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Assessment on Agricultural Resources Efficiency:Comparison on Methods and Integrated Approaches

JIN Jing~,

资源科学 , 2005,
Abstract: High efficiency on agriculture resource utilization is indispensable to sustainable agriculture development from farm, local to national as well international levels. To realize sustainable and effective utilization of resources is considered an important aspect to agriculture industry. For a long time, many researchers, both locally and internationally, concentrated on developing scientific assessment methods on agricultural resources utilization, which has significance both on theoretical and practical aspects. On one hand, such research will promote study on resource discipline, so as to deepen and enlarge integrated scope on the branch. On the other hand, by performing this kind of research, guidelines and countermeasures for regional or national food security, eco-environment restoration, as well as agricultural development, will be proposed. Reviewing what have been done in these researches, there is necessity to summarize these methods to help people find more suitable one for a specific problem both on spatial and temporal insights. Based on the analysis of concept and connotation of high efficiency utilization on agricultural resources, this paper reviews international and national literatures on assessment methods for agricultural resources utilization, including merits and deficiencies, also proposes future direction in this field. The major assessment methods include Ratio Assessment Method (RAM), Productivity Function Method (PFM), Data Envelopment Analysis Method (DEAM), Energy Analysis Method (EAM), Energy Flow Analysis Method (NAM), Emergy Analysis Method (EmAM) and Multi-index System (MIS). Based on the analysis and comments of these methods, future directions on assessment methods on agricultural resources utilization are proposed as follows: 1)more.integrated research framework and system; 2) synthesis of the assessment methods on multi-scale; 3) synthesis of the assessment methods on multi-factor; 4) synthesis of various methods issues. That is to say the future direction is integration, which means to build up integrated theoretical framework and system, within the framework, to synthesize the assessment methods on multi-scale, multi-factor and various methods issues.
From Premise to Practice: a Critical Assessment of Integrated Water Resources Management and Adaptive Management Approaches in the Water Sector  [cached]
Wietske Medema,Brian S. McIntosh,Paul J. Jeffrey
Ecology and Society , 2008,
Abstract: The complexity of natural resource use processes and dynamics is now well accepted and described in theories ranging across the sciences from ecology to economics. Based upon these theories, management frameworks have been developed within the research community to cope with complexity and improve natural resource management outcomes. Two notable frameworks, Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) and Adaptive Management (AM) have been developed within the domain of water resource management over the past thirty or so years. Such frameworks provide testable statements about how best to organise knowledge production and use to facilitate the realisation of desirable outcomes including sustainable resource use. However evidence for the success of IWRM and AM is mixed and they have come under criticism recently as failing to provide promised benefits. This paper critically reviews the claims made for IWRM and AM against evidence from their implementation and explores whether or not criticisms are rooted in problems encountered during the translation from research to practice. To achieve this we review the main issues that challenge the implementation of both frameworks. More specifically, we analyse the various definitions and descriptions of IWRM and AM. Our findings suggest that similar issues have affected the lack of success that practitioners have experienced throughout the implementation process for both frameworks. These findings are discussed in the context of the broader societal challenge of effective translation of research into practice, science into policy and ambition into achievement.
Twinning European and South Asian river basins to enhance capacity and implement adaptive integrated water resources management approaches – results from the EC-project BRAHMATWINN
W.-A. Flügel
Advances in Science and Research (ASR) , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/asr-7-1-2011
Abstract: The EC-project BRAHMATWINN was carrying out a harmonised integrated water resources management (IWRM) approach as addressed by the European Water Initiative (EWI) in headwater river systems of alpine mountain massifs of the twinning Upper Danube River Basin (UDRB) and the Upper Brahmaputra River Basins (UBRB) in Europe and Southeast Asia respectively. Social and natural scientists in cooperation with water law experts and local stakeholders produced the project outcomes presented in Chapter 2 till Chapter 10 of this publication. BRAHMATWINN applied a holistic approach towards IWRM comprising climate modelling, socio-economic and governance analysis and concepts together with methods and integrated tools of applied Geoinformatics. A detailed description of the deliverables produced by the BRAHMATWINN project is published on the project homepage http://www.brahmatwinn.uni-jena.de.
Practical Approaches to Securing an IT Environment  [PDF]
Emmanuel S. Kolawole, Warsame H. Ali, Cofie Penrose, John C. Fuller
Communications and Network (CN) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2017.94019
There are a number of IT Security journals available in the literature but none of these research papers have practically specified approaches to secure the IT environment at large. In this paper, more emphases will be laid on the practical ways to secure our IT environments and with some useful real-life scenarios. In today, securing our IT environment has become the key factor in the industry due to an increasing number of attackers invading and stealing the intellectual properties; thereby, rendering most IT industries to go out of businesses. They may find that understanding and translating IT security recommendations to implementable practices can be overwhelming. While this is a worthwhile and important task, there are also more practical ways to ensure you are using IT security best practices in your business. Therefore, the need to properly secure our IT environments in order to mitigate those attacks by using the right tools in all IT domains will be fully discussed in this research. This paper will focus more on protection of LAN-WAN Domain as a use case.
