harassment are not meant to act as deterrents per say but as back up plans, a tool to reach for just in case the harassment occurs; “the rules are not enforced they are just there if something happens I don’t think they can be enforced”. As it relates to the implementation of a policy to battle sexual harassme
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