Strategic Integration: The Practical Politics of Integrated Research in Context
Lorrae van Kerkhoff
Journal of Research Practice , 2005,
Abstract: Designing an integrative research program requires that research leaders negotiate a balance between the scientific interest of research and the practical interests of non-scientific partners. This paper examines the ways integrated research is formally categorised, and analyses the tangible expressions of the practical politics involved in reconciling scientific and practical interests. Drawing on a comparative study of two Australian Cooperative Research Centres, I argue that categories used by the research leaders to describe the research programs embody three different strategies for structuring the relationships between researchers and their partners. These include matching research program categories to partners’ implementation program categories, reproducing existing integrative partnership models, and filling gaps in understanding with new technical approaches. These strategies offer different advantages and disadvantages. The cases suggest that the integrative approach favoured by each Centre depended on issues such as the geographic scope of policy arenas, sources of scientific credibility, and the political risks facing partners. The practical politics of research organisation offers a new lens for understanding both the practice and theory of integrated research.
A practical heuristic for finding graph minors  [PDF]
Jun Cai,William G. Macready,Aidan Roy
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: We present a heuristic algorithm for finding a graph $H$ as a minor of a graph $G$ that is practical for sparse $G$ and $H$ with hundreds of vertices. We also explain the practical importance of finding graph minors in mapping quadratic pseudo-boolean optimization problems onto an adiabatic quantum annealer.
Design and Implementation of a Practical Direction Finding Receiver
Hao Peng;Ziqiang Yang;Tao Yang
PIER Letters , 2012, DOI: 10.2528/PIERL12040504
Abstract: This paper presents a practical direction finding receiver based on six-port networks. To expand beam direction angles, improve measurement accuracy, and avoid phase ambiguity, we introduce a dual-baseline architecture into the direction finding receiver. We also propose a calibration technique based on support vector regression (SVR) for the following reasons: The nonlinearity of diode detectors and the asymmetry of six-port junctions can cause measurement phase errors. Moreover, the transmission parameters of two microwave channels differ with changes in received power. Results show that the SVR model can achieve a direction finding accuracy of 0.2932°.
Integrated Access to Hybrid Information Resources  [cached]
Tamar Sadeh
Liber Quarterly : The Journal of European Research Libraries , 2003,
Abstract: This paper is entitled "Integrated access to hybrid information resources", but integrated access is just a means to reach an end. Our challenge is to create an integrated environment in a heterogeneous world. Users are not aware, and do not want to be aware, of the differences between the various information resources that their institution provides. All they want is to be able to attain the information they are looking for, in the simplest and most straightforward way possible.
On Some Integrated Approaches to Inference  [PDF]
Mark A. Kon,Leszek Plaskota
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: We present arguments for the formulation of unified approach to different standard continuous inference methods from partial information. It is claimed that an explicit partition of information into a priori (prior knowledge) and a posteriori information (data) is an important way of standardizing inference approaches so that they can be compared on a normative scale, and so that notions of optimal algorithms become farther-reaching. The inference methods considered include neural network approaches, information-based complexity, and Monte Carlo, spline, and regularization methods. The model is an extension of currently used continuous complexity models, with a class of algorithms in the form of optimization methods, in which an optimization functional (involving the data) is minimized. This extends the family of current approaches in continuous complexity theory, which include the use of interpolatory algorithms in worst and average case settings.
Deterministic approaches for solving practical black-box global optimization problems  [PDF]
Dmitri E. Kvasov,Yaroslav D. Sergeyev
Mathematics , 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.advengsoft.2014.09.014
Abstract: In many important design problems, some decisions should be made by finding the global optimum of a multiextremal objective function subject to a set of constrains. Frequently, especially in engineering applications, the functions involved in optimization process are black-box with unknown analytical representations and hard to evaluate. Such computationally challenging decision-making problems often cannot be solved by traditional optimization techniques based on strong suppositions about the problem (convexity, differentiability, etc.). Nature and evolutionary inspired metaheuristics are also not always successful in finding global solutions to these problems due to their multiextremal character. In this paper, some innovative and powerful deterministic approaches developed by the authors to construct numerical methods for solving the mentioned problems are surveyed. Their efficiency is shown on solving both the classes of random test problems and some practical engineering tasks.
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